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Table 2 Ethnozoological uses of animals of Kala Chitta hills of Pothwar region, Pakistan

From: An ethnobiological study in Kala Chitta hills of Pothwar region, Pakistan: multinomial logit specification

S. no Animal names/local name Family/class Phylum Ethnozoological uses
01 Acridotheres gigninianus/Kattar, Bank Myna. Sturnidae/Aves Chordata It is captured and used as pet. It is trained and used to speak like parrot. It is also used as alarming bird against snakes, mongoose, jackal etc.
02 Acridotheres tristis/Kattar, Common Myna Sturnidae/Aves Chordata It is captured and used as pet. It is trained and used to speak like parrot. It is also used as alarming bird against snakes, mongoose, jackal etc.
03 Alectoris chukar/Chakor Phasianidae/Aves Chordata Hunted for meat and for fun. Stuffed chakor is also used for ornamentation. It is also used as sports bird for partridge fight.
04 Amphisema stolatum Coloubridae/Reptilia Chordata Used as pet by jugglers.
05 Anas platyrhynchos/Batukh Anatidae/Aves Chordata Kept in houses and used for meat and eggs.
06 Apis mellifera /Shehd di makhi Drosiphilidae/Insecta Arthropoda Honey is not only used as food but also used for a number of medicinal values. Wax is used for making candles and articles for ornamentation. Empty honey comb is also used in interior decoration.
07 Bos tarus/Gaan, cow Bovidae/Mammalia Chordata Used as pet for milk and meat. Milk is also used to make curd, cheese, butter and deesi ghee. They are also used in ploughing fields, in Raahatt for water-well, in carts etc. Bulls are used in bull race. Dung is used as fertilizer. Hides are used in leather industry.
08 Bubalus bubalis/Buffalo, Munj, Bheins Bovidae/Mammalia Chordata Used as pet for milk and meat. Milk is also used to make curd, cheese, butter and deesi ghee. Hides are used in leather industry. Dung in used as fertilizer. Curved hornes are used as decoration article. Bones are used in making utensil handles.
09 Bunglaris spp/Sang choor, Krait Elapidae/Reptilia Chordata Deadliest poisonous snake, its venome is used for production of anti-venome.
10 Calotes versicolor/Rat-mundia Agamidae/Reptilia Chordata Often hunted and kept by jugglers to attract people.
11 Camelus dromedaries/Oont, Dachi, Camel Camelidae/Mammalia Chordata Used as pet animal for carriage and also used for meat. Its meat is salty. Its milk is used for the treatment of Hepatitis B and C.
12 Canis lupus familiaris/Kutta, Dog Canidae/Mammalia Chordata Used as pet animal for dog fight, dog race, for monitoring and alarming at home.
13 Capra hircus/Bakri, Goat Bovidae/Mammalia Chordata Used as cattle for milk and meat. Its hide is used in making leather articles. Its milk is preferred for infants.
14 Catla Catla/Machli, Thaila Cyrinidae/Actinopteriygii Chordata Used as food after cooking. Its oil is used in joint pain. Scales are used in paintings with glue and paint spray.
15 Chana marulius/Sap machli, Saul Chanidae/Osteichthyes Chordata Used as food. Its oil is used in joint pain.
16 Cirrhinus mrigala/Mori Cyprinidae/Actinopterygii Chordata Used as food after cooking. Scales are used in paintings with glue and paint spray. Its oil is also used in joint pain.
17 Clupisoma naziri/Bachwa Shilbeidae/ Chordata Used as food after cooking. Its oil is used in joint pain. Scales are used in paintings with glue and paint spray.
18 Columba livia/Kabootar, Pigeon Columbidae/Aves Chordata Kept as pet birds and used for meat. Its is also given to patient for treatment of paralysis. It is also used for early onset of puberty in young girls. Its a sports bird and used in pigeon race. Its feathers are used in decoration articles, dolls and in shuttle cocks.
19 Corvus splendens/Kaan, Kawwa Corvidae/Aves Chordata Presence of this bird at home is said to be an indication for arrival of some guests.
20 Cyprinius carpia/Gulfam Cyprinidae/ Chordata Used as food after cooking. Its oil is used in joint pain. Scales are used in paintings with glue and paint spray.
21 Danus plexipus /Butterfly, Tittlee Nymphalidae/Insecta Arthropoda Preserved forms are used in horticulture.
22 Dendrocitta vagabunda/Kamadi Kukkarh Corvidae/Aves Chordata Kept as pet and used for meat.
23 Echis carinatus/ghoona, krait Viperidae/Reptilia Chordata Captured by some people to sell to snake charmers or to bio-medical laboratories for anti-venome production.
24 Equs asinus Xe. Cabalus/Khachar, Mule Equidae Chordata Uses for carriage purpose.
25 Equs caballus/Horse, Gorha Equidae/Mammalia Chordata It is used as pet animal. It is used for carriage, horse-race, naiza-bazi etc.
26 Equus asinus/Khoota, Gaddha, Donkey Equidae/Mammalia Chordata Kept as pet animal and used for carriage purpose.
27 Eryx johani/Domoi Boidae/Reptilia Chordata Biological control for Mus musculus etc. Which destroy crops.
28 Felis silverstris ornate/Cat, Billi Felidae/Mammalia Chordata Kept as pet and controls mouse and lizards.
29 Gallaus gallus domestica/Kukkar, Kukri Phasianidae/Aves Chordata Kept at home for meat and eggs. Its meat is cooked in various forms.
30 Germen eve/Sheep, Bhairh Bouidugs-caprinae/Mammalia Chordata Kept as pet and used for milk, meat and wool. Its hide is used in making leather articles. It is also sacrificed by muslims at Eid-ul-Azha.
31 Hamidactylus flavividus/Chipkli, Lizard Gekkonidae/Reptilia Chordata Biological controller for insects, cockroach, flies, mosquitoes etc.
32 Haplobatrachus tigerinus/Mendak, Frog, Duddu Ranidae/Amphibia Chordata Used in dissection experiments, also captured and used for snake diet.
33 Helis aspera/Seepi Helicidae/Gastropoda Mollusca Shells are used as ornamental after painting.
34 Helogale parvula-herpestes edwardsi/Mongoose, Neola Herpestidae/Mammalia Chordata Some people it to drive away snakes. Jugglers also keep it for fight with snakes.
35 Homo sapien/Insan, Banda Hominidae/Mammalia Chordata It is highly social animal which is used in art, culture, as labour and in many other professions from social welfare to life saving.
36 Hypomelas micrpus/Hedghog, chayya Erinaceidae/Mammalia Chordata It is kept in houses to drive away snakes, lizards and mouse.
37 Labeo rohita/Rohu, machli Cyprinidae/ Chordata Used as food after cooking. Its oil is used in joint pain. Scales are used in paintings with glue and paint spray.
38 Laepus nigricollis/Sayya, Khargosh Leporidae/Mammalia Chordata It is hunted for its meat, which is also used for treatment of bronchial diseases. Its fur is used in wallets, warms caps etc.
39 Lumbricus terrestris/Ketchwa, Earthworm Lumbricidae/Polychaetae Annelida It is used to capture fish.
40 Mabyua carinata/Fatmi guddi, Skink Scindidae/Reptilia Chordata Some people believe it as noble reptile, and kept it as pet for short time because it cannot survive long captivity.
41 Melanoperdix niger/Black partridge, Kala Teetar Phasianidae/Aves Chordata Kept as pet-bird. Used for meat and its soup is used to treat bronchitis. It is used in games for prolonged singing voice competition. It is also used to attract other wild partridges for capturing.
42 Milvus migrans/Eill, Cheel Accipitriformes/Aves Chordata Sold for zoo and wildlife sanctuaries.
43 Mystus singhala/Singhare Bagridae/Actinopterygii Chordata Used as food after cooking. Its oil is used in joint pain. Scales are used in paintings with glue and paint spray.
44 Naemorhedus goral/Deer, Hiran Bouidugs/Mammalia Chordata It is hunted for its meat, which is also used in treatment of asthma. After stuffing it is used in ornamentation and in scientific labs.
45 Naja naja/Naag, chajlap, Cobra Elapidae/Reptilia Chordata Fat of cobra is used in muscular pain, sexual weakness and arthritis. It is also captured and sold to laboratories for anti-venome production.
46 Oenanthe fusca/Pahari chirili Muscicapidae/Aves Chordata Its faeces are used in constipation and other gastric problems in infants.
47 Oryctolagus cuniculus/Rabbit, Sayya, Khargosh Leporidae/Mammalia Chordata It is hunted for its meat, which is also used for treatment of bronchial diseases. Its fur is used in wallets, warms caps etc.
48 Pachydondyla vernae/Ant Formicidae/Insecta Arthropoda Fine mud of their houses is mixed with water to make a paste, which is applied on mumps affected area to get relief.
49 Passer domesticus/Chirhi Passeridae/Aves Chordata Meat is used as food. Faeces paste is used orally in gas trouble and constipation.
50 Perdix perdix/Bhoora Teetar, Grey Teetar Phasianidae/Aves Chordata Used as pet-bird and for meat.
51 Photuris lucicrescens/Firefly, Jugnu Lampyridae/Insecta Arthropoda Children capture them and used to play them because of their lightening.
52 Psittacula krameri/Mian Methoo, Toota. Parrot Psittaculidae/Aves Chordata It is used as pet-bird, as it can speak few words like humans after trained. Many palmists use it to highlight their business as lottery chit or fate-fortune.
53 Pycnonotus cafer/Bulbul, Nightingale Pycnonotidae/Aves Chordata Kept as pet-birds due to its singing habit, also used in painting.
54 Reticuliternes banyulensis/Seekh, Termite or White ant Termitidae/Insecta Arthropoda Fine mud of their houses is collected and used for carving writing on walls with sharp objects, or claying writing.
55 Rhesus macaque/Monkey, Bandar, Bhuja Circopithecoidae/Mammalia Chordata These are captured by jugglers and trained to amuse mob to earn money.
56 Rita rita/Khagga Bagridae/Actinopterygii Chordata Used as food after cooking. Its oil is used in joint pain. Scales are used in paintings with glue and paint spray.
57 Streptopelia deceocto/Kughi, Faakhta Columbidae/Aves Chordata It is often hunted for its meat, which is used to treat cough and for early onset of puberty in girls. Its feathers are used in decorations and in shuttle cock.
58 Sus sucrofa/Pig, Soor, juhi wala Suidae/Mammalia Chordata It digs fields at night and makes them fertile by their faeces but destroys crops alot.
59 Tor marcolepis /Mahasheer Cyprinidae/Teleostomi Chordata Used as food after cooking. Its oil is used in joint pain. Scales are used in paintings with glue and paint spray.
60 Upupa epops/Hud-hud, Tarkhan Upupidae/Aves Chordata Feathers are used in art work and in making dolls.
61 Uromastyix hardwicki/Saanda Aganidae/Reptilia Chordata Oil extracted is used for body massage, and also to enhance sexual power in humans.
62 Vanellus indicus/Tateeri, Red watteled lapwing Charadriidae/Aves Chordata It is an alarming bird against snakes, jackals, mongoose, cats etc.
63 Varanus griseus/Kroh, Virinidae/Reptilia Chordata Oil obtained from it is used for massage of body and for sexual weakness. Its skin is also used for painting and art work.
64 Vipera russelli/Russel viper Viperidae/Reptilia Chordata Captured and sold for anti-venome production.
65 Wallago auto/Malli Siluridae/Teleostomi Chordata Used as food after cooking. Its oil is used in joint pain. Scales are used in paintings with glue and paint spray.