Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal
© Uprety et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 5 October 2009
Accepted: 26 January 2010
Published: 26 January 2010
By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties.
Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people. The informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated in order to estimate use variability of medicinal plants. Bio-efficacy was assessed by comparing indigenous plant use with phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature. Criteria were used to identify high priority medicinal plant species.
A total of 60 medicinal formulations from 56 plant species were documented. Medicinal plants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants (57% of the species), followed by trees (23%). The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. High FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders, indicating that the species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. A 90% correspondence was found between local plant use and reported plant chemical composition and pharmacological properties for the 30 species for which information was available. Sixteen medicinal plants were ranked as priority species, 13 of which having also been prioritized in a country-wide governmental classification.
The Tamang people possess rich ethnopharmacological knowledge. This study allowed to identify many high value and high priority medicinal plant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection and trade.
Ethnobotany reveals historical and present plant use to fulfil a wide variety of human needs [1, 2]. Documenting indigenous knowledge through the ethnobiological approach is important for species conservation and sustainable resource use . Furthermore, such studies are often significant in revealing locally important plant species, sometimes leading to the discovery of crude drugs [4, 5], or contributing to economic development.
Globally, millions of people in the developing world rely on medicinal plants for primary health care, income generation and livelihood improvement . Indigenous people living on their traditional territory largely rely on medicinal plants for healthcare and they are therefore rich in ethnopharmacological knowledge. The interest in phytomedicine has been renewed over the last decade and several medicinal plant species are now being screened for pharmacological potential. According to Laird and Pierce , the world market for herbal remedies was worth 19.4 billion US$ in 1999. The global demand for medicinal plants is increasing and, in India alone, the market is expanding at an annual rate of 20% [8, 9]. Scientific research is needed to determine the active principles of traditional medicinal recipes and to evaluate their effectiveness, so that benefits could be equally shared among local peoples in the spirit of the Convention on Biological Diversity .
Medicinal plants play vital roles in the Nepalese livelihood  and the use of medicinal plants is frequent in several Nepalese regions [12–14]. It is estimated that only 15-20% of the population of Nepal - living in and around urban areas - have access to modern medicinal facilities, whereas the rest depend on traditional medicines . Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants [12, 15, 16]. Each year thousands of tons of raw material are exported, mostly to India, but also to Asia, Europe and America . The government of Nepal aims to promote medicinal plant use and conservation programmes for livelihood improvement and poverty alleviation through various policies . However, the contribution of this sector to the national economy is still nominal.
Document the medicinal plants used in the traditional healthcare delivery system of the Chilime Village Development Committee (VDC) of the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal,
Estimate use variability of medicinal plants, indicating informant agreement,
Evaluate the bio-efficacy of medicinal plants by comparing local use with findings from published phytochemical and pharmacological studies,
Identify priority medicinal plant species for the Rasuwa district.
Ethnopharmacological data was collected by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people (50% > 40 years old), from July to September 2007. A total of 50 household heads (56% male and 44% female) from the Chilime VDC of the Rasuwa district participated in the study. Participants were purposively selected to include key informants  like plant collectors, medicinal plant cultivators, traditional healers, and traders. Respondents were all from the Tamang ethnic group, predominant (65%) in the Rasuwa district. The majority (62%) of the respondents had no formal education, 18% had primary school education, 12% had secondary education, and 8% had university level education. Prior informed consent was obtained with the help of community workers  that also facilitated interviews and discussions with the local people. Consent was granted by the local people for the dissemination of their traditional knowledge.
Guidelines for the interviews and group discussions were developed to facilitate the collection of information. Interviews and group discussions were conducted to gather information on plant uses, parts used, and modes of utilization. A checklist was developed and used to determine what species were used to treat what kinds of diseases/disorders. Herbarium specimens were collected for those species for which field identification was not certain and brought back to the lab to facilitate identification using reference collections [26–29] and expert knowledge. The specimens are deposited at the Tribhuvan University Central Herbarium (TUCH).
where Nur is the number of individual plant use reports for a particular illness category, and Nt is the total number of species used by all informants for this illness category.
Medicinal plant species were ranked according to prioritization criteria developed by the Herbs and Non-Timber Forest Products Coordination Committee of Nepal and the National Medicinal Plants Board of India, and synthesized at the First National Trade Show and Seminar on Herbs, Herbal Products and Spices, held November 12-14, 2005 in Nepalgunj, West Nepal :
Quantity exported annually recorded by the District Forest Office
Average annual export to India and abroad
Annual industrial demand in Kathmandu
Ease of cultivation/domestication
Bulkiness (availability in large quantities)
Social acceptance for further processing
Availability of local processing techniques
Potential for further processing
Criteria accounting for availability, local knowledge and use, and market demand were given more weight. Indigenous uses determined from interviews and discussion groups, and phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature were compared for all species for which information was available.
Ailments treated and remedies formulation
Medicinal plants used to cure various ailments.
Asparagus racemosus, Berginia ciliata, Bistorta affinis, Cannabis sativa, Cheilanthes albomarginata, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Fritillaria cirrhosa, Hippophae salicifolia , Hippophae tibetana, Lepisorus mehrae, Lindera nessiana, Mahonia napaulensis, Paris polyphylla, Potentilla fulgens, Primula sikimmensis, Rheum australe, Rhodiola himalensis, Rhododendron anthopogon, Vitex negundo, Zanthoxylum armatum
Fever and headache
Aconitum spicatum, Asparagus racemosus, Berberis asiatica, Bergenia ciliata, Delphinium himalayai, Drynaria propinqua, Geranium nepalense, Juniperus recurva , Lonicera myrtillus, Nardostachys grandiflora, Onychium japonicum, Paris polyphylla, Pieris formosa, Primula sikkimmensis, Rheum australe, Rhodiola himalensis, Swertia chirayita, Swertia multicaulis
Cuts and wounds
Aconitum spicatum, Amaranthus spinosus, Artemisia indica, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Eupatorium adenophorum, Geranium nepalense, Lycopodium clavatum, Lyonia ovalifolia, Parmelia cirrhata, Parmelia sp., Valeriana jatamansi
Cough and cold
Abies spectabilis, Acorus calamus, Anaphalis contorata, Delphinium himalayai, Hippophae salicifolia , Juniperus recurva, Swertia chirayita, Swertia multicaulis, Valeriana jatamansi
Aconitum ferox, Entada rheedei, Fraxinus floribunda, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Phymatopteris quasidivaricata, Valeriana jatamansi
Abies spectabilis, Ephedra gerardiana, Taxus wallichiana, Valeriana jatamansi
Weakness and dizziness
Cordyceps sinensis, Juglans regia, Nardostachys grandiflora, Rhododendron arboretum
Lyonia ovalifolia, Onychium japonicum, Phymatopteris quasidivaricata, Rubia manjith
Astilbe rivularis, Hippophae salicifolia
Anaphalis contorata, Myrica esculenta
Most people who participated in interviews and group discussions were familiar with the species used to deal with common ailments like cough and cold, digestive problems, fever, headache, skin infection, and in such cases plant based medicinal remedies were used on a regular basis. For complex problems like chest pain, menstrual disorders, rheumatism, or eye and kidney problems, people took advice from local traditional healers. Traditional healers believe in a form of sanctity of the curative power of medicinal plants. They thus keep secrecy over remedy formulation, believing that the medicines would lose their potency if revealed to other people.
Common forms of preparation methods for remedies made of medicinal plants.
Fresh plant parts are crushed with a stone pestle and mortar.
Obtained by squeezing or crushing plant parts and filtering through cloth. Sometimes requires addition of freshwater or other liquid for dilution.
Fresh plant parts are chewed.
Plant parts are plunged in water for a few minutes.
Plant parts are boiled in water and the extract (crude drug) is used.
Informant consensus factor
Informant consensus factor (FIC) for different ailment categories.
Number of taxa (Nt)
Number of use reports (Nur)
Informant consensus factor (FIC)
Fever and headache
Weakness and dizziness
Cuts and wounds
Cough and cold
Prioritization of medicinal plant species
List of priority medicinal plant species for the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal.
Prioritization score (/50)
Nardostachys grandiflora DC.
Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten
Aconitum spicatum (Bruhl) Stapf
Delphinium himalayai Munz
Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennell) D.Y. Hong
Rheum australe D. Don
Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don
Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo
Valeriana jatamansii Jones
Taxus wallichiana Zucc
Zanthoxylum armatum DC
Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb
Paris polyphylla Sm.
Acorus calamus L.
Asparagus racemosus Willd.
Bio-efficacy of traditionally-used medicinal plants
Comparison of local use and phytochemical/pharmacological properties of medicinal plants.
Local use coherent with known phytochemical/pharmacological properties
Root paste is taken for joint pain.
Alkaloid extract may possess anti-inflammatory properties .
Rhizome is used for cough/cold, and throat pain.
Antimicrobial properties .
Root paste is applied on cuts and wounds.
Contains several chemical compounds, including tannins (coagulant), steroids (muscle building), flavonoids (antimicrobial), and volatile oils (antiseptic) .
Leaf paste is applied on cuts and wounds.
Antimicrobial properties .
Tuber paste is used for fever, stomach ache, and diarrhoea.
Ethanol and aqueous extracts from the tubers exhibit significant antidiarrheic activity .
Cambium paste is used for rheumatism and pith paste is used for eye problems.
Whole plant juice is taken to treat indigestion, fever, diarrhoea, and dysentery.
Plants possess antipyretic, antidiarrheic, diuretic and expectorant properties .
Plant paste is taken for stomach problems.
Diuretic, anti-emetic, anti-epileptic, painkilling, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties .
Whole plant juice is taken as a tonic.
Leaf juice is applied on cuts and wounds.
Contains haemostatic ayapanin .
Bark infusion is used for body pain.
Anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and skin regenerating activities .
Plant juice is taken for stomach disorders.
Plant contains steroidal alkaloids effective against stomach disorders .
Fruit juice is taken for cough, diarrhoea, and menstrual disorder.
Contains high levels of flavonoids (with antimicrobial properties and effectiveness against menopausal symptoms), carotenoids and vitamin C .
Fruit juice is taken for stomach disorders.
Contains high levels of flavonoids (antimicrobial), carotenoids and vitamin C .
Fruit juice is taken as a tonic.
Seeds are diuretic and a nervous system depressant .
Fruit juice taken for diarrhoea.
Essential oil extracted from fruits possess significant antimicrobial activity .
Pollen paste is used on cuts and wounds.
Contains anti-inflammatory alkaloidal-types of compounds .
Whole plant juice is taken to treat headache and high altitude sickness.
Ethanol extract from roots showed anticonvulsant activity and are a nervous system stimulant .
Used for body pain.
Contains glycosides .
Used for skin problems.
Onychin-a flavanone glycoside is cytotoxic .
Root paste is taken for fever, vomiting and worms.
Root paste is used against gastritis.
Possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties .
Root juice is taken for fever, indigestion, diarrhoea, and stomach ache.
Purgative, astringent, and anti-amoebic effects .
Flower is chewed for stomach ache.
Volatile components possess antimicrobial activities .
Root paste is applied over scabies and other skin diseases.
Whole plant juice is used for fever, cold and headache.
Leaf juice is drunk to treat respiratory problems.
Antimicrobial effect .
Rhizome paste is applied on cuts and wounds and joint problems. Rhizome is chewed to treat throat pain.
Analgesic, carminative, antispasmodic, antiseptic, expectorant, diuretic and sedative properties .
Seed paste is used for worms.
Fruits are crushed, pickled and taken for stomach ache and indigestion.
Ethanol fruit extract is antibacterial against gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium phlei) .
Traditional use of medicinal plants in Chilime
Altogether, 56 species of medicinal plants were identified as being used in traditional medical systems in the Rasuwa district of central Nepal. As indicated for the Dolkha district, having more or less the same economic, social and ecological characteristics, reliance on medicinal plants for health care was associated with poverty, lack of accessibility to modern healthcare facilities, and traditional belief about plant effectiveness . Herbs are the primary source of medicinal plant species, followed by trees, most likely because herbs are more abundant. It is believed that the more abundant a plant is, the more medicinal virtues it may possess [20, 33]. The ease with which plants can be collected, stored, and transported and the ease with which bioactive compounds can be extracted are also factors that contribute to the preference for herbs . Moreover, most species used in the traditional health care system of the Chilime VDC are harvested from the wild. This is common practice all over the world, as was observed in Cameroon , Uganda  and Peru , for example. The preference for root to prepare traditional remedies follows the scientific reasoning that roots generally contain high concentrations of bioactive compounds .
The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted in Mexico [30, 31, 38], Belize , and India , for example. Particularly high FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders (Table 3), indicating that the species that are traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Berberis asiatica, Astilbe rivularis, Juniperus recurva, Swertia multicaulis, and Hippophae salicifolia. The latter three species, as well as Valeriana jatamansi, are also of interest as they are traditionally used to treat three or four different ailment types (see Table 1).
Bio-efficacy of medicinal plants
Empirical observations on the use of medicinal plants by the Tamang people of the Rasuwa district needed to be substantiated with phytochemical and pharmacological studies in order to corroborate their bio-efficacy. Such concerns were raised by ethnomedicinal studies carried out in Nepal, but few studies have provided the needed evidence [19, 20]. Comparison of local uses and phytochemical/pharmacological properties for 30 medicinal plant species showed that traditional use was coherent with known phytochemical or pharmacological properties in 90% of the cases (Table 5).
Comparison of the information on traditional medicinal plant use in the Rasuwa district with ethnobotanical studies conducted in other areas of Nepal [15, 18, 20, 41] shows similar results for many species. This is of significance because identical plant use by different people from different areas may be a reliable indication of curative properties. Like in other rural communities of Nepal [15, 20, 42, 43], knowledge about traditional uses of medicinal plants is transferred from the household seniors and other elders. In many cases, this knowledge is transmitted orally, from generation to generation, and remains confined to a limited group of people . Documentation efforts undertaken by Nepalese researchers in order to document traditional use of medicinal plants [13–15, 20, 45] should continue, especially as the results presented here place traditional and scientific knowledge on equal footing.
Sustainable management and use of medicinal plants
The criteria used to identify priority medicinal plant species  are very practical and useful in the regional context and are highly reliable as they were synthesized by experts based on national and international data. The 16 priority species identified here are highly valued on national and international markets . Importantly, 13 of the 16 species prioritized in the present study are also priority species identified by the central Government of Nepal, which recognized 30 medicinal plant species for promotion of commercial use and trade . Therefore, it is important to consider these species to implement policy and to guide management authorities of the Rasuwa district for proper management and use of medicinal plants to benefit local people in their traditional healthcare delivery systems and income generation activities [6, 47].
Unsustainable harvesting, over-exploitation and habitat degradation have been identified as major threats to the sustainability of medicinal plants in the district. The medicinal plants sector has the potential to achieve sustainability, given the availability of resources, people's willingness to participate in conservation programmes, and the priority given to the sector by the government and other organizations. Sustainable harvesting, effective domestication methods, community participatory management, and the provision of information, education and awareness programmes to the community are key strategies that can help optimize the benefits of the medicinal plants sector in Nepal .
The Tamang people of the Rasuwa district of central Nepal possess rich ethnopharmacological knowledge and therefore use several medicinal plant species in their traditional healthcare delivery system. The striking coincidence between traditional plant use and scientifically-proven phytochemical and pharmacological properties shows that the traditional remedies are an important and effective part of indigenous healthcare systems in the district. However, published information on phytochemical and pharmacological properties are still limited for many plant species used in the district. Detailed phytochemical and pharmacological studies of traditionally-used medicinal plants is thus an important line of research to pursue, especially for species showing high informant consensus, like Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. Medicinal plants provide huge opportunities for community development and livelihood improvement. However, local people are often deprived of the benefits from these resources . Proper management of high-value and high-priority medicinal plants could serve as a sustainable income source for the communities. This would in turn help generate incentives for biodiversity conservation, thus ensuring the long-term availability of medicinal plants for indigenous and commercial uses.
We are thankful to the local people of the Rasuwa district, Nepal for their participation in the study and for sharing their valuable knowledge. We are also grateful to the Flemish Interuniversity Council (VLIR) of Belgium for providing financial support for this study, and to R. C. Poudel for providing a valuable contribution to the development of this study.
- Nyazema ZN: Ethnobotany and tradition medicinal practice in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Science News. 1996, 30: 104-109.
- Njoroge GN, Bussmann RW, Gemmill B, Newton LE, Ngumi VW: Utilization of weed species as sources of traditional medicines in Central Kenya. Lyonia. 2004, 7: 71-87.
- Gemedo-Dalle T, Maass BL, Isselstein J: Plant biodiversity and ethnobotany of Borana pastoralists in Southern Oromla, Ethiopia. Econ Bot. 2005, 59: 43-65. 10.1663/0013-0001(2005)059[0043:PBAEOB]2.0.CO;2.View Article
- Cox AP, Balick JM: Ethnobotanical research and traditional health care in developing countries. Plants, people and culture. 1996, New Work: W.H. Freeman and Co
- Flaster T: Ethnobotanical approaches to the discovery of bioactive compounds. Progress in new crops: Proceedings of the third national symposium. New crops: New opportunities, new technologies: 22-25 October 1995; Indianapolis. Edited by: Janick E. 1996, Alexandria: ASHS Press, 561-656.
- WHO (World Health Organization): WHO traditional medicine strategy 2002-2005. Geneva;. 2002
- Laird SA, Pierce AR: Promoting sustainable and ethical botanicals: strategies to improve commercial raw material sourcing. 2002, New York: Rainforest Alliance
- Srivastava R: Studying the information needs of medicinal plant stakeholders in Europe. TRAFFIC Dispatches. 2000, 15: 5-
- Subrat N: Ayurvedic and herbal products industry: An overview. Proceedings of the regional workshop on wise practices and experiential learning in the conservation and management of Himalayan medicinal plants: December 15-20 2002; Kathmandu, Nepal. 2002
- CBD: 1992, Convention on Biological Diversity. United Nations, [http://www.biodiv.org/convention/convention.shtml#]
- Sharma UR, Malla KJ, Uprety RK: Conservation and management efforts of medicinal and aromatic plants in Nepal. Banko Janakari. 2004, 14: 3-11.
- Shrestha KK, Tiwari NN, Ghimire SK: MAPDON - Medicinal and aromatic plant database of Nepal. Proceedings of Nepal-Japan joint symposium on conservation and utilization of Himalayan medicinal sources: 6-11 November 2000; Kathmandu, Nepal. 2001, 53-74.
- Bhattarai S, Chaudhary RP, Taylor RSL: Ethnomedicinal plants used by the people of Manang district, Central Nepal. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006, 2: 41-10.1186/1746-4269-2-41.PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Kunwar RM, Bussmann RW: Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2008, 4: 24-10.1186/1746-4269-4-24.PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Manandhar NP: Plants and people of Nepal. 2002, Oregon: Timber Press
- Baral SR, Kurmi PP: A compendium of medicinal plants in Nepal. 2006, Kathmandu: Rachana Sharma
- Edwards DM: Non-timber forest products from Nepal. Aspects of the trade in medicinal and aromatic plants. FORSEC Monographs. 1996, 1: 6-24.
- Rajbhandari KR: Ethnobotany of Nepal. 2001, Kathmandu: Ethnobotanical Society of Nepal
- Shrestha KK, Tiwari NN, Rajbhandary S, Poudel RC, Uprety Y: Ethnobotany in Nepal: Review and perspectives. 2004, Project report submitted to WWF Nepal Program, Kathmandu
- Shrestha PM, Dhillion SS: Medicinal plant diversity and use in the highlands of Dolakha district, Nepal. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003, 86: 81-96. 10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00051-5.PubMedView Article
- Kunwar RM, Uprety Y, Burlakoti C, Chowdhary CL, Bussmann CW: Indigenous use and ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants in Far-west Nepal. Ethnobot Res Appl. 2009, 7: 5-28.
- Chaudhary RP: Biodiversity in Nepal: Status and conservation. 1998, Thailand: Tecpress Books
- CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics): Statistical year book of Nepal 2003. 2003, Kathmandu: Central Bureau of Statistics
- Huntington HP: Using traditional ecological knowledge in science: Methods and applications. Ecol Appl. 2000, 10: 1270-1274. 10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[1270:UTEKIS]2.0.CO;2.View Article
- Martin GJ: Ethnobotany: a methods manual. 1995, London: Chapman and HallView Article
- Hara H, Williams LHJ: An enumeration of the flowering plants of Nepal. 1979, London: British Museum (Natural History), ii:
- Hara H, Charter AH, Williams LHJ: An enumeration of the flowering plants of Nepal. 1982, London: British Museum (Natural History), iii:
- Polunin O, Stainton A: Flowers of the Himalaya. 1984, New Delhi: Oxford University Press
- Press JR, Shrestha KK, Sutton DA: Annotated checklist of flowering plants of Nepal. 2000, London: Natural History Museum
- Heinrich M, Ankli A, Frei B, Weimann C, Sticher O: Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers' consensus and cultural importance. Soc Sci Med. 1998, 47: 91-112. 10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00181-6.View Article
- Canales M, Hernandez T, Caballero J, Romo de Vivar A, Avila G, Duran A, Lira R: Informant consensus factor and antibacterial activity of the medicinal plants used by the people of San Rafael Coxcatlan, Puebla, Mexico. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005, 97: 429-439. 10.1016/j.jep.2004.11.013.PubMedView Article
- CECI: Synthesis of seminar presentations and discussions on herbs, herbal products and spices: November 12-14 2005; Nepalgunj, West Nepal. 2006, Kathmandu: Canadian Center for International Studies and Cooperation
- Coe FG, Anderson GJ: Ethnobotany of the Garifuna of Eastern Nicaragua. Econ Bot. 1996, 50: 71-107.View Article
- Zanyine JS: Use of medicinal plants in Oku (Cameroon). Masters thesis. 2007, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Human Ecology
- Tabuti JRS, Lye KA, Dhillion SS: Traditional herbal drugs of Bulamogi, Uganda: Plants, use and administration. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003, 88: 19-44. 10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00161-2.PubMedView Article
- Bussmann RW, Sharon D: Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru. Tracking 2000 years of healing culture. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006, 2: 47-10.1186/1746-4269-2-47.PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Moore PD: Trials in bad taste. Nature. 1994, 370: 410-411. 10.1038/372410a0.View Article
- Heinrich M: Ethnobotany and its role in drug development. Phytother Res. 2000, 14: 479-488. 10.1002/1099-1573(200011)14:7<479::AID-PTR958>3.0.CO;2-2.PubMedView Article
- Amiguet VT, Arnason JT, Maquin P, Cal V, Sanchez Vindas P, Poveda L: A consensus ethnobotany of the Q'eqchi' Maya of southern Belize. Econ Bot. 2005, 59: 29-42. 10.1663/0013-0001(2005)059[0029:ACEOTQ]2.0.CO;2.View Article
- Ragupathy S, Newmaster SG, Murugesan M, Balasubramaniam V, Huda M: Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2008, 4: 8-10.1186/1746-4269-4-8.PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Joshi AR, Joshi K: Indigenous knowledge and uses of medicinal plants by local communities of the Kali Gandanki watershed area, Nepal. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000, 73: 175-183. 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00301-9.PubMedView Article
- Manandhar NP: Folklore medicine of Dhading District, Nepal. Fitoterapia. 1992, 63: 163-177.
- Uprety Y, Boon EK, Poudel RC: Traditional use of plant resources by Bankariya ethnic group in Makwanpur district, central Nepal. 2008, Germany: GRIN publisher, 1-25.
- Subedi BP: Policy and regulatory environment for the conservation and utilization of Himalayan medicinal resources in Nepal. Proceedings of Nepal-Japan joint symposium on conservation and utilization of Himalayan medicinal sources: 6-11 November 2000; Kathmandu, Nepal. 2001, 19-26.
- Uprety Y: Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in an alpine environment: A case study of Rasuwa district, Central Nepal. Masters thesis. 2008, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Department of Human Ecology
- Tiwari NN, Poudel RC, Uprety Y: Study on domestic market of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in Kathmandu Valley. 2004, Project report prepared for Winrock International, Kathmandu
- WHO, IUCN, WWF: Guidelines on the conservation of medicinal plants. 1993, Gland, Switzerland: The World Conservation Union (IUCN), in partnership with The World Health Organization (WHO) and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)
- Hanuman JB, Katz A: Diterpenoid alkaloids from ayurvedic processed and unprocessed Aconitum ferox. J Ethnopharmacol. 1994, 36: 1527-1535.
- Vaksaraj R, Pushpangadan P, Smitt UW, Adserden A, Nyman U: Antimicrobial screening of selected medicinal plants from India. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997, 58: 75-83. 10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00085-8.View Article
- Hilou A, Nacoulma OG, Guiguemde TR: In vivo antimalarial activities of extracts from Amaranthus spinosus L. and Boerhaavia erecta L. in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006, 103: 236-240. 10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.006.PubMedView Article
- Bopana N, Saxena S: Asparagus racemosus--Ethnopharmacological evaluation and conservation needs. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007, 110: 1-15. 10.1016/j.jep.2007.01.001.PubMedView Article
- Sabir M, Bhide MK: Study of some pharmacological activities of berberine. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1971, 15: 111-132.PubMed
- Lozano I: The therapeutic use of Cannabis sativa (L.) in Arabic medicine. J Cannabis Ther. 2001, 1: 63-70. 10.1300/J175v01n01_05.View Article
- IUCN: National register of medicinal plants. 2004, Kathmandu: IUCN - The World Conservation Union
- Wu JY, Zhang QX, Leung PH: Inhibitory effects of ethyl acetate extract of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on various cancer cells in culture and B16 melanoma in C57BL/6 mice. Phytomedicine. 2007, 14: 43-49. 10.1016/j.phymed.2005.11.005.PubMedView Article
- Kostova I, Iossifova T: Chemical components of Fraxinus species. Fitoterapia. 2007, 78: 85-106. 10.1016/j.fitote.2006.08.002.PubMedView Article
- Li SL, Lin G, Chan SW, Li P: Determination of the major isosteroidal alkaloids in bulbs of Fritillaria by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection. J Chromatography A. 2001, 16: 207-214. 10.1016/S0021-9673(00)01083-9.View Article
- Ranjith A, Kumar SK, Venugopalan VV, Arumughan C, Sawhney RC, Singh V: Fatty acids, tocols and carotenoids in pulp oil of three Sea Buckthron species (Hippophae rhamnoides, H. salicifolia, and H. tibetana) grown in the Indian Himalayas. JAOCS. 2006, 83: 359-364. 10.1007/s11746-006-1213-z.
- Erdemoglu N, Kupeli E, Yesilada E: Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity assessment of plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003, 89: 123-129. 10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00282-4.PubMedView Article
- Comai S, Dall'Acqua A, Castagliuolo I, Gurung K, Innocenti G: Essential oil of Lindera neesiana fruit: Chemical analysis and its potential use in topical applications. Fitoterapia. 2010, 81: 11-16. 10.1016/j.fitote.2009.06.017.PubMedView Article
- Orhan I, Kupeli E, Sener B, Yesilada E: Appraisal of anti-inflammatory potential of the clubmoss, Lycopodium clavatum L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006, 107: 146-150.
- Rao VS, Rao A, Karanth KS: Anticonvulsant and neurotoxicity profile of Nardostahys jatamansii in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005, 102: 351-356. 10.1016/j.jep.2005.06.031.PubMedView Article
- Kim IH, Uchiyama N, Kawahara N, Goda Y: Iridoid glycosides and cucurbitacin glycoside from Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora. Phytochemistry. 2006, 67: 2691-2696. 10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.09.015.PubMedView Article
- Yunlong X, Kubo I, Yunbao M: A cytotoxic flavanone glycoside from Onychium japonicum: Structure of onychin. Phytochemistry. 1993, 33: 510-511. 10.1016/0031-9422(93)85552-3.View Article
- Matsuda HP, Morikawa T, Kishi M, Kataoka S, Yoshikawa M: Protective effects of steroid saponin from Paris polyphylla on ethanol induced gastric lesions in rats: structural requirement for activity and mode of action. Bioorgan Med Chem Lett. 2003, 13: 1101-1106. 10.1016/S0960-894X(03)00052-0.View Article
- Watanabe T, Rajbhandari KR, Malla KJ, Yahara S: A handbook of medicinal plants of Nepal. 2005, Japan: AYUR SEED
- Tomczyk M, Latte KP: Potentilla - A review of its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009, 122: 184-204. 10.1016/j.jep.2008.12.022.PubMedView Article
- Reynolds JEF, (Ed): 1982, Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia
- Yonzon M, Lee DJ, Yokochi T, Kawano Y, Nakahara T: Antimicrobial activities of essential oils of Nepal. J Essent Oil Res. 2005, 17: 107-111.View Article
- Tse WP, Che CT, Liu K, Lin ZX: Evaluation of the antiproliferative properties of selected psoriasis treating Chinese medicines on cultured HaCaT cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006, 108: 133-141. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.04.023.PubMedView Article
- Rajbhandari TK, Joshi NR, Shrestha T, Joshi SKG, Acharya B: Medicinal Plants of Nepal for Ayurvedic Drugs. 1995, Kathmandu: Government of Nepal, Department of Plant Resources
- Bharyava S, Rao PS, Bhargava P, Shukla S: Antipyretic potential of Swertia chirata Buch Ham. root extract. Scientia Pharmaceutica. 2009, 77: 617-623. 10.3797/scipharm.0812-10.View Article
- Devkota KP, Acharya R, Baral MP, Adhikari RP: Antimicrobial activities of some herbal plants used in traditional medicine in Nepal. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Science and Technology: 8-11 March 1999. 1999, Khumaltar, Nepal. Nepal Academy of Science and Technology, 1311-1317.
- Chowdhury NI, Bandyopadhyay SK, Banerjee SN, Dutta MK, Das PC: Preliminary studies on the antiinflammatory effects of Swertia chirata in albino rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 1995, 27: 37-39.
- Muhammad N, Khan I, Ahmad B, Ali T, Ahmad W, Choudhary MI: Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Taxus wallichiana Zucc. J Enzym Inhib Med Ch. 2008, 23: 256-260. 10.1080/14756360701505336.View Article
- Anonymous: Medicinal Plants of Nepal for Ayurvedic Drugs. 1995, Kathmandu: Government of Nepal, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation
- Chandramu C, Rao MD, Krupadanam DG, Reddy VD: Isolation, characterization and biological activity of betulinic acid and ursolic acid from Vitex negundo L. Phytother Res. 2003, 17: 129-134. 10.1002/ptr.1088.PubMedView Article
- Chaturvedi GN, Singh RH: Experimental studies on the anti-arthritic effect of certain indigenous drugs. Indian J Med Res. 1965, 53: 71-80.PubMed
- Taylor RSL, Shahi S, Chaudhary RP: Ethnobotanical research in the proposed Tinjure-Milke-Jaljale Rhododendron conservation area, Nepal. Vegetation and Society: Their interaction in Himalayas. Edited by: Chaudhary RP, Subedi BP, Vetaas OR, Aase TH. 2002, Tribhuvan University, Nepal and University of Bergen, Norway, 26-37.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.