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Table 1 Medicinal uses of Christ's Thorn Jujube

From: The ethnobotany of Christ's Thorn Jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi) in Israel

Illness/uses

Parts and preparation

Region/ethnic group and reference

Historical references

World references

Toothache, gum problems

Rubbing the teeth/gums with root powder (or bark)

Arabs, Bedouins [11].

 

Iraq [35]; Arabian peninsula [37].

Arthritis

Paste of crushed roots, leaves or branches; branches and leaves – inhale steam

Arabs, Bedouins [11, 36].

 

Arabian peninsula [37]. Dhofar [38].

General painkiller

Paste of crushed roots or branches and flour is applied

Arabs, Bedouins [11].

  

Anodyne

Bark, leaves

  

Iraq [35].

Muscle pains

Branches and leaves – inhale steam

Sinai and Negev Bedouins [36, 39].

  

Soothe pains

Leaves

Yemenite Jews [40].

  

Bruises

Fruit, leaves, seeds

  

Arabian peninsula [37]. Dhofar [38].

Chest pains, asthma

Fruit, leaves, seeds

 

X Century [41].

Arabian peninsula [37].

Headache

Fruit, leaves, seeds

  

Arabian peninsula [37]. Dhofar [38].

Heart pains

Branches

Sinai and Negev Bedouins [36, 39].

  

Eye inflammations

Powder of seeds, green leaves or roots as cataplasm.

Arabs, Bedouins [11]; Iraqi Jews [43].

 

Egypt (Bedouins) [42].

Stomach disorders: aches, constipation, heartburn.

Decoction of seeds leaves or fruit is drunk.

Arabs, Bedouins [11].

Ancient Egypt [2], (X Century [41, 45].

Iraq [35]; Morocco, [42]. Iberian Peninsula, 13th century [46]. Dhofar [38].

Anthelmintic

Fruit, seed or leaf infusion

Arabs, Bedouins [11], Iraqi Jews [43].

 

Morocco, [42].

Hemorrhoids

Leaves

Yemenite Jews [40]; Iraqi Jews [43].

XIII Century [25].

 

Diarrhea

Fruit or leaf infusion

Sinai and Negev Bedouins [36, 39], Yemenite Jews [40]; Iraqi Jews [43].

Ancient Egypt [2], X Century [41]; XIII [25].

Morocco, [42].

Increase milk production

Leaves boiled and liquid drunk

Sinai and Negev Bedouins [36, 39].

  

Promoting pregnancy

Fruit – tea

Sinai and Negev Bedouins [36, 39].

  

To ease prolonged labor

Leaves boiled and liquid drunk

  

Arabian peninsula [37]. Dhofar [38].

Wounds

Application of fruit juice

Iraqi Jews [43]; Arabs [11].

Ancient Egypt [2].

Dhofar [38].

Blisters

Fruit, leaves, seeds

  

Arabian peninsula [37].

Burns

Fruit – crushed and boiled

Iraqi Jews [43].

  

Skin diseases and disorders

Boiled or crushed leaves, resin

Iraqi Jews [43].

X Century [41].

Arabian peninsula [37]. Dhofar [38].

Abscesses and furuncles

Cataplasm of boiled leaves

  

Morocco, [42].

Lung, chest and pectoral problems

Leaves or fruit

Iraqi Jews [43].

 

Iraq [35]; Arabian peninsula [37]; Iberian Peninsula, 13th century [46].

Blood purifier and tonic

Leaves or fruit

Yemenite Jews [40].

Ancient Egypt [2, 44].

Iraq [35]; Arabian peninsula [37]; Dhofar [38];

High blood pressure

Leaves

Israel [47, 48].

 

Jordan [12].

Fractures

Cataplasm of boiled leaves

  

Arabian peninsula [37].

Emollient

Fruit or leaf infusion

  

Iraq [35]; Arabian peninsula [37]; Morocco, [42].

Depurative

Fruit

  

Iraq [35].

Cooling

Bark, leaves, fruit

 

Ancient Egypt [2, 44].

Iraq [35].

Tonic

Bark, leaves

 

Ancient Egypt [2].

Iraq [35].

Stomachic

Bark, leaves, fruit

 

Ancient Egypt [2, 44].

Iraq [35].

Measles

Fruit infusion

  

Morocco [42].

Febrifuge

Fruit infusion, resin

 

X Century [41].

Morocco [42].

Snake bites

Wood ash in vinegar

 

Leaves for bee or wasp stings, XIIIth century [49].

Morocco [42].

Astringent

Leaf infusion

  

Morocco [42]; Iraq [35].

Hair problems

Liquid from branches, fruit, leaves, seeds, resin.

Arabs [11]; Iraqi Jews [43].

X Century [41]; XIII Century [25].

Southwestern Saudi Arabia [50]; Arabian peninsula [37]. Dhofar [38].

Infant's powder

Powdered leaves

  

Yemen [37].

Colds

Fruit

Israel [47, 48].

 

Jordan [12].

Weight reduction

Fruit

Israel [47, 48].

 

Jordan [12].

Nervousness

Branches and leaves

Negev [36].

  

Swollen organs

Fruit

 

Ancient Egypt [2].

 

Diuretic

Wood

 

Ancient Egypt [2].

 

Liver problems

Fruits

 

Ancient Egypt [2].

 

Anus problems

Fruits

 

Coptic Egyptian Medicine [2].