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Table 1 Medicinal uses of Christ's Thorn Jujube

From: The ethnobotany of Christ's Thorn Jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi) in Israel

Illness/uses Parts and preparation Region/ethnic group and reference Historical references World references
Toothache, gum problems Rubbing the teeth/gums with root powder (or bark) Arabs, Bedouins [11].   Iraq [35]; Arabian peninsula [37].
Arthritis Paste of crushed roots, leaves or branches; branches and leaves – inhale steam Arabs, Bedouins [11, 36].   Arabian peninsula [37]. Dhofar [38].
General painkiller Paste of crushed roots or branches and flour is applied Arabs, Bedouins [11].   
Anodyne Bark, leaves    Iraq [35].
Muscle pains Branches and leaves – inhale steam Sinai and Negev Bedouins [36, 39].   
Soothe pains Leaves Yemenite Jews [40].   
Bruises Fruit, leaves, seeds    Arabian peninsula [37]. Dhofar [38].
Chest pains, asthma Fruit, leaves, seeds   X Century [41]. Arabian peninsula [37].
Headache Fruit, leaves, seeds    Arabian peninsula [37]. Dhofar [38].
Heart pains Branches Sinai and Negev Bedouins [36, 39].   
Eye inflammations Powder of seeds, green leaves or roots as cataplasm. Arabs, Bedouins [11]; Iraqi Jews [43].   Egypt (Bedouins) [42].
Stomach disorders: aches, constipation, heartburn. Decoction of seeds leaves or fruit is drunk. Arabs, Bedouins [11]. Ancient Egypt [2], (X Century [41, 45]. Iraq [35]; Morocco, [42]. Iberian Peninsula, 13th century [46]. Dhofar [38].
Anthelmintic Fruit, seed or leaf infusion Arabs, Bedouins [11], Iraqi Jews [43].   Morocco, [42].
Hemorrhoids Leaves Yemenite Jews [40]; Iraqi Jews [43]. XIII Century [25].  
Diarrhea Fruit or leaf infusion Sinai and Negev Bedouins [36, 39], Yemenite Jews [40]; Iraqi Jews [43]. Ancient Egypt [2], X Century [41]; XIII [25]. Morocco, [42].
Increase milk production Leaves boiled and liquid drunk Sinai and Negev Bedouins [36, 39].   
Promoting pregnancy Fruit – tea Sinai and Negev Bedouins [36, 39].   
To ease prolonged labor Leaves boiled and liquid drunk    Arabian peninsula [37]. Dhofar [38].
Wounds Application of fruit juice Iraqi Jews [43]; Arabs [11]. Ancient Egypt [2]. Dhofar [38].
Blisters Fruit, leaves, seeds    Arabian peninsula [37].
Burns Fruit – crushed and boiled Iraqi Jews [43].   
Skin diseases and disorders Boiled or crushed leaves, resin Iraqi Jews [43]. X Century [41]. Arabian peninsula [37]. Dhofar [38].
Abscesses and furuncles Cataplasm of boiled leaves    Morocco, [42].
Lung, chest and pectoral problems Leaves or fruit Iraqi Jews [43].   Iraq [35]; Arabian peninsula [37]; Iberian Peninsula, 13th century [46].
Blood purifier and tonic Leaves or fruit Yemenite Jews [40]. Ancient Egypt [2, 44]. Iraq [35]; Arabian peninsula [37]; Dhofar [38];
High blood pressure Leaves Israel [47, 48].   Jordan [12].
Fractures Cataplasm of boiled leaves    Arabian peninsula [37].
Emollient Fruit or leaf infusion    Iraq [35]; Arabian peninsula [37]; Morocco, [42].
Depurative Fruit    Iraq [35].
Cooling Bark, leaves, fruit   Ancient Egypt [2, 44]. Iraq [35].
Tonic Bark, leaves   Ancient Egypt [2]. Iraq [35].
Stomachic Bark, leaves, fruit   Ancient Egypt [2, 44]. Iraq [35].
Measles Fruit infusion    Morocco [42].
Febrifuge Fruit infusion, resin   X Century [41]. Morocco [42].
Snake bites Wood ash in vinegar   Leaves for bee or wasp stings, XIIIth century [49]. Morocco [42].
Astringent Leaf infusion    Morocco [42]; Iraq [35].
Hair problems Liquid from branches, fruit, leaves, seeds, resin. Arabs [11]; Iraqi Jews [43]. X Century [41]; XIII Century [25]. Southwestern Saudi Arabia [50]; Arabian peninsula [37]. Dhofar [38].
Infant's powder Powdered leaves    Yemen [37].
Colds Fruit Israel [47, 48].   Jordan [12].
Weight reduction Fruit Israel [47, 48].   Jordan [12].
Nervousness Branches and leaves Negev [36].   
Swollen organs Fruit   Ancient Egypt [2].  
Diuretic Wood   Ancient Egypt [2].  
Liver problems Fruits   Ancient Egypt [2].  
Anus problems Fruits   Coptic Egyptian Medicine [2].