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Table 2 Medicinal plant species, plant parts used and ailments cured by the Apatani of Ziro valley in Arunachal Pradesh

From: Ethnomedicinal botany of the Apatani in the Eastern Himalayan region of India

Sl No. Species Family Part used Uses
1 Acorus calamus L. Araceae Root Cut, wounds, skin diseases, bone fracture
2 Ageratum conyzoides L. Asteraceae Leaf Cut, wounds
3 Allium cepa L. Liliaceae Bulb Eye pain
4 Allium hookeri Thwait. Liliaceae Bulb Eruption of skin, cough, cold, wounds
5 Alocasia forniculata (Roxb.) Schott. Araceae Root Crack of heels
6 Alstonia scholaris (L.) Br. Apocynaceae Leaf, bark Headache, stomach disorder, menstrual disorder
7 Amomum aromaticum Roxb. Zingiberaceae Leaf, seed Fever, abortion
8 Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson Araceae Corn Piles
9 Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees Acanthaceae Leaf Dysentery
10 Anisomeles indica (L.) O.K. Lamiaceae Shoot Bodyache
11 Angiopteris evecta (Forst.) Hoffm. Angiopteridaceae Stem Health tonic
12 Antidesma acidum Retz. Euphorbiaceae Leaf Wounds
13 Argemone mexicana L. Papaveraceae Shoot Skin diseases
14 Artemisia indica Willd. Asteraceae Leaf Bodyache, asthma, skin diseases
15 Artemisia maritima L. Asteraceae Shoot Blood purification
16 Artemisia nilagirica (Cl.) Pamp. Asteraceae Leaf Cough, headache, sores
17 Asplenium nidus L. Aspleniaceae Leaf Ulcer
18 Barleria prionitis L. Acanthaceae Leaf Cough
19 Begonia roxburghii (Miq.) DC. Begoniaceae Leaf Indigestion
20 Berberis wallichiana (Wall.) Brongn. Berberidaceae Fruit, root Indigestion, bodyache
21 Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. Saxifragaceae Root, leaf Cut, wounds
22 Brassiopsis glomarulata (Bl.) Regel. Araliaceae Fruit Cough
23 Buddleja asiatica Lour. Buddlejaceae Leaf Inflammation
24 Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl Verbenaceae Leaf Headache
25 Callicarpa vastita Roxb. Verbenaceae Leaf Indigestion
26 Calotropis gigantea (L.) Br. Asclepiadaceae Root Dog bite
27 Canarium resiniferum Brace ex King Burseraceae Fruit Urinary complaints
28 Capparis spinosa Lam. Capparaceae Root Rheumatic pain
29 Cardamine hirsuta L. Brassicaceae Leaf Indigestion
30 Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.) DC. Fagaceae Stem Cough, goiter, indigestion
31 Centella asiatica L. Apiaceae Shoot Constipation, gastritis, blood purification
32 Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Chenopodiaceae Leaf Toothache
33 Christella parasitica (L.) Lev. Thelypteridaceae Fronds Cut, wounds
34 Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson Asteraceae Leaf Cut, wounds, headache, fever
35 Cirsium lapskyle Petral. Asteraceae Shoot Indigestion
36 Cissampelos pareira L. Menispermaceae Tuber Health tonic
37 Clerodendrum glandulosum Coleb. ex Wall. Verbenaceae Leaf Blood pressure, fever, cough
38 Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moonb Verbenaceae Leaf Eye disorders
39 Coelogyne pectata Lindl. Orchidaceae Pseudobulb Burns
40 Colocasia affinis Schott Araceae Leaf Fever, respiratory disorder
41 Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) Moore Asteraceae Leaf Indigestion, headache, stomachache, cut, wounds
42 Crotolaria pallida Ait. Fabaceae Root Bodyache
43 Croton roxburghii Balak Euphorbiaceae Fruit Indigestion
44 Curcuma caesia Roxb. Zingiberaceae Rhizome Cough, asthma
45 Curcuma aromatica Salisb. Zingiberaceae Whole plant Blood purification
46 Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. Zingiberaceae Rhizome Cold, cough
47 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Cuscutaceae Whole plant Purgative
48 Cyathea gigantea (Wall. ex Hk. f.) Holt. Cyatheaceae Leaf Bodyache
49 Cyathula prostrata (L.) Bl. Amaranthaceae Shoot Appetizer, dysentery, skin diseases
50 Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. Orchidaceae Tuber Wounds
51 Dendrocnide sinuta (Bl.) Chew. Urticaceae Leaf Urogenital disorder, toothache, dysentery
52 Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Und. Gleicheniaceae Whole plant Indigestion
53 Dicrocephala bicolor (Roth) Sch. Asteraceae Shoot Digestive problems
54 Dillenia indica L. Dilleniaceae Furit Stomachache
55 Dioscorea alata L. Dioscoraceae Tuber Indigestion
56 Dioscorea bulbifera L. Dioscoraceae Tuber Indigestion
57 Dioscorea hamiltonii Hk. f. Dioscoraceae Tuber Dysentery
58 Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. Athyriaceae Fronds Constipation
59 Ecbolium viride (Forsk) Alston Meliaceae Root Rheumatism
60 Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. Asteraceae Shoot Cut, wounds
61 Elaeagnus caudata Sch. ex Momiyama Elaeagnaceae Fruit Health tonic
62 Elaeagnus pyriformis Hk. f. Elaeagnaceae Fruit Constipation
63 Elatostema platyphyllum Wedd. Urticaceae Root Vomiting
64 Elsholzia blanda (Benth.) Benth. Lamiaceae Leaf Itching
65 Eluesine coracana (L.) Gaertn. Poaceae Grains Stomach disorder, tonic, cold
66 Eupatorium odoratum L. Asteraceae Leaf Wounds, cut
67 Erigeron bonariensis L. Asteraceae Leaf Nose block
68 Eryngium foetidum L. Apiaceae Seed Madness, headache
69 Ficus benjamina L. Moraceae Stem Stomach disorder
70 Ficus hirta Vahl Moraceae Fruit Wounds, cut
71 Gerbera pilosellioides (L.) Cass. Asteraceae Leaf Rheumatic pain
72 Gloriosa superba L. Liliaceae Tuber Killing lice in hairs
73 Gmelina arborea Roxb. Verbenaceae Leaf Stomach disorder
74 Gynostemma pedata Bl. Cucurbitaceae Leaf Throat ache
75 Gynura biscolor (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC. Asteraceae Leaf Intestinal worms
76 Gynura nepalensis DC. Asteraceae Leaf Indigestion
77 Hedychium coronarium Koen. Zingiberaceae Rhizome Bodyache
78 Hedychium dekianum Rao & Verma Zingiberaceae Rhizome Cut, wounds
79 Hedychium spicatum Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. Zingiberaceae Rhizome Stomach disorder
80 Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Malvaceae Flower Reproductive disorders
81 Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Saururaceae Shoot Freshness, good sleep, heart disorders
82 Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. Lamiaceae Leaf Itching, cough, cold
83 Hypericum japonicum Thunb. ex Murr. Hypericaceae Stem Cut, wounds
84 Impatiens latifolia L. Balsaminaceae Leaf Headache, digestive disorder
85 Impatiens racemosa DC. Balsaminaceae Leaf Digestive disorder
86 Indigofera tinctoria L. Fabaceae Root Wound
87 Jasminum humile L. Oleaceae Root Ringworm
88 Laginaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. Cucurbitaceae Fruit Burns
89 Leonotis nepetifolia R. Br. Lamiaceae Seed Burns
90 Lithocarpus dealbatus (Miq.) Rehder Fagaceae Fruit Indigestion
91 Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. Lauraceae Fruit Cough, cold, hair tonic, indigestion, good sleep
92 Litsea salicifolia (Nees) Hk.f. Lauraceae Fruit Bone fracture, stomach disorder
93 Lygodium scandens (L.) Sw. Schizaeaceae Leaf Skin diseases
94 Mahonia napalensis DC. Berberidaceae Stem Itching
95 Measa indica (Roxb.) DC. Myrsinaceae Fruit Indigestion
96 Mikania micrantha Kunth. Asteraceae Leaf Itching, skin diseases, headache
97 Miliusa roxburghiana (Wall. ex Griff.) Hk. f. & Th. Annonaceae Leaf Headache
98 Molineria crassifolia Baker Hypoxidaceae Fruit Diarrhoea
99 Molineria recurveta (Dryand) Hebbert. Hypoxidaceae Leaf Bodyache
100 Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Fabaceae Stem Eye disorder
101 Murraya koenigii (L.) Spr. Rutaceae Leaf Stomach trouble
102 Musa paradissica L. Musaceae Fruit Indigestion
103 Myrica esculenta Ham. ex D. Don. Myricaceae Fruit, bark Indigestion, skin eruption
104 Myrsine semiserrata Wall. Myrsinaceae Seed Skin diseases
105 Oenanthe javanica (Bl.) DC. Apiaceae Shoot Indigestion
106 Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. Bignoniaceae Seed Purgative, headache
107 Osbeckia stellata Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don Melastomataceae Leaf Toothache
108 Oxalis corniculata L. Oxalidaceae Shoot Appetizer, headache
109 Paedaria foetida L Rubiaceae Stem Gastritis, diarrhea, stomach disorder
110 Passiflora foetida L. Passifloraceae Fruit Respiratory disorder
111 Photinia integrifolia Lindl. Rosaceae Fruit Indigestion
112 Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. Lamiaceae Seed Fever, headache
113 Physalis angulata L. Solanaceae Fruit Gastric trouble
114 Physalis minima L. Solanaceae Fruit Gastric trouble
115 Physalis peruviana L. Solanaceae Leaf Pain in pregnancy
116 Picrorhiza kurrooa Benth. Scrophulariaceae Root Cold, fever
117 Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Pinaceae Seed Indigestion
118 Piper brachystachyum Wall. Piperaceae Seed Cough
119 Piper trioicum Roxb. Piperaceae Root Cough
120 Plantago major L. Plantaginaceae Leaf Constipation
121 Plectranthus japonicus (Burm. f.) Koidz. Acanthaceae Leaf Fever
122 Polygonum nepalense Meissn. Polygonaceae Leaf Indigestion
123 Polygonum perfoliatum L. Polygonaceae Leaf Indigestion
124 Portulaca oleracea L. Portulacaceae Stem, leaf Appetizer
125 Pouzolzia hirta (Bl.) Hassk. Urticaceae Root Constipation
126 Pterospermum acerifolium Willd. Sterculiaceae Flower Earache
127 Rhus chinensis Miller Anacardiaceae Fruit Blood dysentery
128 Rubia cordifolia L. Rubiaceae Shoot Stomachache
129 Rubus calycinus Wall. Rosaceae Fruit Stomach disorder
130 Rubus ellipticus Sm. Rosaceae Fruit Indigestion
131 Rubus paniculatus Sm. Rosaceae Fruit Stomach disorder
132 Rubus roseafolius Sm. Rosaceae Fruit Indigestion
133 Rumex nepalensis Spr. Polygonaceae Leaf Indigestion
134 Saurauria roxburghii Wall. Saurauriaceae Leaf Constipation
135 Schefflera glomerata L. Araliaceae Fruit Indigestion
136 Schizostachium capitatum (Munro) Majumdar Poaceae Shoot Diarrhea, dysentery, stomach disorder
137 Senna alata (L.) Roxb. Caesalpiniaceae Leaf Skin diseases
138 Senna tora (L.) Roxb. Ceasalpiniaceae Leaf Low blood pressure
139 Sphenomeris chinensis (L.) Maxon Lindsaeceae Fronds Sprains
140 Solanum kurzii Brace ex Prain Solanaceae Fruit Cough, worms infestation
141 Solanum myriacanthum Dunal Solanaceae Seeds Toothache
142 Solanum nigrum L. Solanaceae Leaf Liver tonic, indigestion
143 Solanum torvum Sm. Solanaceae Fruit Cough, skin diseases
144 Sonchus asper (L.) Hill Asteraceae Shoot Indigestion
145 Sonchus arvensis L. Asteraceae Shoot Stomachache, gastritis
146 Spilanthus clava L. Asteraceae Leaf Throat pain
147 Spilanthes paniculata DC. Asteraceae Leaf Constipation
148 Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Caryophyllaceae Leaf Itching
149 Stereospermum chelonoides (L. f.) DC. Bignoniaceae Leaf Sprain
150 Strobilanthus helictus T. Anders. Acanthaceae Shoot Indigestion
151 Terminalia chebula Retz. Combretaceae Fruit Cough
152 Toddalia aculeata Pers. Rutaceae Fruit Throat pain
153 Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae Leaf Bone fracture
154 Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less Asteraceae Leaf Indigestion
155 Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. Rutaceae Fruit Dysentery
156 Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Rutaceae Fruit Cold, cough, fever, appetizer
157 Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum Edgew. Rutaceae Fruit Stomach disorder
158 Zingiber officinale Rosc. Zingiberaceae Rhizome Cough