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Table 1 Ethnobotanical uses of plants of Kala Chitta hills of Pothwar region, Pakistan

From: An ethnobiological study in Kala Chitta hills of Pothwar region, Pakistan: multinomial logit specification

S. no Plant names/local name/herbarium specimen number Family Habit Ethnobotanical uses
01 Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet/Peeli Boti/ISL-17 Malvaceae Perennial herb It is uses commonly as fuel wood and for grazing.
02 Acacia modesta Wall.//Phulai/Black wood/Phulai/ISL-19 Leguminosae Moderate sized prickly deciduous tree. Sweetmeat is formed from gum which is effective for lumbago. First of all, a quarter of kg of wheat starch is fried in equal quantity of animal fat for 10 minutes and then equal quantity of gum (which is already roasted to make soft) and sugar is added and again fried for 5–8 minutes. On cooling used for lumbago and as vigorous. Ash of bark is used along with mercury for paralysis, asthma and as aphrodisiac. Powder of dry bark along with little quantity of salt and sugar is used to treat chest pains and dysentery.
03 Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile/Indian Babul/Kiker/ISL-43 Leguminosae A medium sized prickly tree. The powder of dry pods and bark is effective for lumbago, kidney pains, diabetes, sexual disorders, and phlegm, as tooth powder and as astringent. Leaves decoction is used to treat dysentery. Gum is used in the formation of sweet meal which is effective for lumbago and recipe is same as mentioned in case of Acacia modesta Wall.
04 Achyranthes aspera L./Prickly chaff plant/Puth kanda/ISL-7 Amaranthaceae Perennial herb Ash of leaves and stem is recommended for piles, kidney stones, skin eruptions and asthma. Decoction of whole plant is used to treat pneumonia. Plant extract is used for dysentery and stomach-ulcer. Fried spines along with sugar are reported to be used in whooping cough by indigenous people.
05 Aerva javanica (Burm.F.) Juss ex Schult./Snow Bush/Bui booti, Sufaid Bui/ISL-49 Amaranthaceae A small shrub 12 gram powder of dry leaves along with equal quantity of leaves of senna (sana maki), wild mint, nigella seeds (kalongi) and gugal (gugul) is ground and powder is used for epilepsy and insanity. (one table spoon twice a day). The same formula is ashed on coal and smoke is inhaled against insanity and epilepsy for 40 days.
06 Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth./Chita Shirin/ISL-14 Leguminosae Perennial tree It is commonly used as fuel wood and shady tree.
07 Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth./Siris/Shirin/ISL-15 Leguminosae Large deciduous tree Powder of dry seeds is effective for diabetes. Plant is antiseptic. Decoction of bark and seeds is effective for toothache and inflated gums, as astringent, piles and diarrhoea. Leaves extract is effective for skin diseases.
08 Aloe barbadensis Mill./Koar Gandal/ISL-27 Asparagaceae Perennial shrub Mucilage of plant is used to improve skin. It is applied directly on skin.
09 Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f./Indian Aloe/Kanwargandal/ISL-28 Asparagaceae Perennial succulent shrub. Fresh jelly or cooked jelly with mutton is reported to be used for phlegm, diabetes, stomach ulcer, liver diseases. Jelly is astringent. Pickle of jelly is also recommended for diabetes. Powder of dry jelly along with bishop’s weed and black salt is used against constipation and as carminative. Jelly along with egg and curd is used as conditioner or hair tonic. Jelly along with honey and turmeric is applied on face as a mask for 15–20 minutes as cleanser, refresher and as skin tonic. Jelly along with 2–3 drops of lemon and rose extract is also used against freckles, pimples and boils.
10 Amaranthus spinosus L./Prickly amaranth/Khardar chulari/ISL-3 Amaranthaceae Annual herb Ash of plant is used to treat kidney stones (half tablespoon twice a day). Fresh leaves or leaves and stem are cooked as vegetable (saag) which is used to kill thread worms within body. Fresh leaves are cooked along with equal quantity of leaves of chicory plant (kasni) and fenugreek (methi) and used against low blood pressure and black cataract on eye (kala motia).
11 Amaranthus viridis L./Amaranth/Chulai/ISL-4 Amaranthaceae Annual herb Stem and leaves are cooked as vegetable and used against cough, inflammation and as urinative.
12 Andrachne aspera Spreng./Ramtutia/ISL-74 Phyllanthaceae Annual herb It is used for cough, bronchitis and dysentery.
13 Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze/Gulabi booti/ISL-37 Lamiaceae Annual herb Leaves are crushed and ground. Decoction of leaves is used to cure vomiting.
14 Arachis hypogaea L./Peanut/Moong Phali/ISL-61 Leguminosae Annual herb Fruit is used as caloric and vigorous. Oil is used in confectionery and ghee formation.
15 Argyrolobium roseum (Cambess.) Jaub. & Spach./Makhni booti/ISL-75 Leguminosae Annual herb Aerial parts are used for tonic for sexual diseases.
16 Asparagus adscendens Roxb./Musli/ISL-45 Asparagaceae Perennial herb Rhizome powder is used for weakness of body and as sexual tonic
17 Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav./Bokhat/ISL-46 Liliaceae Annual herb Paste of the aerial part is used for skin allergy and skin infections.
18 Avena fatua L./Jangli jontri/ISL-13 Poaceae Annual herb It is commonly used for live stock fodder.
19 Azadirachta indica A. Juss./Neem/ISL-76 Meliaceae Perennial tree Leaves decoction is used at early morning for purification of blood.
20 Boerhavia procumbens Banks ex Roxb./Hog weed/It-sit/ISL-2 Nyctaginaceae A prostrate spreading herb. Garland is made by interlinking fresh slices of roots and put along neck of jaundiced person. With the improvement of disease length of garland is also increased. Paste of whole plant is used as antidote. Decoction of roots is used as refrigerant. The paste of fresh root along with equal quantity of cow ghee and henna is applied on hand and feet to relieve from irritation.
21 Brassica nigra (L.) K. Koch/Black mustard/Kali suron/ISL-6 Brassicaceae Annual herb Oil is conditioner, cleanser and skin tonic and caloric. For fair complexion local people dip its seeds in goat milk after noon prayer and night prayer they mesh seeds and applied on skin for 15–20 minutes as mask up to 11 days. Leaves and stem is cooked as vegetable (saag) and effective for phlegm, constipation, flatulence and used as diuretic.
22 Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken./Zukhum-e-Hayat/ISL-8 Crassulaceae Perennial herb Fresh leaves are used against kidney stones. Slightly fried leaves are used as astringent and dresser.
23 Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand/Swallow wort, Mudar,/Akk/ISL-5 Apocynaceae Perennial shrub Leaves and latex are used as antidote against snake and scorpion bite. Latex is also effective against wounds, and piles. 2–3 drops of latex is mixed in mustard oil and used as anti lice. Root paste and leaves as tissue paper is used externally for piles. 10 gm latex is mixed with 150 gram turmeric and pills are formed which are recommended for tuberculosis, Hepatitis B and C and spitting of blood (twice a day). Slightly fried leaves are used as dresser for inflated parts of body and rheumatism. 12 gm is heated along with 7 gm turmeric and 7 gm borax, when milk dried then removed from fire and pills are formed which are effective for cough, phlegm, as astringent, pain killer.
24 Cannabis sativa L./Indian hemp/Bhang/ISL-12 Cannabaceae Annual erect herb. Whole plant is intoxicant, laxative, narcotic. Ash of plant is used to treat bleeding at the nose and hemorrhoids. Ash along with date sweetmeat is vigorous and refrigerant.
25 Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew./Karin/ISL-16 Capparaceae Shrub Aerial parts are used for fire wood and fruit is edible.
26 Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik./Shephard purse/ISL-18 Brassicaceae Annual herb It is commonly used for live stock fodder.
27 Carrisa opaca Stapf./Granda/ISL-11 Apocynaceae Perennial shrub Its fruits are edible and used for jaundice. Decoction of leaves is also used against jaundice.
28 Carthamus oxycanthus M. Bieb/Wild safflower/Pohli/ISL-10 Asteraceae Leaves, Seeds Roasted seeds or bread of its seed flour is used to treat jaundice, skin diseases, fever, scabies and abnormal eye sight and used as refrigerant. Decoction of leaves is used against dysentery. Local people give it to milk producing animals after delivery for two days and against dysentery.
29 Carum coptium (L.) Benth. & Hook. f./Ajwain/ISL-1 Apiaceae Annual herb It is used for digestive disorder, dyspepsia, vomiting and diarrhoea.
30 Cassia angustifolia M. Vahl./Negro coffee/Kasundi/ISL-9 Caesalpiniaceae Perennial shrub. Decoction of leaves along with pepper is effective for dropsy and cough. Diluted latex is used as eye drops which is effective for night blindness.
31 Cenchrus ciliaris L./Siti grass/ISL-20 Poaceae Annual herb It is commonly used for live stock fodder.
32 Chenopodium album L./Goose foot plant/Bathu/ISL-22 Chenopodiaceae Annual herb. Decoction of leaves and stem is cooked as vegetable (saag) and used against tuberculosis, jaundice, blood purification, flue, phlegm, dropsy, diuretic, as caloric and against kidney and gall bladder stones.
33 Cicer arietinum L./Chickpea/Kalay Cholay, Chunray/ISL-26 Leguminosae Annual herb. Decoction of fruit, roasted fruit or turgid fruit is used to treat flue, cough, jaundice, diabetes, tuberculosis, phlegm, piles, kidney and liver diseases, blood purification etc. Flour of its pulse is mixed with milk, turmeric, lemon and mustard oil and ubtan is formed which is used as cleanser, skin tonic and refresher. Decoction of fruit along with honey is used to treat abnormal menses and throat pains. Bread made by its flour is also effective against diabetes.
34 Cichorium intybus L./Chicory/Kasni/ISL-24 Asteraceae Leaves Hadiths “There is chicory for you. On this plant dew drops of paradise fall every day”. Extract of leaves along with lemonade is used against chronic gastritis, and as liver tonic, diuretic, jaundice, dropsy.
35 Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad./Bitter apple/Tumma/ISL-21 Cucurbitaceae Annual creeping herb. Fruit pulp along with almond oil and tragacanth is effective for rheumatism, paralysis, distortion of mouth, back ache and diabetes. Pulp along with sugar or honey is effective for chronic flue and sunstroke. Pickle of pulp is effective for diabetes. Fresh pulp along with black salt and bishop’s weed is given to animals when suffered from anorexia.
36 Cleome brachycarpa L./Wild mustard, Dog mustard/Jangli gawara/ISL-29 Cleomaceae An erect, branched herb. The herb is mixed with fodder and given to animals for enhancement of milk production.
37 Convolvulus arvensis L./Bind weed, Deer’s foot/Lehli, Vehri/ISL-23 Convolvulaceae Climbing or twining herb. Whole plant is cooked as vegetable (Saag) and used against skin diseases and as blood purifier. Decoction of whole plant is also used for the same purpose. Decoction of leaves is effective for constipation.
38 Cucumus melo var. agrestis Naudin/Chibar/ISL-30 Cucurbitaceae Annual herb It is used as wild vegetable, as digestive and against diarrhoea.
39 Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult./Wild lemon grass/ISL-25 Poaceae A perennial grass. Decoction of root is effective against dysentery. Powder of dry plant is used as astringent. The whole plant is vigorous so local people give it to animals as fodder to milk producing animals for more production of milk.
40 Cynodon dactylon L. Pers./Khabal grass/ISL-31 Poaceae Perennial grass Aerial parts are crushed and paste is applied on skin infection, injuries and eczema. It is also used as fodder.
41 Cyperus rotundus L./Dilla/ISL-32 Cyperaceae Annual herb Rhizome of this plant is used to cure stomach diseases. It is crushed and ground to make powder. By mixing in water it is used thrice a day.
42 Datura innoxia Mill./Thorn apple/Dhatura/ISL-42 Solanaceae An annual bushy herb. Whole plant is intoxicant. Fresh or slightly fried leaves are used as dresser. Seed paste is effective for piles. Whole plant is burnt and smoke is inhaled for asthma. Local people pour fruit with cloves and kept it for 15 days. After 15 days they remove cloves and ground them with exact quantity of pepper and coconut and pills are formed which are used for tension, depression, urine problems, phlegm and during pregnancy for easy delivery.
43 Dicanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf)/Murga Ghaa/ISL-51 Poaceae Annual herb It is used as fodder.
44 Digera muricata (L.) Mart./Jangli saag/ISL-55 Amaranthaceae Annual herb It is a pot herb. It is used to cure skin diseases.
45 Dodonaea viscosa Jacq./Sanatha/ISL-73 Sapindaceae Perennial shrub Commonly used as fuel wood.
46 Echinops echinatus Roxb./Globe thistle/Untkatara/ISL-81 Asteraceae Annual herb Paste of root is applied on the belly of pregnant woman at child birth for easy delivery. Plant extract along with milk is used against anorexia, rheumatism and kidney stones.
47 Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn./Barua/ISL-57 Poaceae Annual herb It is commonly used for live stock fodder.
48 Eruca sativa Mill./Rocket/Tarameera, Jumian/ISL-68 Brassicaceae Annual herb Oil is used as hair and skin tonic, effective for blood purification and against intestinal worms. Oil is boiled till it become sweet and given to animals as caloric. Seeds are effective for rheumatism (twice a day). 1 kg flour is boiled along with 5 kg of water, 1 kg of milk and 1 kg of sugar. When only 1 kg water is left then removed from fire and given to animals for more production of milk and to increase fat in milk.
49 Eucalyptus globulus Labill./Safaida/ISL-91 Myrtaceae Tree Commonly used for fuel wood, leaves are used for toothache and flue.
50 Euphorbia helioscopia L./Snake weed/Chatri Dudhak/ISL-71 Euphorbiaceae Annual erect herb. Milky latex is applied on cuts. Diluted latex is used as eye drops against eye problems.
51 Euphorbia thymifolia L./Prostrate spurge/Tambi/ISL-72 Euphorbiaceae Annual herb Plant extract is effective for piles. Decoction of plant is used for ring worms. Paste of plant is externally used against skin diseases.
52 Fagonia indica Burm.f./Fagonia/Dhumian/ISL-66 Zygophyllaceae Perennial or annual spiny herb. The extract of whole plant is antidiabetic, used against chicken pox, anticancerous, refrigerant and against skin diseases, scabies, toothache and blood purification.
53 Ficus benghalensis L./Banyan tree/Bohr/ISL-62 Moraceae A large tree with stilt roots. Latex from aerial parts is vigorous and used to fill cracking of feet. Milky latex along with little quantity of honey is used before fasting as antidiabetic. In case of sterility decoction of leaves, bark and root is used by local people up to two-three week.
54 Ficus palmata Forrssk./Wild fig/Khabara, Angeer/ISL-63 Moraceae A deciduous tree. Fruit is used for constipation, fair complexion, asthma, diabetes, flatulence, cough, liver diseases and inflammation. Fruit along with walnut is used as aphrodisiac, against kidney and gall stones, rheumatism, phlegm and piles. Latex of branches and powder of dry bark is used as toothpowder for toothache. Latex is used as massage for epilepsy and paralysis.
55 Ficus religiosa L./Sacred fig/Peepal/ISL-64 Moraceae Large glabrous tree. Fruit is laxative, astringent, refrigerant, used against asthma and constipation. Decoction of leaves is used for 40 days is a complete cure of gonorrhoea.
56 Hordeum vulgare L./Barley/Joe/ISL-54 Poaceae An annual herb. Cultivated as cereal crop. Fruit is roasted and powder is formed called barley flour (Sattu) which is dipped in water and next day after sieving and along with sugar is used against dysentery and as refrigerant. Bread of its flour is effective for blood purification, typhoid, heart diseases, as vigorous, and to fulfil iron deficiency. Fruit is mashed and cooked in milk along with honey and used against chronic constipation.
57 Justicia adhatoda L./Vasaka, Malabar nut/Bhekar, Arusa, Bansa/ISL-83 Acanthaceae Perennial shrub Leaves are insecticidal. Decoction of leaves is used to cure diabetes, and blood purification. Extract or powder of 25 gm dry leaves along with little quantity of honey or sugar is given during cough, asthma, spitting of blood and abnormal menses. Ash of whole plant is also effective for phlegm, cough and asthma by local people.
58 Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) Benth./Salvia seeds/Tukhm-malanga/ISL-47 Lamiaceae A small erect herb. Local people dipped seeds in water or milk in a clay pot and next day seeds with mucilage are used orally for dyspepsia, against high blood pressure, jaundice, as refrigerant and chest pain.
59 Malva parviflora L./Mallow/Sonchal/ISL-82 Malvaceae Annual Decoction of Leaves and stem or cooked as vegetable (saag) and used against phlegm, constipation and diabetes.
60 Maytenus royleana (Wall. ex M.A. Lawson) Cufod./Pataki/ISL-78 Celastraceae Shrub It is used as fuel wood.
61 Melia azedarach L./Barbadose lilac/Dharek/ISL-38 Meliaceae A moderate sized tree. Leaves extract is effective for leprosy, constipation, allergy, skin diseases, jaundice, piles, as astringent, and blood purifier. Leaves are boiled in 1 litre water when one-fourth water is left l then it is used for bathing against allergy and itching. One cup extract of leaves along with one cup extract of Rhazya stricta (verian) leaves is effective for diabetes before fasting. Leaves are given to animals as fodder in order to relieve them from inflammation.
62 Mentha longifolia (L.) L./Horse mint/Pari poodna, chitta poodna/ISL-41 Lamiaceae An erect, aromatic herb In case of dysentery local people used powder of its dry leaves along with black salt and bishp’s weed (one table spoon twice a day). Decoction of leaves is used for dysentery, colic pain, asthma, jaundice and stomach diseases.
63 Mirabilis jalapa L./Four o’clock plant/Gul Basi/ISL-79 Nyctaginaceae Perennial herb. The slightly fried leaves are used as dresser or ointment for wounds. The leaves are cooked as vegetable (saag) and used with bread against jaundice and dropsy. The powder of dry seeds is used to treat abnormal menses. Powder of dry flowers is effective for piles.
64 Momordica dioica Roxb. ex. Willd./Jangli karaila/ISL-88 Cucurbitaceae Annual climbing herb Fresh juice is recommended for diabetes. Powder of dry fruit along with dry leaves of Peganum hermala L. is recommended for jaundice.
65 Morus alba L./White Mulberry, Chitta toot/ISL-52 Moraceae Perennial tree. Fruit is vigorous. Fruit extract along with jam of quince seeds is used for sexual disorders and weakness for 25 days. The same formula is used for heart diseases and chest pain for 20 days.
66 Morus nigra L./Black Mulberry, Kala toot/ISL-53 Moraceae Moderate sized tree Fruits are edible, fruit extract along with water and sugar is used as tonic for cough, throat diseases including inflammation and tonsilitis.
67 Olea ferruginea(Sol.) Steud./Kahu, Wild olive/ISL-65 Oleaceae Medium size tree. Small leaves are used as herbal tea for cure of digestive complaints. Branches and trees are generally used for fuel wood, timber and preparation of agricultural tools. Cuttings of young stem are used as Miswak (Toothbrush).
68 Opuntia monacantha Haw/Prickly pear/Thor, Nag phani/ISL-89 Cactaceae A xerophytic succulent shrub Mucilage or ripe fruit is effective for gonorrhoea and syphilis. 4–6 drops of latex along with 10 drops of honey is effective for constipation. Ash of stem is also act as cathartic. Mucilage along with turmeric is externally used for piles, pox strains, rheumatism, and leprosy.
69 Peganum harmala L./Syrian tree, Wild rue/Harmal/ISL-90 Nitrariaceae A perennial much branched bushy shrub. The plant is used to drive away the evil spirits. Decoction of leaves is effective against intestinal worms, as aphrodisiac, and against backache. Seeds are decocted in olive oil and used to treat deafness. Fumigation of whole plant is used to treat toothache, chicken pox, and measles, to save from evil sprits and against sharply spreading diseases in plants, animals and human beings. Leaves are insecticidal. Seeds are intoxicant.
70 Plantago ovata Phill./Spogel seeds, Plantain seeds/Ispaghol/ISL-80 Plantaginaceae Annual herb with rosette leaves. Two tablespoon fruit bark of dried fruits dipped in one glass water, curd or milk and next day before fasting used it along with little sugar for dyspepsia. One table spoon of fruit bark along with 25 gram tragacanth and 12.5 gram basil seeds is effective for urine problems and as refrigerant.
71 Polygonum plebeium R.Br./Drunk/ISL-33 Polygonaceae Annual herb Aerial parts are used for jaundice, nose bleeding and diarrhea.
72 Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC./Mesquite/Kikri, Jand/ISL-44 Leguminosae A Xerophytic shrub Its honey is effective for kidney stones and kidney wounds. 12 gm its honey along with 12 gm kuthseereen and 12 gm wild mint is grinded and used (half table spoon twice a day) for freckles, asthma, cough, fair complexion and against boils and pimples. Branches are also used as tooth brush.
73 Reptonia buxifolia A. DC./Gunghair/ISL-48 Buxaceae Shrub It is used as fuel wood.
74 Rhazya stricta Decne/Rhazya/Veriana/ISL-50 Apocynaceae Perennial shrub The extract of leaves is used for skin diseases. Dry powder of leaves along with equal quantity of Justicia adhatoda leaves is used for indigestion. Its dry leaves along with equal quantity of chicory plant (Kasni) and bishop’s weed (Ajwain) is mixed, grinded and used for menstruation problems, diabetes, and white cataract on eye.
75 Ricinus communis L./Castor oil plant/Arand, harnoli/ISL-34 Euphorbiaceae An ever green shrub Seeds are cathartic. Oil is used as massage for paralysis, as muscle tonic, inflammations. Root decoction or paste is used for piles. Leaves are used as dresser. Leaves decoction is effective for asthma and cough. Castor oil from its seeds is purgative.
76 Rumex dentatus L./Wild Spinach/Jangli Palak/ISL-35 Polygonaceae Annual herb Leaves and stem are cooked as vegetable (Saag) and used against flatulence. Root paste is used as astringent. Leaf paste is antiseptic.
77 Salvia officinalis L./Wild sage/Gadkan/ISL-36 Lamiaceae A perennial herb. Slightly fried leaves are used as astringent and as dresser. Plant is given to animals as vigorous.
78 Saussurea heteromalla (D. Don.) Hand.-Mazz/Kali zeeri/ISL-39 Asteraceae Annual herb It seeds are used for digestive complaints.
79 Solanum nigrum L./Black night shade/Mako, Kanch manch/ISL-40 Solanaceae An annual herb. Fresh leaves or leaves and stem after cooking are used for diabetes, abnormal eye sight, inflammation and hysteria. Fruit sauce is used as carminative.
80 Solanum surattense Burm.f./Wild egg Plant/Mokri, Kandiari/ISL-56 Solanaceae A creeping perennial herb. Fruit is given to animal for more production of milk and against anorexia. Decoction of leaves, stem and root is used as refrigerant. Powder of dry fruit is used as toothache against intestinal worms, stomach diseases, diabetes, boils and pimples. Fruit is warmed on spoon and fumigation is given against teeth worms.
81 Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers./Heart leaved moon seed/Gillo/ISL-58 Menispermaceae A large climbering succulent shrub. Decoction of fresh leaves and stem is used to kill worms present on the body of animals. Extract of leaves is used as astringent. Local people drink extract of 25 gm fresh leaves and stem along with 6 gm bishop’s weed (Ajwain-i-desi) and 12 gm salt in a clay pot having half liter water and kept it open whole day in sun light. Next day they mashed it well and used against chronic fever and malaria for one week.
82 Tribulus terrestris L/Small Caltrops/Bukrha/ISL-67 Zygophyllaceae Annual herb 25 gram powder of dry fruit is ground along with 62 gram of bael fruit (bael geri) and used against dyspepsia, abnormal menses, as vigorous and as aphrodisiac. Powder of dry fruit along with milk is used for urine problems, gonorrhea, colic pains and leprosy. Very effective for kidney stones.
83 Triticum aestivum L./Wheat/Kanak, Gandum/ISL-59 Poaceae An annual herb. Cultivated as cereal crop. Bread of flour is used to treat inflammations, diabetes and piles. Bread is also effective for pregnant women, and as caloric. Fruit and stem is vigorous so given to poultry for more production of eggs and meat and milk producing animals for more production of milk. Wheat fibres are dipped in water and next day after sieving used for diabetes by local people. Local people made a special food called sureed by cooking wheat meal with meat and milk and used it as aphrodisiac, vigorous and against sexual disorders. Wheat starch is used in the formation of sweetmeat which is effective for lumbago. Bread of unsieved flour of wheat is effective for constipation.
84 Verbascum Thapsus L./gidar tambaco/ISL-70 Scrophulariaceae Perennial herb The whole plant is dried, powdered and is use to ease menstrual flow, relieve constipation and its high dose is used in abortion.
85 Viola stocksii Boiss./Makhan Boti/ISL-69 Violaceae Annual herb The leaves paste is mixed with water and brown sugar and is given orally against diarrhoea and dysentery.
86 Vitex negundo L./Marvan/ISL-60 Lamiaceae Shrub. Leaves paste is used against rheumatic and joint pain.
87 Wattakaka volubilis (L. f.) Stapf./ISL-84 Asclepidaceae Perennial shrub The leaves past is mixed with brown sugar to be used against cough, cold and other respiratory problems.
88 Withania coagulans (Stocks.) Dunal/Withania/Paneer dodi, Ashwagandha/ISL-87 Solanaceae Perennial shrub Decoction of leaves is used orally in very small amounts, and externally for taking bath against skin diseases. Leaves and branches are placed in stored wheat grains and other cereals to avoid insect pests. Dried branches are also used for fuel.
89 Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal/Winter Cherry/Aksin, Asghand/ISL-86 Solanaceae A small perennial erect shrub. Flowers are dried and powdered. This powder is used locally by females for abortion. These are also used in fewer amounts to ease menstrual flow. Leaves are used as fodder and Branches as fuel.
90 Zizyphus mauritiana Lam./Bairi/ISL-85 Rhamnaceae Tree Fruits are edible, leaves are used for diabetes and hair tonic.
91 Zizyphus nummularia (Burm.f) Wight and Arn/Wild jujube/Jahri Ber, Beri/ISL-77 Rhamnaceae Tree Powder of dry fruit is effective against vomiting and given to women before pregnancy. Poultice of fresh leaves along with soap and flax leaves are used as dresser and astringent. 1/4 kg fresh leaves of (beri) along with 1/4 kg leaves of Amla, 12 gm (sika kai) and 1/8 Kg of soap nut (Reetha) are boiled in 4 kg water and used as hair tonic.