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Table 1 List of traditional medicinal plant species used to treat human ailments in the prehistoric Harla and Dengego valleys

From: Ethnomedicinal plants used to treat human ailments in the prehistoric place of Harla and Dengego valleys, eastern Ethiopia

Voucher No. Scientific name Family Vernacular name Habit Disease treated PU Method of preparation & part administered
AHU167 Abutilon bidentatum Malvaceae Muka Adi HA Headache L Boiled in hoja and served like a tea
(Hochst.) A. Rich.     Rh disease L Decoction taken orally
     Mineral deficiency in children L Infusion taken oral
AHU212 Acacia nilotica (L.) Fabaceae Serkema T Bad breath/halitosis B Chew and spit
Willd. ex Del.       
AHU197 Acalypha fruticosa Euphorbiaceae Dhirii Sh Heart disease L Decoction is taken oral
Forssk.     Kidney infection/Nephropathy L Decoction is taken oral
AHU171 Acanthospermum Asteraceae Kumutu Adi HA Itching skin Ap Concoction is drenched
hispidum DC.       
AHU33 Acokanthera schimperi Appocynaceae Qarari Sh Tonsillitis St, L Concocted, gargling and rinsing the throat
(A. DC.) Schweinf.     Malaria Ap Dried & smoke is used as mosquito repellent
AHU117 *Aloe harlana Reynolds Aloaceae Hargesa Sh Snake bite, liver swelling & spleen swelling/Splenomegaly L Crushed and filtrate taken oral in all cases
Colon cleaner Sa Crystallized, powdered and juice taken oral
Skin fungus, hair fungus & skin inflammation J, L Concocted together and used as ointment and wash the hair
Sa, J
AHU161 *Aloe mcloughlinii Chris. Aloaceae Hargesa Sh Eye infections Sa Extract the sap and drop in the eye
AHU162 Aloe megalacantha Baker Aloaceae Hargesa Guracha Sh Colon cleaner J, Sa Crystallized & Juice made/sibri, taken oral
AHU160 Aloe retrospiciens Aloaceae Hargesa Adi Sh Colon cleaner J, Sa Crystallized & Juice made/sibri, taken oral
Reynolds & Bally       
AHU153 Asparagus africanus Lam. Asparagaceae Hida Sere Sh Swelling and infection on the head (korokor) L Crushed and put on hot plate and applied on the head while warm
AHU201 Asparagus racemosus Willd. Asparagaceae Hida Sero Guracha Sh Body burning feeling and mentally disturbed Br Concocted and taken oral and drenched
Itching the whole skin R Crushed and the filtrate is drenched
AHU213 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Meliaceae Kinina T Malaria S, L Mixture of leaf infusion and oil extracted from seed taken oral
Intestinal parasites S, L Mixture of leaf infusion and oil extracted from seed taken oral as anthelmintics
AHU207 Bidens pilosa L. Asteraceae Xiye HA Difficulty of blood clotting St, L Crushed and bandaged on bleeding part
AHU112 Cadaba rotundifolia Forssk. Capparidaceae Delensisa Sh Extended flow of menstruation/Menometrorrhagia B, L Concocted together with Withania somnifera and a cup of filtrate is taken oral
AHU178 Cadia purpurea (Picc.) Ait. Fabaceae Cheeka Sh Gastritis N Collect from the flower and taken oral
Heartburn/Pyrosis N Sucked from flower and used as carminative
AHU146 Capparis tomentosa Lam. Capparidaceae Gemora CP Nipple pores remain closed after birth R, L Concoction taken oral to facilitate opening of nipple pores
AHU111 Caralluma speciosa N.E. Br. Asclepiadaceae Ya’ii Bera HP Skin cyst & tumour locally known as keledo St Crushed with Gloriosa superba and put on the tumour
Gangrene St Powdered with Gloriosa superba and turtle bone then put on the starting point
Swollen body part-gofla St Crushed and bandage on swollen part
Anti poison Sa Diluted sap taken orally
Wound Sa Sap extracted and used as ointment
Itching skin Sa Sap extracted and used as ointment
AHU154 Carissa spinarum L. Apocynaceae Agamsa Sh Premature ejaculation F Decoction of unripened fruit is served as a tea and wash the body with the infusion
AHU199 Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich. Menispermaceae Bal-Toke CP Sudden illness locally called dingetegna R Chew & swallow to stop sudden vomiting, abdominal pain and discomfort
AHU204 Coccinia sp. Burger Cucurbitaceae Hanchota CH Kidney disease Tu Infusion taken oral
AHU214 Commelina stephaniniana Chiov. Commelinaceae Hola gebis HA Skin fungus around the neck and face Sa Extract creamy sap and use as an ointment
AHU187 Commicarpus sinuatusMeikle Nyctaginaceae Kontom HP Gonorrhoea L Concoction with leaf and fruit of Cucumis dipsaceus and taken oral
Skin fungus around the neck and face L Leaf paste mixed with oil and used as ointment
AHU184 Craterostigma plantagineum Hochst. Scrophulariaceae Roba Enjire HA Liver disease R, L Concoction taken oral
Diarrhoea R, L Concoction taken oral
AHU158 Croton macrostachyus Del. Euphorbiaceae Bekenisa T Liver disease/Jaundice B Concocted with bark of Terminalia brownii and drink a cup of infusion
AHU108 Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb. ex Spach Cucurbitaceae Hare Goge CH Gonorrhoea F, L Concocted with Commicarpus sinuatus leaf and taken oral
Urinary retention/Ischuria L Crushed and filtrate taken oral
Skin fungus F Rub the affected part with warm fruit
AHU108B Cucumis ficifolius A. Rich. Cucurbitaceae Hare Goge CH Swelling due to poisonousthorn F Put on hot plate and bandage on the swollen part while warm
AHU217 Cucumis prophetarum L. Cucurbitaceae Hidi CA Wound and Swollen body part F Make it warm and bandage on wound/ swollen part while warmth
AHU114 Cynoglossum coeruleum Hochst. ex A. DC. Boraginaceae Mexene Tiro HA Kwashiorkor Ap Concocted with Verbascum sinaiticum and taken oral
AHU149 Datura stramonium L. Solanaceae Qamaxari HA Ear infections/Otitis externa & media F, L Dried, ground together and mix with oil and drop in the ear
Worms created in the tooth gum F Boiled and put on the gum area
AHU159 Dodonaea angustifolia L.f. Sapindaceae Edecha Sh Hair fungus Swelling and bursting on the head (korokor) L Dried, powdered and mixed with oil and used as an ointment
Malaria F Fresh fruits are eaten
Intestinal parasite L Fresh leaf extract taken oral as anthelmintics
AHU164 Echidnopsis dammanniana Spren. Asclepiadaceae Muka Mesqa HA Snake bite poison St Crushed and tie on the snake bite
AHU209 Echinops macrochaetus Fresen. Asteraceae Qore Hare HA Toothache R Crushed and put on the painful teeth
AHU196 Erianthemum aethiopicum Wiens & Polhill Loranthaceae Digelo Serkema E Breast swelling/Mastitis St, L Concoction taken oral
AHU192 Erucastrum arabicum Fisch. & Mey. Brassicaceae Rafu Shimbiro HA Skin fungus around the neck and face P, S Dried, powdered, mix with oil and use as an ointment
AHU118 Euclea racemosa Murr. subsp. schimperi Ebenaceae Miesa Sh Snake bite poison L Crushed with Aloe sp. and filtrate taken oral
Liver swelling L Crushed with Aloe sp. and filtrate taken oral
Spleen swelling/Splenomegaly L Crushed with Aloe sp. and filtrate taken oral
AHU163 Eulophia petersii Rchb.f Orchidaceae Shunkurta Gara, Ejiji HA Swollen body part-gofla Bu Cooked bulb eaten
Abdominal pain/kurtet Bu Soup made from bulb taken oral
AHU110 Gloriosa superba L. Colchicaceae Harmel Kubra Sh Toothache L Crushed leaf applied on painful teeth
Epilepsy L Crushed leaf filtrate taken oral
Skin cyst & tumour/keledo L Crushed leaf is bandage on tumour/cyst
Gallstone L Immersed in water and infusion taken oral
Gangrene L Crushed with succulent Caralluma speciosa and tie on the starting point
AHU126 *Gomphocarpus purpurascens A. Rich. Asclepiadaceae Ari-Yuyo HA Itching skin L Roasted and powdered leaf is mixed with oil & used as ointment
Evil eye L A cup of Infusion taken oral & smoke bath with dry leaf
AHU145 Gossypium hirsutum L. Malvaceae Jibri Boke Sh Small swelling with oozing pus in the vagina/Vaginitis L Concocted with Acokanthera schimperi and kurunfud and wash the affected part
AHU177 Grewia bicolor Juss. Tiliaceae Deka Sh Small swelling with oozing pus/skin ulcer L Crushed leaf in bandage on it
Epidermal drying L Extract is applied on skin as emollients
Bad breath (Halitosis) St Used as a toothbrush
AHU144 Heliotropium aegyptiacum Lehm. Boraginaceae Harma Deysa HA Leech attached on throat L Crushed and filtrate is used for gargling the throat
AHU166 Heliotropium steudneri Vatke Boraginaceae Muka Michii HA mich L Crushed and filtrate is drenched
Skin fungus L Fresh leaf rubbed on affected part
AHU169 Indigofera amorphoides Jaub. & Spach Fabaceae Muka Adi HP Heart disease Ap Decoction taken oral
AHU176 Indigofera sp. Fabaceae Muka Aroo HA Herpes zoster L Dried, powdered, roasted and mixed with oil to be used as ointment
AHU174 *Indigofera ellenbeckii Bak. f. Fabaceae War HP Mouth infection L Crushed leaf filtrate is used to wash mouth
AHU189 Jasminum grandiflorum L. Oleaceae Bilu Sh Chapped lips L Paste of fresh leaf used as emollient on lips
Tooth gum infection/Gingivitis L Crushed and applied on the gum in the mouth
AHU152 Jatropha curcas L. Euphorbiaceae Hambete Muluk Sh Constipation S Decocted and oily fluid taken oral as laxative
AHU203 Kalanchoe marmorata Bak. Crassulaceae Chophi Gurati HP Eye infection St Extracted sap is boiled, cooled & dropped
Ear infections/Otitis St Sap extracted, boiled, cooled & dropped
Swelling with pus due to spine St, L Crushed with Ricinus communis seed and bandage on to remove the pus and spine
AHU200 Kleinia abyssinica (A. Rich.) A. Berger Asteraceae Abrasha HA Sexual dysfunction Rh Aphrodisiac fresh rhizome is eaten few hours before sexual performance
AHU202 Kleinia odora (Forssk.) DC. Asteraceae Luko HP Nerve case L Oily extract is boiled, mixed with Cadaba rotundifolia and used to massage
AHU205 Kleinia pendula (Forssk.) DC. Asteraceae Afrasha HP Swollen body part St Decoction of fresh succulent is bandaged on swollen part while warm
AHU206 Kleinia squarrosa Cufod. Asteraceae Luko Sh Intestinal parasite St Crush and taken oral as anthelmintics
Swelling on gum and toothache St Used as toothbrush
AHU195 Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. Cucurbitaceae Buqee CA Obstructed labour/Dystocia L Crushed and filtrate taken oral in a traditional assisted delivery
AHU173 Leucas minimifolia Chiov. Lamiaceae Muka Adi Sh Eye diseases L Crushed and filtrate dropped in the eye
Closing of the eye in the morning specially children L Crushed and filtrate dropped in the eye
AHU175 *Leucas stachydiformis (Hochst. ex Benth.) Briq. Lamiaceae Muka Bofta HA Mouth infection L Decoction taken oral
Nose infection L Decoction taken oral
AHU150 Lawsonia inermis L. Lytheraceae Hina Sh Infection after haemorrhage & skin tumour removal L Crushed fresh leaf is applied external as antiseptic
L
Fever L Crushed and wash the head
AHU148 Maerua triphylla A. Rich. Capparidaceae Qanqalcha Sh Stomach gofla L Concocted and taken oral
AHU127 Melhania zavattarii Cufod. Sterculiaceae Muka bira Sh Kidney infection F, L Concoction taken oral
AHU179 Ocimum basilicum L. var. thyrsiflorum (L.) Benth. Lamiaceae Rahan HP sirkita L Crushed and filtrate taken oral
AHU140 Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth. Lamiaceae Rahana, Riroo Sh mich L Crush and squeeze the solution to drench and drink a teaspoon of it with tea or coffee
Eye infection L Immerse in water and wash the eye with diluted infusion
AHU215 Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller Cactaceae Tini Sh Hair fungus J Extracted and wash the hair
AHU210 Osyris quadripartita Decn. Santalaceae Wato Sh Malaria R, L Reddish infusion resulted after 24 hours immersion is taken oral
AHU105 Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L. Euphorbiaceae Harmel Xixiqaa HA Heart disease Ap Concocted and taken oral
AHU147 Plumbago zeylanica L. Plumbaginaceae Merxes HA Low level swelling under skin R, L Decoction taken oral
AHU216 Portulaca oleracea L. subsp. oleracea Portulacaceae Merere Haree HA Constipation L Cooked and served as laxative vegetable
Cough L Cooked and eaten as a demulcent agent
AHU142 Pouzolzia parasitica (Forssk.) Schweinf. Urticaceae Dirba HA Infertility in female R, L Concoction taken oral to increase the chance of fertility
AHU142 Pouzolzia parasitica (Forssk.) Schweinf. Urticaceae Dirba HA Diarrhoea Tu, L Crushed together and infusion taken oral
Haemorrhage L Washing of anal opening with the infusion
Hair fungus Tu, L Concocted to wash the hair
AHU151 Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Rosaceae Kuki T Snake bite poison L Crushed and filtrate taken oral
Liver swelling L Infusion taken oral
Spleen swelling/Splenomegaly L Infusion taken oral
AHU208 Punica granatum L. Lythraceae Roman (Am) T Swollen body part/gofla F Decoction serves like a tea
AHU172 Pupalia lappacea (L.) A. Juss. Amaranthaceae Metene HA Urinary retention/Ischuria Ap Concoction taken oral
AHU194 Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth Asteraceae Wachara Haree HA Liver disease/swollen and create fluid sacs L Decoction with sugar taken like a tea
AHU109 *Rhynchosia erlangeri Harms Fabaceae Harmel Sh Mental problem L Crushed leaf filtrate taken oral
Heart disease L Concocted mix with honey and taken oral
AHU119 Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae Qobo T Constipation S Extracted oil taken as oral laxative
AHU182 Senna italica Mill. Fabaceae Tenemeki HA Colon cleaner L Concocted with the fruit of Tamarindus indica and sugar and used as laxative
AHU181 Steganotaenia araliacea Hochst. ex A. Rich. Apiaceae Harfetu T Body burning feeling and mentally disturbed L Concocted with Grewia sp. and Cissampelos mucronata and taken oral
AHU183 Tamarindus indica L. Fabaceae Roka T Colon cleaner F Concocted with Senna italica and sugar and used as laxative
AHU155 Terminalia brownii \Fresen. Combretaceae Bireysa T Liver disease/Jaundice B Concocted with bark of Croton macrostachyus and drink a cup of infusion
AHU157 Tragia plukenetii A. Rodel.-Smith Euphorbiaceae Dobi HA Nipple opening remain closed after birth R, L Concocted and filtrate is taken oral
AHU185 Tribulus terrestris L. Zygophyllaceae Qumutu Gala HA Heart disease Ap Concoction taken oral
AHU143 Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. Scrophulariaceae Muka loni, Gura Haree Sh Kwashiorkor Ap Concocted with Cynoglossum coeruleum and taken oral
AHU156 Vernonia amygdalina Del. Asteraceae Ebicha T Liver disease/Jaundice B Immerse in water and drink the infusion
AHU141 Withania somnifera (L.) Dun. in DC. Solanaceae Hidi Bude Sh Extended flow of menstruation/Menometrorrhagia B, L Concocted together with Cadaba rotundifolia & a cup of filtrate is taken oral
Gallstone R, L Concoction taken oral
Evil eye Br Dried and smoke bath
AHU188 Zinnia peruviana (L.) L. Asteraceae Muka Ilili HA Depigmentation of section of skin/Vitiligo R, L Concocted and applied on affected part
AHU104 Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. Rhaminaceae Kurkura T Haemorrhage L Crushed and bath the anal opening
      Headache L Concocted and used to wash the head
  1. Habit: Sh-shrub, T-tree, CA-climber/annual, CP-climber/perennial, HA-herb/annual, HP-herb/perennial, E-Epiphyte, CH– creeper herb, Part Used (PU), AP-All parts, B-bark, Br-branches, Bu-Bulb, St-stem, Sa-sap, J-jel, R-root, F-fruit, L-leaf, S-seed, Tu-tuber, P-Pod, Rh-rhizome and N-nectar.
  2. *Endemic species.