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Table 3 Other reported ethnomedicinal uses in Bangladesh of medicinal plants of the Deb barma healer

From: A survey of medicinal plants used by the Deb barma clan of the Tripura tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh

Plant name Reported ethnomedicinal uses in Bangladesh
Andrographis paniculata Nees Lung infections, liver disorders by the Teli tribe [8]; helminthiasis, fever by the Kole tribe [10]; fever and malarial fever by the Bauri tribe [61]; fever, headache, vertigo by the Garo tribe inhabiting Madhupur forest region [62]; intestinal worms, low sperm count, jaundice, skin disorders, liver dysfunction by the folk medicinal practitioners (FMPs) of Jessore district [63]; liver diseases by FMPs of Feni district [64]; stomach and heart disorders by the Goala tribe [65]; indigestion by FMPs of Rampal in Bagerhat district [57]; anorexia by FMPs of Rampal in Bagerhat district [58]; diabetes in Dhaka [55]; liver diseases, helminthiasis by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; emetic, helminthiasis, sexual disorders by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; helminthiasis, dysentery, rectal diseases, coughs, cold, fever, mucus by FMPs of Bheramara area in Kushtia district [68]; fever by FMPs of villages by the Padma River in Rajshahi district [59]; fever, intestinal and hepatic disorders by FMPs of five villages in Narsinghdi district [69]; liver disorders, helminthiasis, acidity by FMPs of Vitbilia village of Pabna district [70]; fever, intestinal and hepatic disorders by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; edema, blood purifier, to strengthen stomach and liver functions, helminthiasis, debility, loss of appetite, fever, skin infections by FMPs of Khulna City, Bangladesh [72]; diabetes, leucorrhea by FMPs of Fulbaria, Baguri, and Bagh-achra villages in Jessore district [73]; helminthiasis in children by FMPs of Barobazar village, Jhenidaha district [74]; headache by FMPs of Jool chotro and Janga lia villages of Tangail district [75]; fever by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; fever, constipation by the Bongshi tribe of Tangail district [54]; stomach disorders, to improve digestion, bloating with burning sensations in the chest, by FMPs of several villages of Faridpur and Rajbari districts [77]; stomach and heart disorders by the Goala tribe of Moulvibazar district [65]; diabetes by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe residing in Nobogram village in Rajshahi district [78]; fever, intestinal worm, spleenomegally by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; common cold, uncomplicated sinusitis, pharyngotonsillitis, lower urinary tract infections, acute diarrhea by FMPs of Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari villages in Bagerhat district [79]; cold, coughs, fever by the Khatriya and Kashya clans of the Bagdi tribe of Rajbari district [80]; fever arising suddenly during the night, skin infections, toothache by the Tripura tribe residing in Comilla district [81].
Justicia adhatoda L. Coughs, fever by the Teli tribe [8]; coughs, mucus, asthma by the Harbang clan of the Tripura tribe [12]; coughs by the Bauri tribe [61]; pain, cold, coughs, asthma, wounds by FMPs of Noakhali district [64]; tuberculosis by FMPs in Tangail district [82]; coughs, pneumonia, asthma by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; respiratory problems by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; asthma by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe residing in Kannapara and Mondumala villages of Rajshahi district [84]; helminthiasis, diarrhea, constipation by the Marma tribal community residing in Naikhongchaari, Bandarban district [45]; coughs, asthma, bleeding hemorrhoids by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; helminthiasis, coughs, sedative, sprain by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; coughs by FMPs of Daudkandi sub-district in Comilla district [85]; coughs, body ache by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; mucus by FMPs of Dhamrai sub-district of Dhaka district [87]; rabies, pneumonia, jaundice by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; antidote to poisoning, bronchitis, malaria, skin eruptions, astringent, cold in cattle by FMPs of villages by the Bangali River in Bogra district [59]; fever, cold, coughs by FMPs of Balidha village in Jessore district [88]; coughs, asthma, menstrual problems, jaundice, hepatitis by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; asthma by FMPs of Shetabganj village in Dinajpur district [90]; coughs, asthma by FMPs of Shekhertek and Badarganj villages in Rangpur district [91]; leucorrhea, chronic respiratory disorders, coughs by FMPs of Daulatdia Ghat in Kushtia district [92]; coughs by FMPs of Barisal Town in Barisal district [93] and by FMPs of three areas of Pirojpur district [94]; all types of pain, fever by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; whooping cough by FMPs of Vitbilia village of Pabna district [70]; severe fever with mucus by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; chronic asthma, leprosy by FMPs of seven villages of Ishwardy sub-district in Pabna district [97]; tuberculosis by FMPs of Babla and Terbaria villages in Tangail district [82]; coughs, biliary problems, frequent thirsts, fever, vomiting tendency, diabetes, leprosy, tuberculosis by FMPs of three villages in Sreepur sub-district in Magura district [98]; upper respiratory infections, chest pain with coughs, bronchitis, long-term fever with abnormally high body temperatures by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; coughs, blood coming ou with coughs, fever, mucus, asthma, all sorts of pain including pain and swelling due to injury, bronchitis, respiratory difficulties by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; tuberculosis, blood purifier, spleen disorders, burning sensations during urination, antidote to poisoning, coughs, whooping coughs, mucus, asthma, fever, jaundice, vomiting or vomiting tendency, gonorrhea, leprosy, to regularize menstruation, stoppage of urination by FMPs of Khulna City, Bangladesh [72]; whooping cough by FMPs of Fulbaria, Baguri, and Bagh-achra villages in Jessore district [73]; frequent fever by FMPs of Shonapur, Chorkulte, and Majhbari villages of Rajbari district [99]; coughs, whooping cough, fever, pneumonia by FMPs of Arpara and Munshefpur villages in Jessore district [100]; chronic cough, asthma by FMPs of Barobazar village, Jhenidaha district [74]; asthma, jaundice by FMPs of Jool chotro and Janga lia villages of Tangail district [75]; cold, fever, jaundice by FMPs of Jool chotro and Janga lia villages of Tangail district [75]; cold, fever, jaundice by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; respiratory difficulties, asthma by the FMP of Kasipur village in Narayanganj district [101]; coughs, mucus by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; coughs by the Naik clan of the Rajbongshi tribe of Moulvibazar district [46]; malaria, coughs, cold by the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari sub-district of Bandarban district [49]; coughs by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; coughs, chest pain, pneumonia by the Hajong community of Baromari village in Netrakona district [103]; cold, coughs by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104]; coughs by the Pankho community of Bilaichari Union in Rangamati district [50]; skin infections, skin diseases by the Kanda tribe of Sylhet district [51]; coughs by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; flatulency, low sperm count, astringent, biliary problems, diarrhea, dysentery, tuberculosis, coughs, fever, eczema, leprosy, asthma by FMPs of Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari villages in Bagerhat district [79]; coughs, tuberculosis by the Tripura tribe residing in Comilla district [81]; coughs, mucus, fever, tuberculosis by folk medicinal herbalists in seven villages of Bhola district [105]; coughs, mucus by the Teli clan of the Telegu tribe [43]; chest pain, coughs, cold, asthma by the Chakma community of Chittagong Hill Tracts [106].
Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. Infertility with seizures by the Hodi tribe [6]; insect bite, nocturnal emissions by the Khasia tribe [11]; fever, coughs, mucus, asthma, whitish discharge in urine of men or women by the Bauri tribe [61]; wounds by the Garo tribe inhabiting Madhupur forest region [62]; eczema, dysentery, jaundice, rheumatism, animal or bird bites by FMPs of Noakhali district [64]; bone fracture and fracture-associated pain by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; bone fracture, rheumatic pain by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; back pain by FMPs of a group of Christians residing in Mirzapore village of Dinajpur district [107]; appetizer, helminthiasis by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; jaundice by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; debility by FMPs of Vasu Bihar village, Bogra district [108]; cuts and wounds, substitute for anti-tetanus injection by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; rheumatic pain by FMPs of Shetabganj village in Dinajpur district [90]; flatulence in cattle by FMPs of three areas of Pirojpur district [94]; wasting away of body by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; paralysis by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; bleeding from external cuts and wounds, bleeding through the mouth, excessive or irregular bleeding during menstruation by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; snake bite by FMPs of Shonapur, Chorkulte, and Majhbari villages of Rajbari district [99]; rheumatic pain by the Bongshi tribe of Tangail district [54]; rheumatic pain by FMPs of several villages of Faridpur and Rajbari districts [77]; coughs and mucus in children by the Naik clan of the Rajbongshi tribe of Moulvibazar district [46]; paralysis by the Rai Kshatriya tribe of Pabna district [109]; throat pain due to cold and coughs by the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe residing in Thanchi sub-district of Bandarban district [47]; liver disorder, astringent by the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari sub-district of Bandarban district [49]; fever, cold, ear lobe infection by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104]; helmintic infections in children by the Kanda tribe of Sylhet district [51]; to bring out poison by the Khatriya and Kashya clans of the Bagdi tribe of Rajbari district [80].
Aerva sanguinolenta (L.) Blume Bleeding from cuts and wounds by the Bauri tribe [61]; rheumatism, leucorrhea by FMPs of Noakhali district [64]; tonic, sedative, dermatitis by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; bleeding from cuts and wounds by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; blood in urine by the ojhas (tribal medicinal practitioners) of the Santal tribe of Rajshahi district [110]; bone fracture, abortifacient by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; body pain by FMPs of Vitbilia village of Pabna district [70]; malnutrition in newly delivered mother by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; snake bite, stomach disorder by FMPs of Shonapur, Chorkulte, and Majhbari villages of Rajbari district [99]; bleeding from cuts and wounds by the Bongshi tribe of Tangail district [54]; insect sting, allergic rash by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104]; insect or snake bite by the Pankho community of Bilaichari Union in Rangamati district [50].
Crinum latifolium L. Indigestion in cattle by the Khasia tribe [11]; indigestion by the Santal tribe residing in Thakurgaon district [111]; antidote to poisoning, skin disorder, cattle sedative, conjunctivitis in cattle by FMPs of villages by the Bangali River in Bogra district [59].
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Jaundice by the Hodi tribe [6]; helminthiasis, stomach ache by the Harbang clan of the Tripura tribe [12]; dysentery by the Bauri tribe [61]; indigestion, stomach infection by the Garo tribe inhabiting Madhupur forest region [62]; weakness, skin problems, dysentery, indigestion, cataract, gonorrhea, low semen density, leucorrhea by FMPs of Noakhali district [64]; fever, pain by FMPs in Tangail district [82]; dysentery, intestinal pain by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; indigestion, appetite stimulant by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; dysentery, stomach ache, to increase memory by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; body ache, dysentery by FMPs of Daudkandi sub-district in Comilla district [85]; gastric or liver troubles by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; diarrhea, gastric problems by FMPs of Dhamrai sub-district of Dhaka district [87]; gastric disorder, stomach pain, diarrhea, blood dysentery, fever, coughs by the TMPs of Tripura tribe residing in Chittagong Hill Tracts [48]; bone fracture by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; sexual diseases, uncontrolled urination by FMPs of villages by the Padma River in Rajshahi district [59]; cold, rabies, gastric ulcer, dysentery, intestinal disorders by FMPs of five villages in Narsinghdi district [69]; dysentery by FMPs of Vasu Bihar village, Bogra district [108]; dysentery, cataract, stomach problems by FMPs of Balidha village in Jessore district [88]; cataract in goats, to keep head cool, diabetes, swelling in eyes, conjunctivitis in humans by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; hair loss, dysentery, gastrointestinal disorders by FMPs of Shetabganj village in Dinajpur district [90]; gastrointestinal disorders by FMPs of Shekhertek and Badarganj villages in Rangpur district [91]; blood purifier, fever, diabetes by FMPs of Daulatdia Ghat in Kushtia district [92]; ulcer by FMPs of three areas of Pirojpur district [94]; anemia, vomiting, stomach pain by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; cold, dysentery, blood purifier by FMPs of seven villages of Ishwardy sub-district in Pabna district [97]; fever, pain by FMPs of Babla and Terbaria villages in Tangail district [82]; indigestion, flatulence, helminthiasis, diarrhea by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; blood dysentery by FMPs of Shonapur, Chorkulte, and Majhbari villages of Rajbari district [99]; stomach pain by FMPs of Arpara and Munshefpur villages in Jessore district [100]; cold, rabies, gastric problems, ulcer, dysentery by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; diarrhea, dysentery by the FMP of Kasipur village in Narayanganj district [101]; flatulence, indigestion, hair loss by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; anemia by TMPs of a Mro tribal community residing at Gazalia Union of Bandarbans district [112]; jaundice, dysentery by FMPs of several villages of Faridpur and Rajbari districts [77]; stomach pain by the Naik clan of the Rajbongshi tribe of Moulvibazar district [46]; to increase memory by a FMP of Savar in Dhaka district [113]; stomach pain in children, dysentery by the Rai Kshatriya tribe of Pabna district [109]; pain, dysentery, diarrhea, flatulence, tuberculosis by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; fever, pyorrhea, impotency, gastritis, jaundice by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; stomach pain, dysentery by the Tudu sub-clan of the Santal tribe in Joypurhat district [114]; gastrointestinal disorders, to increase memory by folk medicinal herbalists in seven villages of Bhola district [105]; diarrhea, dysentery by the Teli clan of the Telegu tribe [43]; syphilis, ulcer by the Chakma community of Chittagong Hill Tracts [106].
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. Abscess, swelling of gums, asthma by the Bauri tribe [61]; leucorrhea by the Garo tribe inhabiting Madhupur forest region [62]; cancer sand tumors by FMPs of Rampal in Bagerhat district [58]; kidney and hepatic problems in humans, restlessness in cattle by FMPs in Tangail district [82]; nerve stimulant by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; cold sores (caused by herpes), fever, diabetes by the Marma tribal community residing in Naikhongchaari, Bandarban district [45]; gastric problems by FMPs of a group of Christians residing in Mirzapore village of Dinajpur district [107]; puerperal fever, pain, jaundice by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; debility by the Santal tribe residing in Thakurgaon district [111]; syphilis, skin diseases, leprosy by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; rheumatic pain, fever, dysentery by FMPs of five villages in Narsinghdi district [69]; infections accompanied by swellings on human face, ulcer by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; allergy by FMPs of Shetabganj village in Dinajpur district [90]; continuous fever, malaria by FMPs of Barisal Town in Barisal district [93]; to increase libido by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; kala azar by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; fever, pimples, coughs, anti-bilious by by FMPs of seven villages of Ishwardy sub-district in Pabna district [97]; kidney and hepatic problems in humans, restlessness in cows by FMPs of Babla and Terbaria villages in Tangail district [82]; malaria by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; mouth ulcer by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; galactagogue by the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district [53]; aphrodisiac, antidote to poisoning, inflammation, fever by the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari sub-district of Bandarban district [49]; lip blister by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; acne, coughs, flatulence, blood disorder, asthma, abdominal tumor, chronic enlargement of spleen, helminthiasis by FMPs of Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari villages in Bagerhat district [79]; jaundice by the Khatriya and Kashya clans of the Bagdi tribe of Rajbari district [80]; skin infections by the Tripura tribe residing in Comilla district [81]; skin infections, dysentery, diarrhea, fever by folk medicinal herbalists in seven villages of Bhola district [105].
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. Hemorrhoids, diarrhea, dysentery, wound by the Santal tribe [4]; prolapse of uterus by the Hodi tribe [6]; cuts and wounds by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; severe jaundice, digestive aid, constipation by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; colic, indigestion by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; anti-hemorrhagic, blood purifier, to strengthen bones by FMPs of Dhamrai sub-district of Dhaka district [87]; astringent, carminative, scar, tumor, infertility by FMPs of villages by the Bangali River in Bogra district [59]; allergic disorders by FMPs of five villages in Narsinghdi district [69]; astringent, bloating, dermatitis, tiger bite, helminthiasis, emetic by FMPs of two villages by the Rupsha River in Bagerhat district [115]; rheumatic pain, paralysis by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; stomach pain, hiccup by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; diabetes by the Teli clan of the Telegu tribe [43].
Borassus flabellifer L. Jaundice by the Sardar community [7]; ear ache by the Kole tribe [10]; pain during menstruation by the Bauri tribe [61]; debility, insomnia by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; cancer, edema, epilepsy, boils by FMPs in five villages of Boalia sub-district, Rajshahi district [116]; low sperm count by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; edema, inflammation by FMPs of three areas of Pirojpur district [94]; wasting away of body by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; urinary problems arising from diabetes or endocrinological disorders by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; having difficulties in urinating, excessive bleeding following abortion by TMPs of a Mro tribal community residing at Gazalia Union of Bandarbans district [112]; sexual weakness by a FMP of Savar in Dhaka district [113].
Asparagus racemosus Willd. Physical weakness by the Kole tribe [10]; bacterial or fungal infections, edema, tonic, bloating, hypertension, galactagogue, malnutrition in children, memory and strength enhancer, nerve weakness by FMPs of Noakhali district [64]; snake bite, wounds by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; filariasis, sexual dysfunction in men, night blindness by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe residing in Kannapara and Mondumala villages of Rajshahi district [84]; diabetes, tuberculosis by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; sexual disorders, anti-hemorrhagic, sore throat, night blindness, blood dysentery by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; stone dislodged in penis, diabetes by FMPs of Bheramara area in Kushtia district [68]; tuberculosis by the ojhas (tribal medicinal practitioners) of the Santal tribe of Rajshahi district [110]; burning sensations during urination, bloating by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; diabetes, heart diseases by FMPs of Balidha village in Jessore district [88]; debility, to keep body healthy by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; physical weakness in males by FMPs of Shetabganj village in Dinajpur district [90]; constipation, impotency in men by FMPs of Vitbilia village of Pabna district [70]; to increase libido by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; hypertension, galactagogue by FMPs of seven villages of Ishwardy sub-district in Pabna district [97]; asthma (during winter), bitter taste in mouth, nutritive, to increase intelligence, to maintain good eyes, to increase sperm, to increase strength, galactagogue, diarrhea by FMPs of three villages in Sreepur sub-district in Magura district [98]; physical weakness by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; mental, physical, nerve and sexual weakness, galactagogue, strengthen teeth, gonorrhea by FMPs of Khulna City, Bangladesh [72]; burning sensations in stomach, burning sensations in soles of feet, stomach pain, hot feeling in body, insomnia by FMPs of Shonapur, Chorkulte, and Majhbari villages of Rajbari district [99]; leucorrhea by FMPs of Arpara and Munshefpur villages in Jessore district [100]; leucorrhea, syphilis, gonorrhea by FMPs of Barobazar village, Jhenidaha district [74]; decreased sperm count, passing of semen with urine by FMPs of Jool chotro and Janga lia villages of Tangail district [75]; debility (in case of males) by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; ‘meho’ (endocrinological disorders) by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; diabetes, debility by the Mandai tribe of Bangladesh [117]; asthma, leucorrhea by the Rai Kshatriya tribe of Pabna district [109]; asthma, coughs, cold by the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari sub-district of Bandarban district [49]; vaginitis by the Chakma tribe of Hill Tracts districts [118]; labor problem, leucorrhea by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; weakness, diabetes, urinary problems by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104]; swelling or enlargement of testicles by the Pankho community of Bilaichari Union in Rangamati district [50]; asthma during winter, bitter taste in mouth, nutritive, to increase intelligence, to maintain good eyes, to increase strength, to increase sperm, galactagogue, diarrhea, hyperacidity by FMPs of Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari villages in Bagerhat district [79]; snake bite by the Khatriya and Kashya clans of the Bagdi tribe of Rajbari district [80].
Ageratum conyzoides L. Astringent, impotency, insect repellent by the Santal tribe [4]; asthma by the Harbang clan of the Tripura tribe [12]; diarrhea, dysentery, boils, skin diseases, joint pain by FMPs of Noakhali district [64]; to expedite delivery in cows by FMPs in Tangail district [82]; insect repellent, wounds, itches by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; bleeding, acidity, stomach pain by the Marma tribal community residing in Naikhongchaari, Bandarban district [45]; insecticidal, coughs, fever, inflammation, spermatorrhea by FMPs of villages by the Bangali River in Bogra district [59]; to expedite delivery in cows by FMPs of Babla and Terbaria villages in Tangail district [82]; cuta and wounds, acne, skin diseases, fever by the FMP of Kasipur village in Narayanganj district [101]; bleeding from cuts and wounds by the Naik clan of the Rajbongshi tribe of Moulvibazar district [46]; severe headache by the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe residing in Thanchi sub-district of Bandarban district [47]; aphrodisiac by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104]; coughs in infants by healers among tea garden workers in Sreemangal [119].
Garcinia cowa Roxb. Dried, powdered fruit used in headache and dysentery [120].
Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. Depression on both sides of the head and chest with appearance of yellowish color in palm of hand and eyes by the Hodi tribe [6]; osteoporosis by the Sardar community [7]; heart disorders by the Harbang clan of the Tripura tribe [12]; cardiovascular disorders, whitish discharge during urination, burning sensations during urination, puerperal fever by the Bauri tribe [61]; low sperm count, diabetes, heart diseases by the folk medicinal practitioners (FMPs) of Jessore district [63]; stomach and heart disorders, premature graying of hair by the Goala tribe [65]; diabetes in Dhaka [55]; heart disease, diarrhea, dysentery, jaundice by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; cardiovascular disorders, appetite stimulant by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; hypertension, anemia, leprosy by FMPs in five villages of Boalia sub-district, Rajshahi district [116]; cardiovascular diseases, cholera, bleeding hemorrhoids, blood dysentery by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; leucorrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, infertility, weakness by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; sex stimulant, heart disease by FMPs of Daudkandi sub-district in Comilla district [85]; pain in bones by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; heart disorders, hepatic disorders, jaundice, maintenance of normal blood pressure by the Rakhain tribe of Chittagong Hill Tracts [121]; erectile dysfunction by FMPs of villages by the Padma River in Rajshahi district [59]; cardiovascular disorders, blood purification by FMPs of five villages in Narsinghdi district [69]; heart disorders, indigestion by FMPs of Balidha village in Jessore district [88]; to increase sexual power, coughs, asthma, heart disorders, dysentery by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; low sperm count, dysentery by FMPs of Shekhertek and Badarganj villages in Rangpur district [91]; heart diseases by FMPs of Daulatdia Ghat in Kushtia district [92]; abnormal rhythms of heart by FMPs of Barisal Town in Barisal district [93]; abnormal heart beat by FMPs of three areas of Pirojpur district [94]; heart disorders, debility by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; respiratory problems, coughs, fever, debility, hypotension by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; heart disease, bone fracture by FMPs of seven villages of Ishwardy sub-district in Pabna district [97]; heart diseases, gynecological disorders, nerve stimulant, leprosy, gonorrhea by FMPs of two villages by the Rupsha River in Bagerhat district [115]; loss of sexual desire, heart disorders, constipation, infections from cuts and wounds, blood purifier, obesity, diabetes, coughs, acne by FMPs of three villages in Sreepur sub-district in Magura district [98]; paralysis by FMPs of four adjoining villages in Narail and Jessore districts [122]; heart disorders, chronic dysentery by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; cardiovascular disorders by FMPs of Khulna City, Bangladesh [72]; cardiovascular disorders by FMPs of Fulbaria, Baguri, and Bagh-achra villages in Jessore district [73]; stomach disorders, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes by FMPs of Shonapur, Chorkulte, and Majhbari villages of Rajbari district [99]; decrease in libido by FMPs of Arpara and Munshefpur villages in Jessore district [100]; syphilis, gonorrhea, dysentery by FMPs of Barobazar village, Jhenidaha district [74]; weakness of heart, joint pain by FMPs of Jool chotro and Janga lia villages of Tangail district [75]; low sperm count, dysentery, heart disease by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; heart disease, pain in heart, blood coming from mouth by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; spermatorrhea by the Bongshi tribe of Tangail district [54]; heart disorders, liver problem, hepatitis, kidney problem, passing of semen with urine by FMPs of several villages of Faridpur and Rajbari districts [77]; stomach and heart disorders, graying of hair by the Goala tribe of Moulvibazar district [65]; snake bite by the Rai Kshatriya tribe of Pabna district [109]; knee and waist pain by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe residing in Nobogram village in Rajshahi district [78]; scabies, itching by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; cardiovascular disorders by the Hajong community of Baromari village in Netrakona district [103]; scabies, itching by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; dysentery, flatulency by the Murmu tribal community of Rajshahi district [123]; heart disorders by the Tripura tribe residing in Comilla district [81]; heart disorders, low semen density, coughs, blood purifier, leucorrhea by folk medicinal herbalists in seven villages of Bhola district [105]; blister by the Chakma community of Chittagong Hill Tracts [106].
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, low density of semen, kidney problems, hysteria, osteoporosis by the Sardar community [7]; coughs, mucus, asthma by the Harbang clan of the Tripura tribe [12]; fever with shivering by the Bauri tribe [61]; tonic, diarrhea, dysentery, coughs, breathing problems, hair tonic, joint pain by FMPs of Noakhali district [64]; constipation by the Goala tribe [65]; diabetes in Dhaka [55]; coughs, to increase strength, appetite stimulant, to increase eye sight by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; constipation, sexual diseases by FMPs in five villages of Boalia sub-district, Rajshahi district [116]; stimulant, impotency by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; waist pain by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; erectile dysfunction by FMPs of Bheramara area in Kushtia district [68]; long-term fever, loss of appetite, sexual stimulant by the TMPs of Tripura tribe residing in Chittagong Hill Tracts [48]; asthma, to maintain heart, lungs and liver in good condition by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; to increase libido, acidity by FMPs of Shekhertek and Badarganj villages in Rangpur district [91]; to keep healthy by FMPs of three areas of Pirojpur district [94]; gonorrhea by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; to cure any disease by FMPs of Vitbilia village of Pabna district [70]; blood purifier, appetite stimulant by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; helminthiasis, loss of hair by FMPs of seven villages of Ishwardy sub-district in Pabna district [97]; astringent, coughs, biliary disorders, to maintain good eyes and hair, helminthiasis, breaking down of voice, thirst, vomiting tendency, rheumatism by FMPs of three villages in Sreepur sub-district in Magura district [98]; jaundice, to ensure proper bowel movement, any type of gastrointestinal disorders by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; chronic dysentery, hemorrhoids, to blacken hair and strengthen hair roots, to increase sperm, conjunctivitis, emetic, fever due to biliary trouble, headache, diarrhea by FMPs of Khulna City, Bangladesh [72]; fever by FMPs of Arpara and Munshefpur villages in Jessore district [100]; syphilis, gonorrhea by FMPs of Barobazar village, Jhenidaha district [74]; dysentery, cholera, gastric problems by FMPs of Jool chotro and Janga lia villages of Tangail district [75]; coughs, indigestion by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; abscess, burning sensations on skin, hemorrhoids by the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district [53]; coughs, spleen disorders, gastrointestinal disorders by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; gastric problem by FMPs of several villages of Faridpur and Rajbari districts [77]; constipation by the Goala tribe of Moulvibazar district [65]; aphrodisiac, energizer, fever, body ache by the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari sub-district of Bandarban district [49]; urinary tract infection, hysteria by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; anemia by the Pankho community of Bilaichari Union in Rangamati district [50]; coughs by the Kanda tribe of Sylhet district [51]; coughs, diarrhea by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; blood purifier by healers among tea garden workers in Sreemangal [119]; breathing problem by the Chakma community of Chittagong Hill Tracts [106].
Terminalia chebula Retz. Cardiovascular disorders, hysteria, osteoporosis by the Sardar community [7]; diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe [9]; fever with shivering by the Bauri tribe [61]; stomachic by the Garo tribe inhabiting Madhupur forest region [62]; diabetes in Dhaka [55]; digestive, quenching thirst, blood dysentery, bloating, constipation by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; asthma, heart disorders, eye disorders, night blindness, itches by FMPs in five villages of Boalia sub-district, Rajshahi district [116]; constipation, nausea by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; infections, indigestion by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; purgative, cough relief by FMPs of Daudkandi sub-district in Comilla district [85]; waist pain by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; erectile dysfunction by FMPs of Bheramara area in Kushtia district [68]; jaundice by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; gastrointestinal disorders, heart disorders, debility, helminthiasis by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; constipation, less urination by FMPs of Daulatdia Ghat in Kushtia district [92]; loss of sensitivity in skin due to allergy or other reasons, chronic mucus, continuous sneezing with runny nose, small pustules on the skin of children by FMPs of Barisal Town in Barisal district [93]; to keep healthy by FMPs of three areas of Pirojpur district [94]; gonorrhea by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; blackening of hair, acne, acidity by FMPs of Vitbilia village of Pabna district [70]; blood purifier, appetite stimulant by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; constipation, vomiting by FMPs of seven villages of Ishwardy sub-district in Pabna district [97]; lack of appetite, malaria, hepatitis, sexual disorders, indigestion by FMPs of two villages by the Rupsha River in Bagerhat district [115]; astringent, excessive sexual desire, to increase intelligence, to maintain good eyes, to increase longevity, respiratory problems, coughs, hemorrhoids, leprosy, edema, helminthiasis, breaking down of voice, chronic dysentery, constipation, tumor or swelling, jaundice, loss of appetite, to dissolve stones (like kidney stones) by FMPs of three villages in Sreepur sub-district in Magura district [98]; dysentery, blood dysentery, excessive bleeding during menstruation, jaundice, to ensure proper bowel movement, any type of gastrointestinal disorders by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; to improve functions of liver, stomach and brain, to increase strength and longevity, sex stimulant, pain, rheumatic pain, acne, skin disorders, constipation, hemorrhoids, vomiting by FMPs of Khulna City, Bangladesh [72]; fever by FMPs of Arpara and Munshefpur villages in Jessore district [100]; syphilis, gonorrhea by FMPs of Barobazar village, Jhenidaha district [74]; decreased sperm count, passing of semen with urine by FMPs of Jool chotro and Janga lia villages of Tangail district [75]; fungal infections by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; vomiting tendency, constipation, skin diseases by the FMP of Kasipur village in Narayanganj district [101]; hemorrhoids by the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district [53]; coughs, spleen disorders, gastrointestinal disorders by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; gastric problem by FMPs of several villages of Faridpur and Rajbari districts [77]; aphrodisiac, energizer, fever, body ache by the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari sub-district of Bandarban district [49]; urinary tract infection, hysteria by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; anemia by the Pankho community of Bilaichari Union in Rangamati district [50]; coughs by the Kanda tribe of Sylhet district [51]; coughs by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; hemorrhoids, asthma, coughs, fever by FMPs of Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari villages in Bagerhat district [79].
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce Ear ache by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86].
Jatropha curcas L. Swelling of gums by the Goala tribe [65]; white dysentery (presence of mucus in stools) by the Santal tribe residing in Thakurgaon district [111]; dysentery, b lood dysentery, tooth problems by FMPs of Shetabganj village in Dinajpur district [90]; white dysentery by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; dysentery, chronic dysentery by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; irregular menstruation by the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district [53]; swelling of gums by the Goala tribe of Moulvibazar district [65]; toothache, snake bite, dysentery by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe residing in Nobogram village in Rajshahi district [78]; high blood pressure by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; lip blister by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; gout, rheumatism, abdominal pain, respiratory problems, edema, obesity, uterine cyst, gall bladder problems, gastrointestinal tract disorders, premature ejaculation, hemorrhoids, ringworm by FMPs of Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari villages in Bagerhat district [79].
Phyllanthus emblica L. Cardiovascular disorders, hysteria, osteoporosis by the Sardar community [7]; diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe [9]; sudden unconsciousness by the Harbang clan of the Tripura tribe [12]; cardiovascular disorders by the Bauri tribe [61]; premature graying of hair by the Goala tribe [65]; diabetes in Dhaka [55]; to increase taste, jaundice, gastric problems, indigestion by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; appetite stimulant, indigestion by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; to stimulate appetite by the Marma tribal community residing in Naikhongchaari, Bandarban district [45]; appetizer, gonorrhea, toothache, itches by FMPs in five villages of Boalia sub-district, Rajshahi district [116]; burning sensations in urinary tract, leucorrhea, hair loss, reduce graying of hair by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; alopecia, appetizer by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; loss of hair, to stop vomiting by FMPs of Daudkandi sub-district in Comilla district [85]; puerperal fever, pain, waist pain, debility by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; erectile dysfunction by FMPs of Bheramara area in Kushtia district [68]; fever, skin problems, loss of appetite, poisonous animal or insect bite, diabetes by the Rakhain tribe of Chittagong Hill Tracts [121]; long-term fever, loss of appetite, sexual stimulant by the TMPs of Tripura tribe residing in Chittagong Hill Tracts [48]; mucus, biliary disorders, loss of appetite, hair loss by the Santal tribe residing in Thakurgaon district [111]; tooth pain by FMPs of Vasu Bihar village, Bogra district [108]; to increase appetite, skin diseases, fever, to increase strength, burning sensations during urination, hair loss, graying of hair by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; hair loss by FMPs of Shetabganj village in Dinajpur district [90]; to increase libido by FMPs of Shekhertek and Badarganj villages in Rangpur district [91]; loss of sensitivity in skin due to allergy or other reasons, chronic mucus, continuous sneezing with runny nose, small pustules on the skin of children by FMPs of Barisal Town in Barisal district [93]; to maintain health by FMPs of three areas of Pirojpur district [94]; gonorrhea by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; to stimulate appetite by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; loss of hair, irritation during urination by FMPs of seven villages of Ishwardy sub-district in Pabna district [97]; fistula, lack of appetite, hepatitis, diarrhea, dysentery, cold by FMPs of two villages by the Rupsha River in Bagerhat district [115]; biliary problems, diabetes, alleviation of respiratory, stomach and hepatic problems, fatigue, thirst, burning sensations in the b ody especially in palms of hands or soles of feet, vomiting tendency, insanity by FMPs of three villages in Sreepur sub-district in Magura district [98]; jaundice, blood purifier, anemia, to ensure proper bowel movement, any type of gastrointestinal disorders by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; allergy by FMPs of Fulbaria, Baguri, and Bagh-achra villages in Jessore district [73]; eye infections by FMPs of Barobazar village, Jhenidaha district [74]; syphilis, gonorrhea by FMPs of Barobazar village, Jhenidaha district [74]; decreased sperm count, passing of semen with urine by FMPs of Jool chotro and Janga lia villages of Tangail district [75]; alopecia, indigestion by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; hemorrhoids by the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district [53]; blood purifier, anemia, hair loss, coughs, spleen disorders, gastrointestinal disorders by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; anemia by TMPs of a Mro tribal community residing at Gazalia Union of Bandarbans district [112]; stomach troubles, gastric problem by FMPs of several villages of Faridpur and Rajbari districts [77]; graying of hair by the Goala tribe of Moulvibazar district [65]; hair loss by a FMP of Savar in Dhaka district [113]; to increase strength, to clear urine by the Rai Kshatriya tribe of Pabna district [109]; aphrodisiac, energizer, fever, body ache by the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari sub-district of Bandarban district [49]; urinary tract infection, hysteria by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; coughs, mucus by the Hajong community of Baromari village in Netrakona district [103]; anemia by the Pankho community of Bilaichari Union in Rangamati district [50]; coughs, abdominal gas by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; vaginitis, burning sensations by FMPs of Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari villages in Bagerhat district [79]; jaundice, to keep head cool, hair loss, graying of hair by folk medicinal herbalists in seven villages of Bhola district [105]; insomnia by the Chakma community of Chittagong Hill Tracts [106].
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. Blood dysentery by the Pahan tribe [8]; edema, constipation, cooling of body by FMPs in five villages of Boalia sub-district, Rajshahi district [116]; dysentery by FMPs of Daudkandi sub-district in Comilla district [85]; edema, stomachic, insecticidal, diarrhea, dysentery, bronchitis by FMPs of villages by the Bangali River in Bogra district [59]; used for cooling purposes during excessive heat by FMPs of Vasu Bihar village, Bogra district [108]; stones in gall bladder, kidney or liver, gastrointestinal problems in di8abetic patients by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; chicken pox, swelling of hands or legs by FMPs of seven villages of Ishwardy sub-district in Pabna district [97]; stool color black in children by the Mandai tribe of Bangladesh [117]; dental caries by the Chakma tribe of Hill Tracts districts [118]; chicken pox by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104]; oral lesions in children by folk medicinal herbalists in seven villages of Bhola district [105]; diarrhea in infants by healers among tea garden workers in Sreemangal [119].
Senna alata (L.) Roxb. Eczema, any type of skin disorders by the Harbang clan of the Tripura tribe [12]; skin diseases by the Garo tribe inhabiting Madhupur forest region [62]; skin diseases by FMPs of Noakhali district [64]; eczema by the Goala tribe [65]; ringworm by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; ringworm, eczema by the Marma tribal community residing in Naikhongchaari, Bandarban district [45]; ringworm by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; eczema, wound, helminthiasis, dermatitis, leucorrhea by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; wet dreams by FMPs of Bheramara area in Kushtia district [68]; ringworm by the TMPs of Tripura tribe residing in Chittagong Hill Tracts [48]; ringworm by FMPs of Balidha village in Jessore district [88]; scabies by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; skin diseases like tinea infections, scabies, herpes by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; liver diseases by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; skin diseases by the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district [53]; eczema by the Goala tribe of Moulvibazar district [65]; stomach pain due to bloating or indigestion by the Tonchongya tribal community residing in Keyaju Para in Bandarban district [124]; ringworm, eczema, itch, scabies, any other skin diseases by the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari sub-district of Bandarban district [49]; eczema by the Chakma tribe of Hill Tracts districts [118]; eczema by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; sexual disorder by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104]; skin disorders by the Pankho community of Bilaichari Union in Rangamati district [50]; eczema, constipation by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; eczema by the Khatriya and Kashya clans of the Bagdi tribe of Rajbari district [80].
Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. Malaria, headache, insect repellent by the Santal tribe [4]; constipation by the Harbang clan of the Tripura tribe [12]; gonorrhea by the Garo tribe inhabiting Madhupur forest region [62]; constipation by the FMPs of Paikgacha, Khulna district [57]; constipation by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; underweight by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe residing in Kannapara and Mondumala villages of Rajshahi district [84]; liver diseases, cancer, constipation by FMPs in five villages of Boalia sub-district, Rajshahi district [116]; stomach problems, to clear objects from eye by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; loss of libido, to keep body cool, boils by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; constipation, dysentery, acidity by the FMP of Kasipur village in Narayanganj district [101]; leucorrhea in women, low sperm density in men by the Bongshi tribe of Tangail district [54]; diabetes, jaundice, burning sensations during urination by the Tonchongya tribal community in Bandarban district [124]; cooling agent, kidney disease, urinary tract infections, dysuria, laxative by the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari sub-district of Bandarban district [49]; fever, urinary complications by the Chakma tribe of Hill Tracts districts [118]; flatulence, acidity, gastric troubles by the Hajong community of Baromari village in Netrakona district [103]; stomach ache in children by the Pankho community of Bilaichari Union in Rangamati district [50]; fever by the Chakma community of Chittagong Hill Tracts [106].
Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link Severe headache due to fever, dog bite by the Kole tribe [10]; skin disorders, failure to conceive by the folk medicinal practitioners (FMPs) of Jessore district [63]; dysentery, external bleeding, eye inflammation by FMPs of Noakhali district [64]; colic by the FMPs of Rampal in Bagerhat district [57]; treatment of gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders by FMPs of Bagerhat Sadar in Bagerhat district [58]; diarrhea, blood purifier, indigestion, loss of appetite by FMPs in Tangail district [82]; scabies, skin infections by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; chronic coughs by the Marma tribal community residing in Naikhongchaari, Bandarban district [45]; peptic ulcer, stomach ache by FMPs of Daudkandi sub-district in Comilla district [85]; tooth infection, mucus by FMPs of Dhamrai sub-district of Dhaka district [87]; skin problems, scabies, eczema, rheumatic pain, joint pain, coughs, mucus, throat pain, pain or inflammation of or within the body, lesions within the nose, pain or bleeding from the nose by the Rakhain tribe of Chittagong Hill Tracts [121]; headache by the ojhas (tribal medicinal practitioners) of the Santal tribe of Rajshahi district [110]; coughs, blood with cough, colds and associated problems by the TMPs of Tripura tribe residing in Chittagong Hill Tracts [48]; bone fracture, leprosy by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; gout by FMPs of villages by the Padma River in Rajshahi district [59]; gout by FMPs of Vasu Bihar village, Bogra district [108]; pain in bones, body pain, asthma by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; sudden feeling of warmth in head, headache by FMPs of Shekhertek and Badarganj villages in Rangpur district [91]; excessive salivating by FMPs of Daulatdia Ghat in Kushtia district [92]; pain with accompanied swelling, goiter in women, respiratory difficulties by FMPs of Barisal Town in Barisal district [93]; diarrhea, blood purifier, loss of appetite, indigestion by FMPs of Babla and Terbaria villages in Tangail district [82]; snake bite by FMPs of Shonapur, Chorkulte, and Majhbari villages of Rajbari district [99]; headache by FMPs of Jool chotro and Janga lia villages of Tangail district [75]; lesions/infections within nostrils by the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district [53]; severe pain by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; pain in one side of the head, helminthiasis by the Bongshi tribe of Tangail district [54]; severe pain, rheumatic pain by FMPs of several villages of Faridpur and Rajbari districts [77]; constipation by the Naik clan of the Rajbongshi tribe of Moulvibazar district [46]; common cold by a FMP of Savar in Dhaka district [113]; excessive menstrual bleeding by the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari sub-district of Bandarban district [49]; tonsillitis, mumps by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104]; lesions on the tongue, pain due to hemorrhoids by the Murmu tribal community of Rajshahi district [123]; coughs in infants, throat pain by healers among tea garden workers in Sreemangal [119].
Ocimum gratissimum L. Eczema, cough, mucus by the Harbang clan of the Tripura tribe [12]; heart diseases, eye diseases, cooling of body by FMPs in five villages of Boalia sub-district, Rajshahi district [116]; chest pain, rhinitis, coughs, itching, helminthiasis, ear ache, poisonous snake or reptile bite by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; coughs, appetizer, dysentery, fever by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; coughs, fever by FMPs of Daudkandi sub-district in Comilla district [85]; colds, coughs by FMPs of Bheramara area in Kushtia district [68]; fever with convulsions, burning sensations in the body, indigestion, pneumonia, coughs, mucus, tingling sensations in the body by the TMPs of Tripura tribe residing in Chittagong Hill Tracts [48]; rabies, pneumonia by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; coughs, cold by FMPs of villages by the Padma River in Rajshahi district [59]; cold by FMPs of five villages in Narsinghdi district [69]; rheumatic pain by FMPs of Shetabganj village in Dinajpur district [90]; coughs, mucus by FMPs of Shekhertek and Badarganj villages in Rangpur district [91]; asthma, bronchitis by FMPs of Vitbilia village of Pabna district [70]; chest pain, coughs, respiratory tract infections by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; fever, coughs, carminative by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; coughs by FMPs of Arpara and Munshefpur villages in Jessore district [100]; coughs by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; fever wiyh pain by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102].
Allium sativum L. Infertility with seizures by the Hodi tribe [6]; diabetes in Dhaka [55]; indigestion, sedative, impotency by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; rabies, pneumonia by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; cold, hair loss, diabetes by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; diabetes by FMPs of Daulatdia Ghat in Kushtia district [92]; rheumatism by FMPs of four adjoining villages in Narail and Jessore districts [122]; diabetes, jaundice, rheumatism, rheumatic pain, paralysis by FMPs of Barobazar village, Jhenidaha district [74]; joint pain by the FMP of Kasipur village in Narayanganj district [101]; rheumatic pain, passing of semen with urine by FMPs of several villages of Faridpur and Rajbari districts [77]; rheumatic pain by the Naik clan of the Rajbongshi tribe of Moulvibazar district [46]; to reduce fat in the body by a FMP of Savar in Dhaka district [113]; paralysis, chest cold by the Rai Kshatriya tribe of Pabna district [109]; coughs in children by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; high blood pressure, leprosy by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; stomach disorders by folk medicinal herbalists in seven villages of Bhola district [105]; leprosy, whooping cough, blood pressure by the Chakma community of Chittagong Hill Tracts [106].
Lawsonia inermis L. Bloating by the Harbang clan of the Tripura tribe [12]; eczema, leprosy, jaundice by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; cancer, fever, burning sensations during urination, to keep head cool by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; jaundice, swelling and burning sensations due to burns caused from fire, dandruff by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; diabetes, heart diseases, blood dysentery by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; hair loss, leprosy by FMPs of Daudkandi sub-district in Comilla district [85]; diabetes by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; leprosy by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; leg infections, toe nail infections by FMPs of villages by the Padma River in Rajshahi district [59]; to keep head cool, dandruff in humans, broken shoulder in cattle by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; weakness by FMPs of three areas of Pirojpur district [94]; itch, ear ache by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; gonorrhea, jaundice by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; anti-dandruff, antiseptic, burns by FMPs of seven villages of Ishwardy sub-district in Pabna district [97]; to keep head cool by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; eczema, skin diseases by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; diabetes by FMPs of Fulbaria, Baguri, and Bagh-achra villages in Jessore district [73]; excessive bleeding during menstruation by FMPs of Arpara and Munshefpur villages in Jessore district [100]; eye infections by FMPs of Barobazar village, Jhenidaha district [74]; dandruff, skin diseases, sexually transmitted diseases by the FMP of Kasipur village in Narayanganj district [101]; skin infections, blood coming out of mouth, pus in ears by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; severe pain by the Bongshi tribe of Tangail district [54]; emollient, hair conditioner by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104].
Melastoma malabathricum L. Urinary problems by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; jaundice by the Marma tribal community residing in Naikhongchaari, Bandarban district [45]; low sperm count, sperm with urine, jaundice, pain by the Rakhain tribe of Chittagong Hill Tracts [121]; any sort of body pain, diarrhea, dysentery, scabies, abscess, leucorrhea, urinary problems by the TMPs of Tripura tribe residing in Chittagong Hill Tracts [48]; urinary tract infection by the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari sub-district of Bandarban district [49].
Azadirachta indica A. Juss. To induce fertility, cancer, acne, itch, carminative by the Santal tribe [4]; tooth infections by the Sardar community [7]; blood dysentery, piles by the Pahan tribe [8]; cuts and wounds, allergy, premature graying of hair by the Khasia tribe [11]; skin diseases, helminthiasis by the Harbang clan of the Tripura tribe [12]; by the Bauri tribe [61]; skin disorders by the folk medicinal practitioners (FMPs) of Jessore district [63]; stomach and heart disorders by the Goala tribe [65]; diabetes in Dhaka [55]; diarrhea, blood purifier, indigestion, loss of appetite by FMPs in Tangail district [82]; fever, chicken pox, measles, skin diseases by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; cancer, skin diseases, helminthiasis, wounds, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis by FMPs in five villages of Boalia sub-district, Rajshahi district [116]; itches, scabies, allergy, pus formation, skin disorders by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; dental diseases, scabies by FMPs of Daudkandi sub-district in Comilla district [85]; diabetes by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; fever, fever arising out from gall bladder disorders by FMPs of Bheramara area in Kushtia district [68]; abscess by the Santal tribe residing in Thakurgaon district [111]; syphilis, skin diseases, scabies, leprosy by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; helminthiasis, itches by FMPs of villages by the Padma River in Rajshahi district [59]; coughs, respiratory illnesses by FMPs of five villages in Narsinghdi district [69]; insecticide by FMPs of Vasu Bihar village, Bogra district [108]; considered useful in any type of disease by FMPs of Balidha village in Jessore district [88]; skin diseases, body ache, bone pain, measles, pox, itches, scabies, indigestion, cataract, decreased eye sight, abscess by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; helminthiasis, hepatic pain by FMPs of Shetabganj village in Dinajpur district [90]; scabies, eczema, itches by FMPs of Shekhertek and Badarganj villages in Rangpur district [91]; irregular menstruation, diabetes by FMPs of Daulatdia Ghat in Kushtia district [92]; diabetes by FMPs of Barisal Town in Barisal district [93]; all types of pain, fever by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; antiseptic, skin diseases, helminthiasis, pimples, acidity, blood purifier by FMPs of seven villages of Ishwardy sub-district in Pabna district [97]; diarrhea, blood purifier, loss of appetite, indigestion by FMPs of Babla and Terbaria villages in Tangail district [82]; good for eyes, to increase lung capacity, fatigue, thirsts, coughs, fever, loss of appetite, helminthiasis, acne, biliary disorders, leprosy, wasting away of body, diabetes by FMPs of three villages in Sreepur sub-district in Magura district [98]; skin diseases like scabies and eczema, gum diseases by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; fever, body pain, swelling of knees, injury, rheumatic pain, itches, scabies, infections, considered beneficial in nearly all types of diseases, skin diseases, pyorrhea by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; scabies, itches by FMPs of Khulna City, Bangladesh [72]; allergy by FMPs of Fulbaria, Baguri, and Bagh-achra villages in Jessore district [73]; skin diseases, leucorrhea by FMPs of Arpara and Munshefpur villages in Jessore district [100]; toothache by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; skin diseases, tooth infections, helminthiasis by the FMP of Kasipur village in Narayanganj district [101]; fever, pain, itches, rheumatic pain, skin infections, bleeding from gums, swelling of gums, tingling sensation in gums, foul odor in mouth by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; skin diseases, allergy by the Bongshi tribe of Tangail district [54]; severe pain, rheumatic pain by FMPs of several villages of Faridpur and Rajbari districts [77]; stomach and heart disorders by the Goala tribe of Moulvibazar district [65]; to strengthen base of tooth, acne by a FMP of Savar in Dhaka district [113]; paralysis, skin infections by the Rai Kshatriya tribe of Pabna district [109]; blood purifier by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe residing in Nobogram village in Rajshahi district [78]; scabies, itches by the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe residing in Thanchi sub-district of Bandarban district [47]; toothache, itches by the Hajong community of Baromari village in Netrakona district [103]; itches, pain by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104]; diabetes by the Pankho community of Bilaichari Union in Rangamati district [50]; helminthiasis by the Kanda tribe of Sylhet district [51]; chicken pox, high blood pressure, gastritis, general weakness, jaundice, malaria by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; fever, pain, to prevent tooth infections by the Murmu tribal community of Rajshahi district [123]; pimple, tiredness, coughs, vomiting, gall bladder problems, helminthiasis, pain, dyspepsia, leprosy, acne, gleet, gonorrhea, diabetes by FMPs of Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari villages in Bagerhat district [79]; skin disorders, tooth infections, foul odor in mouth by the Tripura tribe residing in Comilla district [81].
Ficus hispida L. Insect repellent, diabetes, analgesic by the Santal tribe[4]; diabetes, weakness by the folk medicinal practitioners (FMPs) of Jessore district [63]; snake bite by the Goala tribe [65]; gall bladder diseases by FMPs of Bheramara area in Kushtia district [68]; dermatitis, carminative, stomachic (for cattle) by FMPs of villages by the Bangali River in Bogra district [59]; dysentery by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; internal bleeding by FMPs of Daulatdia Ghat in Kushtia district [92]; dysentery by FMPs of Barisal Town in Barisal district [93]; diabetes by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; whooping cough by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; persistent itching, skin irritation, swelling, inflammation by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; physical weakness, malnutrition, leucorrhea, to increase digestion, constipation, flatulence by FMPs of Khulna City, Bangladesh [72]; diabetes, leucorrhea by FMPs of Fulbaria, Baguri, and Bagh-achra villages in Jessore district [73]; to keep healthy, diabetes by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; to aid digestion, constipation by the FMP of Kasipur village in Narayanganj district [101]; diabetes by the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district [53]; diabetes by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; snake bite by the Goala tribe of Moulvibazar district [65]; hookworm by the Tonchongya tribal community residing in Keyaju Para in Bandarban district [124]; anxiolytic by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104]; diabetes by folk medicinal herbalists in seven villages of Bhola district [105].
Moringa oleifera Lam. Constipation, epilepsy, abortifacient, skin eruptions, leucoderma by the Santal tribe [4]; rheumatism, chicken pox, snake repellent by the Pahan tribe [8]; nasal catarrh, decreased eye sight, bone fractures, sores by the Garo tribe inhabiting Madhupur forest region [62]; skin lesions, cancer, chicken pox by the folk medicinal practitioners (FMPs) of Jessore district [63]; diabetes by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; sex stimulant, headache, coughs, mucus by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; paralysis by FMPs of a group of Christians residing in Mirzapore village of Dinajpur district [107]; appetite stimulant, carminative, heart disorders, rheumatic fever, paralysis, liver pain, to increase bile secretion, sex stimulant by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, leprosy, conjunctivitis, pain by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; sterility by FMPs of Daudkandi sub-district in Comilla district [85]; puerperal fever, pain, jaundice by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; contraceptive, gout by FMPs of villages by the Padma River in Rajshahi district [59]; helminthiasis by FMPs of Vasu Bihar village, Bogra district [108]; rheumatism, ear disease, headache by FMPs of Balidha village in Jessore district [88]; diabetes, acidity, hypertension by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; hemorrhoids by FMPs of three areas of Pirojpur district [94]; high blood pressure by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; paralysis, body pain by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; to stimulate appetite, roughness of skin, to increase sperm, helminthiasis, obesity, coughs, restless feeling, bloating, swelling due to injury, formation of blood clots on skin, goiter, acne, good for eyes, pain, headache by FMPs of three villages in Sreepur sub-district in Magura district [98]; diabetes, frequent urination by FMPs of Shonapur, Chorkulte, and Majhbari villages of Rajbari district [99]; small pox, chicken pox, anemia by FMPs of Barobazar village, Jhenidaha district [74]; diabetes, acidity, hypertension by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; hypertension, swelling of gums, malnutrition by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; hepatitis, jaundice by FMPs of several villages of Faridpur and Rajbari districts [77]; constipation, liver problems, joint pain by a FMP of Savar in Dhaka district [113]; diabetes by the Rai Kshatriya tribe of Pabna district [109]; indigestion by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104]; conjunctivitis by the Kanda tribe of Sylhet district [51]; burning, general weakness, headache, insomnia, high blood pressure, leucorrhea by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; to stimulate appetite, roughness of skin, pain, to increase sperm, acne, helminthiasis, obesity, coughs, flatulence, restless feeling, swelling due to injury, formation of blood clots on skin, goiter, headache by FMPs of Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari villages in Bagerhat district [79].
Psidium guajava L. Diabetes, toothache, carminative by the Santal tribe [4]; diarrhea, debility by FMPs in Tangail district [82]; toothache, acne, diabetes by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; toothache, diarrhea by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; dental pain, gingivitis, scabies by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; hemorrhoids by FMPs of Daudkandi sub-district in Comilla district [85]; diabetes by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; dysentery, coughs, mucus, cold, wounds, respiratory problems, maintain texture of skin, maintain normal heart condition by the Rakhain tribe of Chittagong Hill Tracts [121]; dysentery by FMPs of villages by the Padma River in Rajshahi district [59]; gastric problems, cuts and wounds by FMPs of Balidha village in Jessore district [88]; menstrual problems, diarrhea, tooth infections by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; dysentery, anorexia by FMPs of three areas of Pirojpur district [94]; diarrhea by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; diarrhea, debility by FMPs of Babla and Terbaria villages in Tangail district [82]; uterine prolapse by FMPs of four adjoining villages in Narail and Jessore districts [122]; loss of libido in men, puerperal fever by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; dysentery, to strengthen teeth by FMPs of Shonapur, Chorkulte, and Majhbari villages of Rajbari district [99]; dysentery by FMPs of Jool chotro and Janga lia villages of Tangail district [75]; menstrual problems by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; dysentery by the FMP of Kasipur village in Narayanganj district [101]; dysentery, puerperal fever by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; dysentery by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; for removing stains from teeth by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104]; to increase strength, sperm count and appetite, hemorrhoids by FMPs of Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari villages in Bagerhat district [79].
Plumbago indica L. To stop bleeding from cuts and wounds by the Pahan tribe [8]; abortifacient, leprosy, paralysis, piles, constriction of nerves leading to distortions in hands or feet, stoppage of urination, paralysis by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe residing in Kannapara and Mondumala villages of Rajshahi district [84]; vitiligo by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; memory enhancer, hemorrhoids by FMPs of villages by the Padma River in Rajshahi district [59]; blood purifier by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; stomach pain by the Kanda tribe of Sylhet district [51]; hydrocele by the Khatriya and Kashya clans of the Bagdi tribe of Rajbari district [80]; dysentery by the Chakma community of Chittagong Hill Tracts [106].
Persicaria glabra (Willd.) M. Gómez Insect bites, abscess by FMPs of several areas of Faridpur and Rajbari districts [77].
Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms Snake bite, hives by the Santal tribe [4]; hepatic disorders, swelling of one side of abdomen by FMPs of a group of Christians residing in Mirzapore village of Dinajpur district [107]; insecticidal, astringent by FMPs of villages by the Bangali River in Bogra district [59]; fever by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; asthma by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42].
Paederia foetida L. Insanity, mental disorders by the Rai tribe [10]; stomach ailments by the Garo tribe inhabiting Madhupur forest region [62]; loss of appetite, indigestion, diarrhea, dysentery, weakness, toothache, cancer by FMPs of Noakhali district [64]; bloating, indigestion by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; dyspepsia, constipation, cholera, dysentery of domestic animals by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; tonic, rheumatoid arthritis, colic by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; indigestion, stomach ache by FMPs of Balidha village in Jessore district [88]; bloating by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; coughs, mucus, loss of appetite, rheumatism, pain, dysentery by FMPs of Daulatdia Ghat in Kushtia district [92]; any type of pain by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; body pain by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; internal lesions, stomach problems, to recuperate from illness by FMPs of seven villages of Ishwardy sub-district in Pabna district [97]; fractures, to increase strength, to increase sperm, rheumatism, pain, hemorrhoids, skin allergy, constipation by FMPs of three villages in Sreepur sub-district in Magura district [98]; chronic dysentery, dysentery by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; indigestion by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; rheumatic pain, burning sensations during urination by the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district [53]; dysentery by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; toothache by the Bongshi tribe of Tangail district [54]; appetizer by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104].
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Anti-inflammatory, constipation, blood dysentery, diabetes by the Santal tribe [4]; to keep head cool, sprain, fracture by the Rai tribe [10]; indigestion, loss of appetite, constipation, weakness, dysentery, snake bite, skin infections by FMPs of Noakhali district [64]; constipation, dysentery, indigestion, pain by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; urinary bladder stone by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; sedative by the Marma tribal community residing in Naikhongchaari, Bandarban district [45]; pain under the umbilicus and stomach ache due to worms, constipation, decreased sperm count, aphrodisiac by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; indigestion, cooling of body, appetizer, loss of libido, weakness, paralysis by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; dysentery, peptic ulcer by FMPs of Daudkandi sub-district in Comilla district [85]; puerperal fever, pain, waist pain, debility, jaundice, blood with stool, stomach ache by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; indigestion, hemorrhoids, constipation, respiratory problems, inflammation, poisonous insect or snake bite, heart palpitations, fever, cleaning of bowels by the Rakhain tribe of Chittagong Hill Tracts [121]; to keep body cool, diarrhea, dysentery, constipation, stringent, repeat fevers, contagious fevers, frequent urination (diabetes) by the TMPs of Tripura tribe residing in Chittagong Hill Tracts [48]; flatulence by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; liver disorder, sun stroke, jaundice, constipation, sexual disorder, hemorrhoids, apepsia (in cattle) by FMPs of villages by the Bangali River in Bogra district [59]; dysentery by FMPs of Vasu Bihar village, Bogra district [108]; excessive blood during menstruation, diseases of the scrotum by FMPs of Balidha village in Jessore district [88]; chronic dysentery, diabetes by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; to remove foul odor of sweat, vomiting in children by FMPs of Shetabganj village in Dinajpur district [90]; to remove odor from sweat, incoherency or insanity, acidity, ear diseases, eye diseases by FMPs of Daulatdia Ghat in Kushtia district [92]; chronic dysentery, constipation, indigestion by FMPs of three areas of Pirojpur district [94]; digestive aid by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; acidity, skin allergy, excessive sexual desire, carminative, coughs, astringent by FMPs of three villages in Sreepur sub-district in Magura district [98]; uterine prolapse by FMPs of four adjoining villages in Narail and Jessore districts [122]; long-term fever with abnormally high body temperature by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; blood dysentery, spermatorrhea, snake bite, to increase functions of brain, stomach, heart and liver, diarrhea, dysentery, low density of semen, insomnia, weakness of heart, mucus, fever with mucus, excessive thirst, vomiting, constipation by FMPs of Khulna City, Bangladesh [72]; dysentery by FMPs of Barobazar village, Jhenidaha district [74]; dysentery, to remove foul odor from sweat, insanity, acidity, ear diseases, eye diseases by FMPs of Jool chotro and Janga lia villages of Tangail district [75]; dysentery, constipation, excessive bleeding during menstruation by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; blood dysentery, to increase memory, constipation, to prevent stomach upsets by the FMP of Kasipur village in Narayanganj district [101]; flatulence, constipation, stomach pain by the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district [53]; dysentery, to remove odor of sweat by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; severe pain, gastric problem by FMPs of several villages of Faridpur and Rajbari districts [77]; constipation by the Naik clan of the Rajbongshi tribe of Moulvibazar district [46]; acne by a FMP of Savar in Dhaka district [113]; sexual disorder in males by the Rai Kshatriya tribe of Pabna district [109]; flatulence by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe residing in Nobogram village in Rajshahi district [78]; stomach pain, dysentery with blood by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; chronic dysentery by FMPs of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [104]; vomiting by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; jaundice, indigestion by the Murmu tribal community of Rajshahi district [123]; to increase digestive capability, coughs, flatulence, to keep body cool, to clear stool by FMPs of Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari villages in Bagerhat district [79]; dysentery, diarrhea by the Tripura tribe residing in Comilla district [81]; dysentery, to keep stomach cool, sudden bouts of vomiting by folk medicinal herbalists in seven villages of Bhola district [105]; dysentery, diarrhea by the Chakma community of Chittagong Hill Tracts [106].
Santalum album L. Tuberculosis, debility, burning sensations during urination by FMPs of Noakhali district [64]; loss of sexual desire, to induce a satisfactory feeling in body, slight edema, mucus, biliary disorders, blood purifier, burning sensations in the body by FMPs of three villages in Sreepur sub-district in Magura district [98]; leucorrhea, sexual weakness by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; headache, chronic coughs, discoloration of facial skin, gonorrhea, abnormal heart palpitations, hypertension, b lood purifier by FMPs of Khulna City, Bangladesh [72]; dysentery by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; to remove scar marks or marks due to burns, skin diseases by the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district [53]; mucus by TMPs of a Mro tribal community residing at Gazalia Union of Bandarbans district [112]; cough by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; eczema, coughs by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52].
Scoparia dulcis L. Coughs in children, diarrhea by the Harbang clan of the Tripura tribe [12]; dysentery by the Garo tribe inhabiting Madhupur forest region [62]; diabetes, cuts and wounds, gastric ulcer, weakness, fever, coughs, bronchitis, diarrhea, dysentery, edema, diabetes, toothache by FMPs of Noakhali district [64]; diarrhea, dysentery and colic by FMPs of Rampal in Bagerhat district, and for constipation by FMPs of Paikgacha in Khulna district [57]; sexual disorders by FMPs of Bagerhat Sadar in Bagerhat district [58]; urinary problems by FMPs in Tangail district [82]; sexual diseases, nerve disorders by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; respiratory problems, to stimulate appetite by the Marma tribal community residing in Naikhongchaari, Bandarban district [45]; ulcer by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; diabetes by FMPs of Dhamrai sub-district of Dhaka district [87]; blood dysentery by the ojhas (tribal medicinal practitioners) of the Santal tribe of Rajshahi district [110]; diabetes by the Santal tribe residing in Thakurgaon district [111]; infertility, leucorrhea, malaria, dog bite, debility, hemorrhoids by FMPs of villages by the Bangali River in Bogra district [59]; debility, premature ejaculation by FMPs of villages by the Padma River in Rajshahi district [59]; gastric ulcer by FMPs of five villages in Narsinghdi district [69]; diabetes by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; urinary problems by FMPs of Shetabganj village in Dinajpur district [90]; continuous hiccups by FMPs of Shekhertek and Badarganj villages in Rangpur district [91]; dysentery in children by FMPs of Barisal Town in Barisal district [93]; body ache, gastric ulcer by FMPs of three areas of Pirojpur district[94]; burning sensations during urination by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; gastric ulcer, anemia by FMPs of seven villages of Ishwardy sub-district in Pabna district [97]; urinary problems by FMPs of Babla and Terbaria villages in Tangail district [82]; aphrodisiac, sexual disorders, dysentery, diabetes by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; dysentery, white dysentery (passing of mucus with stool), any injury causing pain by FMPs of Fulbaria, Baguri, and Bagh-achra villages in Jessore district [73]; appetite stimulant, diabetes, dysentery by FMPs of Shonapur, Chorkulte, and Majhbari villages of Rajbari district [99]; leucorrhea by FMPs of Barobazar village, Jhenidaha district [74]; gastric problems, ulcer by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; pain in chin or throat, tonsillitis, throat cancer, facial redness, skin diseases by the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district [53]; ‘meho’ by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; diarrhea in children by the Bongshi tribe of Tangail district [54]; gastric problems, dysentery, diabetes by a FMP of Savar in Dhaka district [113]; jaundice by the Rai Kshatriya tribe of Pabna district [109]; snake and insect bite, antidote to poison by the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari sub-district of Bandarban district [49]; spermatorrhea by the Pankho community of Bilaichari Union in Rangamati district [50]; stomach ache in infants by healers among tea garden workers in Sreemangal [119].
Smilax macrophylla Roxb. Rheumatism, body pain by FMPs of two areas of Dinajpur district [125].
Physalis micrantha Link Ear ache by the Khatriya and Kashya clans of the Bagdi tribe of Rajbari district [80].
Pouzolzia zeylanica (L.) Benn.  
Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. Skin eruption, fever, dysentery by the Santal tribe [4]; diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe [9]; feeling of weakness during times of menstruation by the Harbang clan of the Tripura tribe [12]; colic pain by the Garo tribe inhabiting Madhupur forest region [62]; intestinal worms by the folk medicinal practitioners (FMPs) of Jessore district [63]; coughs, asthma, skin diseases, snake bite, gonorrhea, low semen density, leucorrhea by FMPs of Noakhali district [64]; pain in body, blood purifier by FMPs in Tangail district [82]; lice infections by the Garo tribe inhabiting Netrakona district [44]; coughs in children by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; helminthiasis, gastric ulcer by FMPs of a group of Christians residing in Mirzapore village of Dinajpur district [107]; nausea, vomiting, puerperal fever by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; tonic, gastritis, dermatitis, dysentery by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; diabetes by FMPs and tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) of Khakiachora village in Sylhet district [86]; fever in children, toothache, pain in gums by FMPs of Dhamrai sub-district of Dhaka district [87]; helminthiasis, toothache, lesions within the ear, fever with convulsions, malaria by the Rakhain tribe of Chittagong Hill Tracts [121]; stomach pain, acidity, redness of eye, malarial fever, fever, coughs, helminthiasis, respiratory problems by the TMPs of Tripura tribe residing in Chittagong Hill Tracts [48]; helminthiasis, infections from scorpion bites by the Santal tribe residing in Thakurgaon district [111]; itches by FMPs of villages by the Padma River in Rajshahi district [59]; gastrointestinal disorders by FMPs of Vasu Bihar village, Bogra district [108]; helminthiasis by FMPs of Balidha village in Jessore district [88]; blood dysentery, dysentery, infections by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; pain by FMPs of Shetabganj village in Dinajpur district [90]; helminthiasis, frequent urination by FMPs of Shekhertek and Badarganj villages in Rangpur district [91]; hookworm infections by FMPs of Barisal Town in Barisal district [93]; all types of pain, fever by FMPs of three villages in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon districts [95]; fever, burning sensations in the body, helminthiasis by FMPs of six villages in Greater Naogaon district [96]; skin diseases, sexual weakness by FMPs of seven villages of Ishwardy sub-district in Pabna district [97]; pain in body, blood purifier by FMPs of Babla and Terbaria villages in Tangail district [82]; sialorrhea, helminthiasis by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; fever by FMPs of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages in Lalmonirhat district [60]; waist pain by FMPs of Shonapur, Chorkulte, and Majhbari villages of Rajbari district [99]; dysentery by FMPs of Jool chotro and Janga lia villages of Tangail district [75]; jaundice by FMPs of six villages in Thakurgaon district [76]; frequent urination, diabetes by the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district [53]; pain by the Bongshi tribe of Tangail district [54]; malarial fever, any type of stomach pain by the Tonchongya tribal community residing in Keyaju Para in Bandarban district [124]; liver problems by a FMP of Savar in Dhaka district [113]; burning sensations in the chest, salty taste in mouth when burping, flatulence, gastric pain by the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe residing in Thanchi sub-district of Bandarban district [47]; dental caries, abdominal pain by the Chakma tribe of Hill Tracts districts [118]; diarrhea by the Hajong community of Baromari village in Netrakona district [103]; swollen legs and blisters by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; helminthiasis, rheumatic pain by folk medicinal herbalists in seven villages of Bhola district [105].
Lantana camara L. Fever by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42].
Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) Burtt. Hemorrhoids, pain, arthritis by the Khasia tribe [11]; loss of sensation in hands and legs by the Marma tribal community residing in Naikhongchaari, Bandarban district [45]; stomach disorders by the Rakhain tribe of Chittagong Hill Tracts [121]; indigestion, stomach pain, bloating, acidity by the TMPs of Tripura tribe residing in Chittagong Hill Tracts [48]; swelling of face in cattle, cattle lice by FMPs of Shonapur, Chorkulte, and Majhbari villages of Rajbari district [99]; gastrointestinal disorders (acidity, stomach ache, diarrhea), sudden bouts of fainting, vertigo by the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari sub-district of Bandarban district [49]; jaundice, gastric ulcers by the Chakma tribe of Hill Tracts districts [118].
Curcuma longa L. Hypotonia (reduced muscle strength), scabies, leucoderma, to increase fertility in women, acne by the Santal tribe [4]; kala azar by the Rai tribe [10]; skin disorders by the folk medicinal practitioners (FMPs) of Jessore district [63]; wet dream, scabies, eczema by FMPs in Tangail district [82]; helminthiasis, itches by FMPs of Sylhet Division [83]; passing of semen with urine, leucorrhea by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe residing in Kannapara and Mondumala villages of Rajshahi district [84]; jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery, small pox, eczema, gonorrhea, sedative by FMPs in five villages of Boalia sub-district, Rajshahi district [116]; jaundice, skin disorders, to increase brightness of skin by FMPs of Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district [66]; gonorrhea, helminthiasis, sore throat, hepatitis, appetizer, allergy, eye disorder by FMPs of villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts [67]; acne by FMPs of Daudkandi sub-district in Comilla district [85]; snake bite by FMPs of Bheramara area in Kushtia district [68]; allergy, skin diseases, scabies, leprosy by FMPs of Rahmatpur village by the Ghaghot River, Rangpur district [59]; skin diseases by by FMPs of Vasu Bihar village, Bogra district [108]; excessive bile secretion by FMPs of Balidha village in Jessore district [88]; allergy by FMPs of Station Purbo Para village in Jamalpur district [89]; filariasis by FMPs of Shetabganj village in Dinajpur district [90]; to improve skin texture, sprain by FMPs of Daulatdia Ghat in Kushtia district [92]; arthritis, gout by FMPs of three areas of Pirojpur district [94]; jaundice, tumor, sprain, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, small pox, colic by FMPs of two villages by the Rupsha River in Bagerhat district [115]; wet dream, scabies, eczema by FMPs of Babla and Terbaria villages in Tangail district [82]; excessive sexual desire, rheumatism, leprosy, diabetes, edema by FMPs of three villages in Sreepur sub-district in Magura district [98]; skin diseases (scabies, eczema), gum diseases by FMPs of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi sub-district in Barisal district [71]; edema by FMPs of Khulna City, Bangladesh [72]; allergy, helminthiasis in children by FMPs of Fulbaria, Baguri, and Bagh-achra villages in Jessore district [73]; blood purifier, stomach disorders by FMPs of Shonapur, Chorkulte, and Majhbari villages of Rajbari district [99]; skin diseases by FMPs of Arpara and Munshefpur villages in Jessore district [100]; helminthiasis, skin diseases, loss of appetite, to increase memory by the FMP of Kasipur village in Narayanganj district [101]; hypertension by the TMPs of the Baburo, Haduga and Larma clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district [53]; bone fracture, sprain by FMPs of Baghbhandar, Sonahat and Kumarpara villages in Kurigram district [102]; rheumatic pain by FMPs of several villages of Faridpur and Rajbari districts [77]; cough, eczema by Tripura community of Hazarikhil in Chittagong district [42]; coughs, eczema by the Rakhaing community of Cox’s Bazar district [52]; to improve skin color, to control excessive sexual desire, rheumatism, leprosy, diabetes, edema by FMPs of Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari villages in Bagerhat district [79]; diarrhea, dysentery by the Teli clan of the Telegu tribe [43]; to whiten complexion by healers among tea garden workers in Sreemangal [119]; blood disease by the Chakma community of Chittagong Hill Tracts [106].