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Table 2 Medicinal plants and uses

From: Ethnomedicine use in the war affected region of northwest Pakistan

Serial no. Botanical names Family Local names Life form Part used Plant occurrence status Medicinal uses Recipes
1 Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. Mimosaceae Kekar Tree Bark Wild Wound healing Dermal use of the wood ash on wounds.
2 Acacia modesta. Wall. Mimosaceae Palosa Tree Leaves Wild Tonic, stimulant Powdered leaves or gum are taken orally at the rate of one teaspoon with milk to get instant energy. Also useful as a sex tonic.
3 Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile Mimosaceae Kekkar Tree Shoots Wild Carminative, Increase the sperm flow Grind the newly born shoots along with some condiments (zeera) and pomegranate flowers, and use orally as carminative for infants.
4 Allium sativum. L. Amaryllidaceae Ezzha Herb Fruit Cultivated Decrease cholesterol, Bones disorders 3-5 pieces of garlic are taken orally on a daily basis to decrease the cholesterol level. Ground garlic with butter is used dermally for bone pains.
5 Aloe barbadensis Mill. Asparagaceae Zargaya Shrub Leaves Wild Wound healing Cut the leaf and add powdered Curcuma longa for dermal use on wounds.
6 Amaranthus viridis L. Amaranthaceae Unknown Herb Leaves Wild Emollient A decoction of the leaves is used dermally as an emollient and for inflammation. Root juice is also used for the same purpose.
7 Ampelodesmos mauritanicus (Poir.) T. Durand & Schinz Poaceae Khaas Herb Leaves Wild Vermicides Leaves boiled in water and used orally.
8 Artemisia maritima L. Asteraceae Jhaan Herb Flowers Wild Vermicides Grind the dried florets or flowers and take 1–2 tea spoons orally for intestinal worms.
9 Arundo donax L. Poaceae Kalam Herb Rhizome Wild Diuretic Burn the underground part. The resultant ash is boiled with water, which is filtered then for oral uptake.
10 Asparagus adscendens Roxb. Asparagaceae Unknown Herb Rhizome Wild Carminative, Demulcent Grind roots and make powder. Take this powder orally at the rate of one teaspoon.
11 Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss Poaceae Baanss Herb Leaves Cultivated Expectorant Extract the juice from the leaves and take orally along with honey.
12 Bauhinia variegata L. Papilionaceae Kachnaal Tree Flowers Cultivated Carminative Grind the dried flowers for oral uptake.
13 Brassica oleracea L. Brassicaceae. Gobee Herb Leaves Cultivated Vegetable, arthritis Boil the leaves in water till it becomes greasy for dermal use on arthritis.
14 Brassica rapa L. Brassicaceae Shaljam Herb Whole plant Cultivated Blood purifier, appetizer, Make as a pickle for an appetizer. Cook it as a vegetable, which helps in blood purification.
15 Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken Crassulaceae Zakham-hayat Shrub Whole plant Wild/cultivated Vermicide Boil 10 grams of the plant in water and grind. Orally taken for 7 days on an empty stomach to kill the intestinal worms.
16 Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand Apocynaceae Spalmaka Shrub Milky extract Wild Dermatitis, antiseptic Cut into portions to secrete the milky juice, which is used dermally for the curing dermatitis. Also used as an antiseptic.
17 Cannabis sativa L. Cannabaceae Bhaang Shrub Seeds, leaves Wild/cultivated Analgesic Boil leaves and seeds in water and then spray the water dermally on painful areas.
18 Capparis aphylla. Roth, Nov. Capparaceae Karrir Tree Wood Wild Low back pain Smolder the wood to charcoal, add 2–3 gram of this charcoal into the cooking oil to make a paste that is used dermally for back pain.
19 Caralluma tuberculata N.E.Br. Apocynaceae Pawoona Shrub Whole plant Wild Anti-diabetic, decrease cholesterol. Cook it like a vegetable that is taken orally for diabetes treatment. Also, eat directly as a salad for sliming and for diabetic purposes.
20 Cassia fistula L. Caesalpiniaceae Garda nail Tree Fruits, leaves Cultivated Febrifuge, Purgative Boil leaves and flowers as vegetables. Eat 2–4 fruits over 3 days for constipation.
21 Centaurea solstitialis L. Asteraceae Barham dandi Herb Whole plant Wild Febrifuge 2 spoons of powdered form are taken orally with water 3 times a day for 3 days.
22 Chirita asperifolia (Blume) B.L.Burtt Gesneriaceae Cherita Herb Leaves, flowers Wild Febrifuge Take 25 grams of aerial part and boil it like green tea for reducing fever.
23 Chenopodium album L. Amaranthaceae Surma Herb Leaves, root Wild Laxative, Jaundice and urinary diseases Extract the juice from their leaves, which is taken orally as a laxative.
24 Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Amaranthaceae Unknown Herb Fruits Wild Dyspepsia The dried ripe fruits are crushed into powder form, which is taken orally with water.
25 Cicer arietinum L. Papilionaceae Chana Herb Fruits or grains Cultivated Ethno veterinary, skin itching Grind their grains and massage this flour dermally on the itching places. Also used for ethno-veterinary purposes.
26 Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae Bhangaara Herb Whole plant Wild Carminative The whole plant is used for carminative purposes.
27 Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad Cucurbitaceae Indrine Herb Whole plant Wild Arthritis, head ache Cook the plant or fruit in olive oil and massage into joints or head.
28 Convolvulus arvensis L. Convolvulaceae Parvateyee Herb Root Wild Purgative Dried roots are grinded for oral uptake of 1–2 spoons.
29 Cordia gharaf Ehrenb. ex Asch. Boraginaceae Lasora Tree Fruit Wild/cultivated Asthma, expectorant Dried fruits are used orally for the treatment of several diseases.
30 Coriandrum sativum L Apiaceae Dhania Herb Leaves Cultivated Carminative Roast their leaves and take with water orally.
31 Cucumis sativus L. Cucurbitaceae Kera Herb Fruit Cultivated Febrifuge, stomach Dermal use of grinded fruit on the lower part of the foot to treat fever. Also good for digestion.
32 Curcuma longa L. Zingiberaceae Kurkaman Shrub Rhizome Cultivated Analgesic, Flu and nasal congestion Powder form is mixed with lime and dermally used on the painful area. Put powder form on the burning coal and inhale the smoke to instantly relieve nasal congestion.
33 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Convolvulaceae Akas bail Herb Whole plant Wild Wound healing, analgesic Grind the plant in an adequate amount and cook it in the oil for dermal use on wounds.
34 Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng. Poaceae Kana Herb Whole plant Wild Dysentery, vermicides Boil the leaves in water and the juice is taken orally as a vermicide.
35 Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Poaceae Lemon grass Herb Leaves Wild/cultivated Febrifuge, Flu Boil the leaves in water for 5 minutes and add water to the milk for oral use.
36 Cynodon dactylon var. coursii (A. Camus) J.R. Harlan & de Wet Poaceae Owshoo Herb Whole plant Wild Smallpox, bloody piles Grind it along with Curcuma longa and rice. Use the mixture for smallpox. For piles treatment, grind it with Cannabis sativa leaves, add milk and use orally 2 times a day.
37 Dalbergia sissoo DC. Papilionaceae Sheesham Tree Leaves Wild/cultivated Mental disorder Take 10 g leaves, add 3 pieces of black pepper and grind for oral use.
38 Datura stramonium L. Solanaceae Dhatoora Herb Roots, seeds Wild Asthma, expectorant Roast the leaves and inhale the smoke for asthma. Seeds are used as expectorant. Excess use can be lethal.
39 Digera muricata (L.) Mart. Amaranthaceae Unknown Herb Leaves, shoots Wild Urinary tract infection Leaves and shoots are taken orally as a vegetable to treat urinary tract infection.
40 Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. Sapindaceae Sanatha Shrub Leaves Wild/cultivated Rheumatism, swelling and burns Grind the leaves and add small amount of water to make fine paste for dermal use.
41 Echinops echinatus Roxb. Asteraceae Ont katara Herb Roots Wild Liver disease Root is mixed with vinegar to make tea for oral use.
42 Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Rosaceae Alokaat Tree Fruits Cultivated Produce the fresh blood, stop the bleeding Take simply their fruits orally for management of several diseases.
43 Eugenia jambolana Lam. Myrtaceae Jaman Tree Fruits, seeds Cultivated Antidiabetic, stomach problems For stomach problems, grind the dried non-edible portion of fruits for oral uptake at a rate of 1–2 spoons daily for 3 days. Powder is also used for the treatment of diabetics.
44 Euphorbia helioscopia L. Euphorbiaceae Purporai Herb Shoot Wild Skin disease Grind the dried shoots to powder for dermal use on the skin.
45 Euphorbia hirta L. Euphorbiaceae Unknown Herb Whole plant Wild Carminative, expectorant Extract of milky juice is used orally for infants for both diseases.
46 Euphorbia tirucalli L. Euphorbiaceae Tohaar Tree/shrub Extract Wild Piles treatment Extract their juice, add flour to it and make small tablets for oral use.
47 Fagonia arabica L. Zygophyllaceae Dhamasa Shrub Whole plant Wild Febrifuge, expectorant Paste it with dried grapes and boil the mixture in order to make a tea for oral use.
48 Fagonia cretica L. Zygophyllaceae Spelaghzai Herb Whole plant Wild Cooling agent, scabies treatment Grind the whole plant in water and filter it to remove the solid contents and then take 1 glass of it orally.
49 Fagonia indica Burm.f. Zygophyllaceae Spelaghzai Herb Whole plant Wild Purgative Grind the whole plant and take 2–3 spoons orally for purgative purposes.
50 Ficus carica L. Moraceae Barrh Tree Leaves Wild Wound healing Burn the leaves and the ash is sprayed on the wounds dermally.
51 Ficus elastica Roxb. ex Hornem. Moraceae Unknown Tree Leaves Cultivated Wound healing Bark decoction is generally used for wound healing effect.
52 Ficus religiosa L. Moraceae Peppal Tree Bark, leaves Cultivated Stomach problems, wounds healing Burn the bark and make powder from it. Take 5 grams of it orally with water for diarrhea; leaves are used for wound healing.
53 Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley Papaveraceae Pith-panra Herb Whole plant Wild Blood purifier, Febrifuge Extract their juice and take orally for purification of blood. Its tea is used for fever.
54 Grewia asiatica L. Malvaceae Falsa Tree Fruits Wild/cultivated Diabetics, cooling agent Simply eat their fruits to help diabetics. Also provide cooling sensation.
55 Justicia adhatoda L. Acanthaceae Unknown Shrub Leaves Wild Rheumatism, stomachache Grind the leaves and mix it with honey. The paste is used dermally around the swelling.
56 Lactuca sativa L. Asteraceae Salad Herb Leaves Cultivated Blood purifier Simply use as a salad for blood purification.
57 Lallemantia royleana Benth. Lamiaceae Balango Herb Seeds Wild Sexual purposes, carminative Eat seeds up to 2–5 gram to increase sperm capability. Also used as carminative.
58 Lawsonia alba Lam. Lythraceae Mehndi ka poda Tree Flowers Cultivated Sexual purpose Cooking of the flowers along with meat is useful in increasing sexual power.
59 Melia azedarach L. Meliaceae Bankara Tree Seeds Wild/cultivated Piles treatment Eat seed’s internal portion of 2–3 seeds only, but do not exceed as they may be lethal.
60 Mentha piperita L. Lamiaceae Podina Herb Leaves Cultivated Carminative Make tea from their leaves and use orally 4–5 times a day.
61 Mirabilis jalapa L. Nyctaginaceae Gul-e-abassi Herb Root, flowers Wild Piles treatment, blood purifier and sexual purpose Their roots are cooked with meat to increase sperm production and blood purification. Powdered flowers are used orally for piles treatment.
62 Momordica charantia L. Cucurbitaceae Karela Shrub Leaves Cultivated Vegetable, diabetics and hepatitis As a vegetable, it’s useful for diabetics and hepatitis.
63 Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) A. DC. Sapotaceae Gurgura Tree Fruits, leaves Wild/ Cultivated Purgative, Refrigerant Make juice of their parts and use orally as a purgative and cooling agent.
64 Moringa oleifera Lam. Moringaceae Sohanjna Tree Root Cultivated Kidney-stone, vermicides Cut their roots and boil in water. Add milk and drink for kidney stones and worms.
65 Morus alba L. Moraceae Shah –toot Tree Fruits Cultivated Heart, Liver tonic Eat their fruits, which provide the energy to the heart and liver.
66 Morus nigra L. Moraceae Tooth-siah Tree Leaves, root Wild/ Cultivated Analgesic Boil their leaves and roots in order to make tea for oral use.
67 Musa acuminata Colla. Musaceae Kela Tree Fruit Cultivated Menstruation, antidiabetic Juice of the fruit is mixed in yogurt for oral uptake during menstruation. In antidiabetic case, roast and powder the flower for oral use.
68 Nannorrhops ritchiana (Griff.) Aitch. Arecaceae Mazara Shrub Leaves Wild Carminative, veterinary Mostly their leaves are used to boil. The juice is then used orally.
69 Nerium oleander L. Apocynaceae Kanir Shrub Roots Cultivated Sexual purpose, strengthen the penis Cut the root into small pieces and then boil along with milk and pour into the thin cloth and extract like butter for oral use in adequate amounts for sexual purposes.
70 Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. Oleaceae Haar singhar Shrub Flowers Wild/cultivated Cough, antipyretic Take 6 fresh leaves and grind in water with half a gram of ginger and take orally.
71 Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae Takhm-rehan Herb Seeds Wild Blood purifier Place the seeds in water to soften and enlarge, then take orally.
72 Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. Oleaceae Zaiton Shrub Whole plant Wild Toothache, antidiabetic Make powder of it and then take 1 teaspoon for 45 days orally on an empty stomach, which is helpful in uncontrolled diabetics.
73 Opuntia triacantha (Willd.) Sweet Cactaceae Zaqqoom Herb Leaves Wild Dermatitis Extract their mucilaginous material, which is found in between leaves. Add cooking oil, make a paste and use dermally.
74 Oxalis corniculata L. Oxilidaceae Tarookay Herb Leaves, root Wild Stomach, wound healing and Anthelmintic Extract juice from fresh leaves and use orally against stomach troubles. Leaves are used as vegetables. Crushed leaves are dermally used on wounds. Decoction of root is anthelmintic.
75 Papaver somniferum L. Papaveraceae Opium Shrub Fruit, leaves Wild/ Cultivated Analgesic, narcotics Boil the water and add the extract of opium to it and take 1–2 spoons orally of this syrup.
76 Peganum harmala L. Zygophyllaceae Spelaanee Herb Seeds Wild Psycho-spiritual purposes Put it on burning coal in order to produce smoke, which is used locally to repel evils.
77 Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke Poaceae Bajra Herb Grain Cultivated Carminative Tie the grains in the piece of cloth, heat it and place in the abdominal region to combat pain.
78 Periploca aphylla Decne. Asclepiadaceae Baradda Shrub Shoots Wild Tumors, swellings Generally their milky juice is extracted and then used dermally for tumors.
79 Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae Khajjor Tree Fruits, seeds Wild/ Cultivated Stomach, liver tonic and carminative Ripened fruit is useful for liver and stomach. Seeds are crushed to make a powder, which is used orally as a carminative.
80 Plantago major L. Plantaginaceae Barthang Herb Leaves Wild Dental pain Boil leaves in water and make tea. Cool and wash the mouth.
81 Portulaca oleracea L. Portulacaceae Kulfa-ssag Herb Leaves Cultivated Antidiabetic Cook like a vegetable. Do not heat it too much. The color must remain light green.
82 Psidium guajava L. Myrtaceae Amrood Tree Fruit Cultivated Purgative Whole fruit is eaten simply as a purgative.
83 Punica granatum L. Lythraceae Anar Tree Fruit Cultivated Febrifuge, vermicide Grind the fruit and orally take 1 spoon 2–3 times a day to kill intestinal germs. For fever, make pomegranate juice, add a little opium, then add sugar for and take orally.
84 Raphanus sativus L. Brassicaceae Mooly Herb Whole plant Cultivated Stomach problems, break the kidney stone and hepatitis Eating simply is helpful in digestion and for the treatment of kidney stones. Boil their leaves in water and add sugar for oral uptake to treat hepatitis.
85 Rhazya stricta Decne. Apocyanaceae Ghandaryee Shrub Root Wild Analgesic Boil roots in water for 10 minutes and cool. Wash teeth with this for pain relief.
86 Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae Arand Shrub Fruits, leaves Wild Analgesic Heat the leaves and fruits for the release of oil, which is spread on the desired place.
87 Saccharum officinarum L. Poaceae Gana Shrub Fruit Cultivated Strengthen the teeth’s, blood purifier and expectorant Remove the upper portion and then cut down into small pieces and chew, which strengthens the teeth and cures others diseases.
88 Salvadora persica L. Salvadoraceae Miswak Tree Shrub Bark Wild/ Cultivated Blood purifier Bark is commonly used as a purifying agent.
89 Salvia aegyptiaca L. Lamiaceae Balango Herb Small grains Wild Sexual purpose, male fertility Eat directly. Small grains increase sperm count and thicken the sexual fluid. Also used for the treatment of infertile parents.
90 Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Asteraceae Ont katara Herb Whole plant Wild Liver disease, carminative Cut the roots, add vinegar and make tea, which is used orally for liver disease and for carminative purposes. Cut the roots and add vinegar in order to make pickle.
91 Sisymbrium irio L. Brassicaceae Kharkasai Herb Seeds Wild Febrifuge, expectorant Seeds are used as an expectorant and used externally as a stimulating poultice. Seeds also used orally to reduce fever.
92 Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. Brassicaceae Khob-kalah Herb Whole plant Wild Febrifuge, expectorant Dry the plant into powder form, which is used orally for typhoid fever.
93 Solanum nigrum L. Solanaceae Makko Shrub Leaves, Root Wild Cancer treatment, sedative Grind the leaves and add maize flour in equal quantity and mix both for oral treatment in the case of cancer treatment. Boil roots in water for making tea and use as a sedative.
94 Solanum pseudocapsicum L. Solanaceae Kuty lala Herb Leaves Wild Arthritis Grind leaves and make a paste. Put on joints for the treatment of arthritis.
95 Solanum surattense Burm. f. Solanaceae Maraghareye Herb Fruits Wild Foot cracks Cut fruits into two pieces, and massage on the foot cracks.
96 Spinacia oleracea L. Amaranthaceae Palak Shrub Leaves Cultivated Cooling agent Boil 5–8 leaves in water and take orally for calming the stomach.
97 Tamarix aphylla (L.) H.Karst. Tamaricaceae Ghazz Tree Leaves Wild Smallpox, flatulence Simply burn the leaves and take their decoction for the treatment of smallpox.
98 Thuja occidentalis L. Cupressaceae Sarwa Tree Leaves Cultivated Dental pain Boil the leaves in the water and wash mouth for the relief of dental pain.
99 Thymus vulgaris L. Lamiaceae Zanglee podina Shrub Leaves Wild Flatulence Grind the dried leaves and take 1 spoon orally with curd for calming and flatulence.
100 Eclipta prostrata L. Asteraceae Bhangaara Herb Leaves Wild Blood purifier Eat 6–7 leaves orally for blood purification.
101 Typha angustifolia L. Typhaceae Dheela Herb Leaves Wild/cultivated Tonic Dry the leaves and ground into flour or eaten as a cooked vegetable for tonic purposes.
102 Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash Poaceae Khaas/cus cus grass Herb Root Wild Analgesic Grind the root in water and massage the paste dermally on the head for pain relief.
103 Vitis vinifera L. Vitaceae Angoor Shrub Fruits Cultivated Carminative Eat the fruit for carminative purpose.
104 Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal Solanaceae Shahpiangay Shrub Fruits, seeds Wild Carminative Put 2–3 seeds or fruits into the water and then eat as a carminative.
105 Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Rhamnaceae Jangly-bera Tree Fruits Wild Intestinal, blood purifier Eat the fruit, which is helpful in the treatment of diarrhea as well as for blood purification.
106 Ziziphus mauritiana var. abyssinica (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Fiori Rhamnaceae Onaab Tree Fruits Wild/cultivated Blood purifier, smallpox and expectorant Tea is made from the fruits, which is used individually or in combination with other drugs for curing various diseases.
107 Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. f.) Wight & Arn. Rhamnaceae Bair Tree Fruit, Root Wild/cultivated Blood purifier, stomach disorder and carminative Roast the fruit and eat for the treatment of stomach problems. Take 5 grams of root and 7 pieces of black pepper, grind and take orally thrice a day for diarrhea and abdominal pain.