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Table 1 Medicinal plants mentioned in the free lists and collected by the locals within the FLONA region (Horizonte community, NE Brazil)

From: The apparency hypothesis applied to a local pharmacopoeia in the Brazilian northeast

Family/Scientific name Ethnospecies Principal use Habit Origin Use value Salience Commercial value Voucher
AMARANTHACEAE         
Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze nelvagina headache herb native 0.235 0.102 0.0 n.c
Chenopodium ambrosioides L. mentruz bone fracture herb exotic 0.497 0.137 7.7 n.c
ANACARDIACEAE         
Anacardium occidentale L. cajueiro healing wounds tree native 0.418 0.146 47.7 n.c
Mangifera indica L. mangueira breathing difficulties tree exotic 0.020 0.009 0.0 n.c
Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão aroeira cutaneous illness tree native 0.451 0.167 10.4 6601
Spondias purpurea L. ciriguela dysentery tree exotic 0.170 0.071 20.0 n.c
Spondias tuberosa Arr.Cam. Imbu stomachache tree native 0.007 0.001 0.0 6604
Astronium fraxinifolium Schott. gonçalave flu tree native 0.150 0.058 20.0 6690
ANNONACEAE         
Annona squamosa L. pinha fever tree exotic 0.013 0.007 0.0 6600
Annona coriacea Mart. ariticum dysentery shrub native 0.150 0.073 5.9 6614
APIACEAE         
Apium sp. milindro high pressure herb   0.020 0.011 0.0 6615
Coriandrum sativum L. coentro child stomachache herb exotic 0.013 0.003 0.0 6670
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. endro heartburn herb exotic 0.183 0.046 18.8 n.c
Pimpinella anisum L. erva doce general pain herb exotic 0.190 0.057 11.1 6606
APOCYNACEAE         
Catharanthus roseus L. boa noite healing wounds or scars herb exotic 0.007 0.004 0.0 6596
Hancornia speciosa Gomes mangaba varicose veins tree native 0.601 0.235 75.0 6700
Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel. janaguba gastritis tree native 1.085 0.446 88.9 6660
Secondatia floribunda A. DC. catuaba cipó dilated veins climber native 0.026 0.010 75.0 n.c
ARECACEAE         
Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart. macaúba to clean the intestine tree native 0.013 0.002 50.0 6590
Attalea speciosa Mart. babaçu bruise tree native 0.007 0.003 0.0 n.c
Cocos nucifera L. côco dehydration tree native 0.026 0.010 50.0 n.c
Syagrus cearencis Noblik catolé hernia tree native 0.013 0.010 0.0 n.c
ASTERACEAE         
Acanthospermum hispidum DC. espinho cigano bronchitis herb exotic 0.131 0.044 0.0 n.c
Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen agrião cough herb native 0.046 0.009 25.0 n.c
Agerantum conyzoides (L.) L. mentrasto vaginal hemorrhage herb exotic 0.065 0.019 0.0 n.c
Artemisia vulgaris L. anador headache herb exotic 0.301 0.109 7.7 6656
Artemisia absinthium L. lorma indigestion herb exotic 0.183 0.085 5.6 8108
Bidens pilosa L. carrapicho de agulha woman inflammation herb native 0.052 0.019 16.7 6591
Egletes viscosa (L.) Less. macela digestive gases herb native 0.399 0.136 16.3 6603
Helianthus annuus L. girassol thrombosis herb exotic 0.288 0.069 13.0 6665
Indet rosamelia cutaneous illness herb   0.007 0.006 0.0 6653
Tanacetum vulgare L. pruma indigestion herb exotic 0.085 0.034 0.0 n.c
Vernonia condensata Backer. boldo de chile heartburn shrub exotic 0.033 0.013 0.0 n.c
BIGNONIACEAE         
Anemopaegma laeve DC. manacá rheumatism climber native 0.013 0.005 100.0 6669
Tabebuia sp. podaico all kind of pain tree native 0.052 0.020 20.0 n.c
BIXACEAE         
Bixa orellana L. urucum hematoma shrub native 0.098 0.023 75.0 6698
BORAGINACEAE         
Heliotropium indicum L. crista de galo teething in children herb exotic 0.275 0.069 16.7 n.c
BRASSICACEAE         
Brassica rapa L. mustarda brain hemorrhage herb exotic 0.229 0.064 0.0 8110
BROMELIACEAE         
Ananas sativus Schult. & Schult. f. abacaxi flu herb native 0.072 0.011 14.3 6695
BURSERACEAE         
indet amesca headache tree native 0.007 0.002   6663
CACTACEAE         
Cereus jamacaru DC. mandacaru menopause shrub native 0.007 0.002 0.0 n.c
Harrisia adscendens (Gürke) Britton & Rose rabo de raposa menopause shrub native 0.020 0.008 33.3 6580
Melocactus bahiensis (Britton & Rose) Luetzelb coroa de frade magical protection herb native 0.007 0.001 0.0 6618
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. palma dysentery shrub exotic 0.013 0.005 0.0 6696
Pereskia grandifolia Haw. rosa doce flu shrub native 0.020 0.009 0.0 n.c
CANNABACEAE         
Cannabis sativa L. maconha back pain shrub exotic 0.052 0.018 33.3 6574
CAPPARACEAE         
Cleome spinosa Jacq. musambe flu shrub exotic 0.039 0.016 16.7 6644
CAPRIFOLIACEAE         
Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. sabugueira teething in children shrub exotic 0.026 0.010 0.0 n.c
CARICACEAE         
Carica papaya L. mamão constipation shrub exotic 0.098 0.030 9.1 6657
CARYOCARACEAE         
Caryocar coriaceum Wittm. pequi throat and lung pain tree native 0.863 0.200 98.3 6592
CELASTRACEAE         
Maytenus distichophylla Mart. bom nome back pain tree native 0.092 0.015 50.0 6613
CONVOLVULACEAE         
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Poir. batata doce nervousness herb native 0.007 0.003 100.0 6659
Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr.) Roem. & Schult. salsa itching herb native 0.065 0.023 50.0 6582
COSTACEAE         
Costus spicatus (jacq.) Sw. cana de macaco kidney stone herb native 0.007 0.003 0.0 6584
CRASSULACEAE         
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken malva da costa vaginal inflammation herb exotic 0.680 0.270 3.1 n.c
CUCURBITACEAE         
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai melancia fever herb exotic 0.026 0.011 0.0 6583
Cucurbita maxima Duch. ex Lam. abóbora malnutrition herb native 0.007 0.004 0.0 n.c
Cucurbita argyrosperma Huber gerimum malnutrition herb exotic 0.007 0.004 0.0 n.c
Luffa operculata (L.) Cogn. cabacinho abortive climber native 0.013 0.008 50.0 8107
Momordica charantia L. melão itching climber exotic 0.020 0.007 33.3 6577
Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. chuchu back pain climber exotic 0.046 0.011 28.6 n.c
ERYTHROXYLACEAE         
Erythroxylum ampliofolium (Mart.) O.E. Schulz catuaba erectile dysfunction shrub native 0.222 0.093 80.0 6649
EUPHORBIACEAE         
Croton blanchetianus Baill. marmeleiro diarrhea shrub native 0.105 0.025 11.1 6594
Croton campestris A.St.-Hil. velame cutaneous illness herb native 0.490 0.175 67.3 6622
Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill. pinhão bravo headache shrub native 0.046 0.016 0.0 6612
Jatropha gossypiifolia L. pinhão roxo neuralgia shrub native 0.092 0.027 12.5 6645
Manihot esculenta Crantz macaxeira malnutrition shrub native 0.007 0.003 0.0 8109
Manihot esculenta Crantz mandioca hematomas shrub native 0.033 0.010 75.0 6691
Ricinus communis L. mamona constipation shrub exotic 0.144 0.033 42.9 n.c
FABACEAE         
Acosmium dasycarpum (Vogel.) Yakovlev pau pra tudo all kind of pain tree native 0.111 0.058 35.7 n.c
Amburana cearensis (Allemão) A.C. Sm. imburana bronchitis tree native 0.314 0.076 8.3 n.c
Bauhinia outimouta Aubl. mororó teething in children shrub native 0.085 0.023 22.2 6647
Bauhinia variegata L. pata de vaca diabetes tree exotic 0.059 0.023 16.7 n.c
Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth sicupira back pain tree native 0.229 0.104 30.4 n.c
Caesalpinia ferrea C.Mart. pau ferro bronchitis tree native 0.163 0.056 41.2 n.c
Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. andu hoarse shrub exotic 0.118 0.030 8.3 n.c
Centrosema sp. alcançu bronchitis shrub native 0.569 0.215 70.9 6699
Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. podoia arthritis tree native 0.425 0.153 47.2 6661
Crotalaria incana L. chucalinho colic shrub native 0.013 0.004 0.0 n.c
Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul. faveira back pain tree native 0.059 0.093 100.0 6598
Dioclea grandiflora Benth. mucunã back pain climber native 0.007 0.005 100.0 n.c
Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong tamburí stomachache tree native 0.052 0.020 0.0 n.c
Hymenaea stignocarpa Mart. ex. Hayne jatobá expectorant tree native 0.634 0.274 55.9 6585
Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit linhaça high cholesterol tree exotic 0.105 0.024 55.6 n.c
Mimosa pudica L. malicia tooth pain shrub native 0.007 0.005   6689
Parkia platycephala Benth. visgueiro healing wounds tree native 0.020 0.008 0.0 6654
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link manjerioba abortive shrub native 0.072 0.029 0.0 6635
Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart. barbatenã healing wounds or scars tree native 1.144 0.451 75.7 n.c
Vicia faba L. fava carbuncle climber exotic 0.007 0.001 100.0 6693
Vigna unguiculata L., Walp. feijão de corda carbuncle climber exotic 0.026 0.002 66.7 6579
KRAMERIACEAE         
Krameria tomentosa A. St.-Hil. carrapicho de boi abortive shrub native 0.137 0.036 50.0 n.c
LAMIACEAE         
Aeollanthus sp. hortelã throat pain herb exotic     n.c
Hyptis martiusii Benth. cidreira brava flu shrub native 0.007 0.001 0.0 n.c
Mentha piperita L. hortelã throat pain herb exotic 0.915 0.397 8.2 6607
Ocimum gratissimum L. alfavaca sinusitis herb exotic 0.209 0.070 4.8 6605
Ocimum americanum L. manjericão inner ear pain herb exotic 0.144 0.044 15.4 n.c
Ocimum basilicum L. manjericão inner ear pain herb exotic     n.c
Plectranthus neochilus Schltr. boldo indigestion herb exotic 0.183 0.084 0.0 6621
Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. malva do reino expectorant herb exotic 1.000 0.448 7.5 n.c
Plectranthus barbatus Andrews sete dor indigestion shrub exotic 0.170 0.072 5.3 6640
Rhaphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart.) Schauer betonca pain when urinate herb native 0.052 0.008 0.0 6692
Rosmarinus officinalis L. alecrim stomachache herb exotic 0.967 0.438 33.0 6597
LAURACEAE         
Persea americana Mill. abacate diuretic tree exotic 0.229 0.060 14.3 6595
LYTHRACEAE         
Punica granatum L. romã throat inflammation shrub exotic 0.235 0.089 51.7 6611
MALPHIGIACEAE         
Byrsonima sericea DC. murici hemorrhage tree native 0.052 0.015 16.7 n.c
Malphigia glabra L. acerola anemia shrub exotic 0.046 0.015 66.7 6688
Stigmaphyllon paralias A. Juss. salsa parrilha scabies shrub native 0.039 0.015 66.7 n.c
MALVACEAE         
Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench quiabo snake bite herb exotic 0.007 0.006 0.0 6572
Gossypium barbadense L. algodão carbuncle shrub exotic 0.026 0.004 0.0 n.c
Gossypium hirsutum L. algodão carbuncle shrub exotic     n.c
Sida cordifolia L. malva branca teething in children herb native 0.216 0.068 26.3 n.c
Waltheria indica L. malva “no local use” herb native 0.000 0.005 100.0 n.c
MELIACEAE         
Azadirachta indica A. Juss. neem lice tree exotic 0.020 0.007 0.0 6602
MENISPERMACEAE         
Cissampelos ovalifolia DC. orelha de onça indigestion herb native 0.320 0.109 32.3 6641
MUSACEAE         
Musa paradisiaca L. banana flu herb exotic 0.033 0.011 0.0 6620
MYRTACEAE         
Campomanesia eugenioides (Cambess.) D.Legrand fruta bola malnutrition shrub native 0.013 0.001 50.0 n.c
Eucalyptus citriodora F. Muell. eucalipto sinusitis tree exotic 0.673 0.220 26.6 6576
Eugenia uniflora L. pitanga intestinal parasites shrub native 0.065 0.016 0.0 n.c
Myrciaria sp. cambuí the informant do not record the local use shrub native 0.000 0.002 0.0 6650
Psidium guajava L. goiaba healing wounds tree native 0.065 0.025 12.5 n.c
Psidium guajava L. goiaba branca dysentery tree native 0.078 0.027 12.5 n.c
Psidium sobraleanum Proença & Landrum goiabinha dysentery shrub native 0.065 0.033 0.0 6664
Psidum myrsinites DC. araçá vermelho diarrhea tree native 0.190 0.088 4.3 6619
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels azeitona preta diabetes tree exotic 0.013 0.001 0.0 6610
NYCTAGINACEAE         
Boerhavia diffusa L. pega pinto skin diseases in children herb exotic 0.059 0.014 0.0 n.c
Mirabilis jalapa L. bonina brain hemorrhage herb exotic 0.033 0.009 0.0 6588
OLACACEAE         
Ximenia americana L. ameixa healing wounds or scars shrub native 0.621 0.233 46.7 6571
PASSIFLORACEAE         
Passiflora edulis Sims maracujá insomnia climber native 0.085 0.026 36.4 8104
Passiflora cincinnata Mast. maracujá do mato insomnia climber native 0.190 0.047 5.0 6581
Passiflora sp. maracujá peroba calmative climber native 0.007 0.002 100.0 6648
Turnera subulata Sm. xanana renal infection herb native 0.092 0.030 33.3 6609
PHYLLANTHACEAE         
Phyllanthus urinaria L. quebra pedra kidney stone herb native 0.170 0.055 10.5 n.c
PHYTHOLACCACEAE         
Petiveria alliacea L. tipí inner ear pain herb native 0.052 0.010 0.0 6658
PLANTAGINACEAE         
Plantago sp. chapeu de couro the informant do not record the local use herb   0.000 0.004 0.0 6638
POACEAE         
Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) Hitchc. capim de planta diuretic herb exotic 0.026 0.004 0.0 n.c
Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. capim santo calmative herb exotic 0.444 0.191 5.8 6628
Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor citronela sinusitis herb exotic 0.020 0.005 0.0 6586
Saccharum officinarum L. cana calmative herb exotic 0.131 0.039 0.0 6568
Zea mays L. milho urinary infection herb exotic 0.013 0.001 0.0 6646
POLYGALACEAE         
Polygala paniculata L. caninana rheumatism herb native 0.046 0.023 66.7 6642
PROTEACEAE         
Roupala montana Aubl. congonha liver problems tree native 0.124 0.039 40.0 6666
RHAMNACEAE         
Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. juazeiro expectorant tree native 0.092 0.021 20.0 n.c
RUBIACEAE         
Coffea arabica L. café throat pain shrub exotic 0.052 0.023 0.0 n.c
Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl.) K.Schum. genipapim bone fracture shrub native 0.013 0.010 33.3 n.c
RUTACEAE         
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck laranja somniferous and calmative tree exotic 0.340 0.107 17.1 6651
Citrus aurantium (L.) laranja da terra intestinal parasites tree exotic 0.020 0.009 25.0 6701
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. limão cold tree exotic 0.163 0.052 36.4 n.c
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack jasmim laranja indigestion shrub exotic 0.124 0.045 0.0 n.c
Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth jaborandi fever shrub native 0.046 0.019 11.1 6573
Ruta graveolens L. arruda general pain herb exotic 1.183 0.479 59.4 6643
SALICACEAE         
Casearia javitensis Kunth café bravo fatigue shrub native 0.007 0.002 0.0 6617
SANTALACEAE         
Phoradendron mucronatum (DC.) Krug & Urb. estreico de passarinho measles parasitic native 0.007 0.005 0.0 n.c
SAPINDACEAE         
Magonia pubescens A. St.-Hil. tingui healing wounds tree native 0.007 0.001 0.0 n.c
Serjania sp. cipó de vaqueiro hematoma climber native 0.007 0.004 0.0 6575
Talisia escuelenta A. St.-Hil.) Radlk. pitomba rheumatism tree native 0.013 0.007 0.0 6593
SAPOTACEAE         
Pouteria glomerata (Miq.) Radlk. mamelada cough tree native 0.007 0.001 0.0 6629
SCROPHULARIACEAE         
Scoparia dulcis L. vassourinha teething in children herb native 0.235 0.073 14.3 6587
SMILACACEAE         
Smilax campestris Griseb. japecanga cough climber native 0.105 0.029 62.5 6694
SOLANACEAE         
Capsicum frutescens L. pimenta ardosa cutaneous illness herb native 0.013 0.003 0.0 6570
Solanum erianthum D. Don jurubeba skin irritation shrub native 0.033 0.012 60.0 n.c
Solanum sp. jurubeba skin irritation shrub      6636
Solanum agrarium Sendtn. melancia da praia menopaue herb native 0.052 0.019 0.0 6668
Solanum americanum Mill. vamora menopause herb native 0.013 0.010 0.0 6655
URTICACEAE         
Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. zezinho breathing difficulties herb native 0.007 0.004 0.0 6599
VERBENACEAE         
Lantana camara L. chumbim vaginal hemorrhage shrub native 0.046 0.016 25.0 6608
Lippia gracilis Schauer alecrim do mato carbuncle shrub native 0.026 0.016 20.0 n.c
Lippia alba Mill.) N.E.Br. ex Britton & P.Wilson carmelitana intestinal problems shrub native 0.020 0.012 0.0 6589
Lippia alba Mill.) N.E.Br. ex Britton & P.Wilson cidreira non appetite shrub native 0.569 0.244 3.3 6569
VIOLACEAE         
Hybanthus calceolaria (L.) Oken. papaconha teething in children herb native 0.346 0.101 32.3 6652
VOCHYSIACEAE         
Qualea parviflora Mart. pau piranha for the placenta to came out after birth tree native 0.052 0.027 0.0 n.c
XANTHORRHOEACEAE         
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. babosa gastritis herb exotic 0.412 0.099 0.0 6578
ZINGIBERACEAE         
Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L.Burtt & R.M.Sm. colônia low blood pressure herb exotic 0.098 0.036 0.0 6637
  1. n.c = Plants not collected or not available for collection throughout the investigation period. Identified by local literature and/or material deposited in the herbaria.