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Table 1 Local food plant uses recorded in the study area

From: Resilience at the border: traditional botanical knowledge among Macedonians and Albanians living in Gollobordo, Eastern Albania

Taxon, family and voucher specimen code Recorded Albanian folk name(s) Recorded Macedonian folk name(s) Status Plant part(s) used Traditional modalities of consumption and other recorded information Alb Mac
Allium cepa L. Qepa Кромид C AP; Bu Raw and cooked (traditionally filling for pies made with corn flour - byrekALB/komatMAC) + +
Amaryllidaceae
Allium porrum L. Pras Праз C AP Filling for pies +  
Amaryllidaceae
Allium sativum L. Hurdhëra Лук C Bu Seasoning + +
Amaryllidaceae
Atriplex hortensis L. Laboda Лабода, Лобода C L Filling for pies + +
Amaranthaceae
Beta vulgaris L. Panxhari   C R Ingredient for making halva* +  
Amaranthaceae
     L Filling for pies   +
Brassica oleracea L. Liakër, Liakra Зелка, Расол C L Pickled/lacto-fermented in water and salt); the liquid resulting from of the lacto-fermentation (rasol) was eaten with bread by the poorest community members* + +
Brassicaceae
      Sarma +  
     L Filling for pies   +
Capsicum annuum L. Spec Пиперка C Fr Cooked +  
Solanaceae
      Lacto-fermented in water and salt or in yogurt ricotta + +
Castanea sativa Mill. Kostenja   W Fr Boiled or roasted + +
Fagaceae
CAME 26314
Cornus mas L. Thana Дрен W Fr Fermented and distilled into raki + +
Cornaceae
CAME 26279
      Fermented into vinegar + +
      Syrup and compote (dried fruits boiled with water and sugar) + +
      Concentrated syrup/soft jam (pekmez) +  
      Jam   +
      (Fermented?) beverage obtained boiling the fruits in water for a few hours (the resulting beverage is kind of a fruit soda, which is kept in the fridge or in the cellar; considered very healthy, is often consumed adding sugar)   +
Corylus avellana L. Leithija Лешник W Se Raw and dried + +
Betulaceae
CAME 26242
Crataegus monogynaJacq. Cut, Murriz Глогиня, Глогиня дива (C. monogyna), Глогиня питома (C. sericea) W Fr Snack   +
Rosaceae   
CAME 26280   
Crataegus sericea Dzekov §   
Rosaceae   
CAME 26278
      Fermented beverage   +
      Fermented into raki   +
Cucumis sativus L. Kastravec Kраставицa C Fr Pickled/lacto-fermented (in water and salt) + +
Cucurbitaceae
CAME 26291
Cucurbita maxima Duch Kungull Tиква C Fr Filling for pies; pickled/lacto-fermented (in water and salt) + +
Cucurbitaceae
Cydonia oblonga Mill. Ftoi Дуња C Fr Jams (sometimes prepared dipping in a preliminary procedure the fruits pieces in water and lime, then boiling with sugar, so that the fruit pieces remained hard at the end) + +
Rosaceae
CAME 26290
      Compote (fruits boiled with water)   +
      Fermented (?) beverage obtained boiling the fruits in water for a few hours (the resulting beverage is kind of fruit soda, which is kept in the fridge or in the cellar   +
Daucus carota L.    C R Lacto-fermented in water and salt +  
Apiaceae
CAME 26208
Fagus sylvatica L. Ahu Бук W K Raw as snack (however, consumption of large amounts may generate headaches)* + +
Fagaceae
CAME 26249
     Wo Fuel for smoking meat +  
Fragaria × ananassa Duch. ex Rozier Lule shtrydhe   C Fr Raw +  
Rosaceae
Fragaria vesca L. Derthea, Dirthene Ягодка, Ягода W Fr Raw + +
Rosaceae
CAME 26247
Helianthus tuberosus L.   Шалгун SD T Raw or cooked   +
Asteraceae
CAME 26312
Hordeum vulgare L. Elb Jaчмен C Frfl Bread (mixed with rye flour)* +  
Poaceae
     Fr Roasted and decocted, as a kind of coffee +  
Juglans regia L. Arra Орев SD; C K Raw, or various cakes + +
Juglandaceae
CAME 26238
Juniperus communis L. Dllinja Смрека W Fr Fermented and distilled into raki + +
Cupressaceae
CAME 26253
      Seasoning ingredient for lacto-fermented vegetables   +
Lactuca sativa L. Sallata Лоштика C L Raw of filling for pies   +
Asteraceae
Malus domestica Borkh. Molla (Molla e kuqe, Sterkinka) Јаболка (италианска, кисели, Ренета, Штерка) C Fr Raw and dried (hoshaf) + +
Rosaceae  
CAME 26236
      Sliced and dried; consumed boiled   +
     Fr Fermented and distilled in raki +  
Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Molla e egër Дива Јаболка W Fr Dried (hoshaf)   +
Rosaceae
CAME 26288
      Fermented into vinegar + +
Medicago sativa L. Jonxha   C L Cooked, as an emergency (famine) food* +  
Fabaceae
CAME 26292
Morus alba L. Mani Mурвинка C Fr Jams and compote +  
Moraceae
CAME 2631
      Fermented and distilled into raki +  
Phaseolus vulgaris L. Fasulja, Grosh Грав C Fr; Se Cooked + +
Fabaceae
     L Filling for pies   +
      Sarma   +
     UF Cooked, filling for pies   +
Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. Kumbullë Elbasani, Kumbullë kokormadhe Слива Елбасанска SD Fr Fermented and distilled in raki + +
Rosaceae
CAME 26266
      Fermented (?) beverage obtained boiling the fruits in water for a few hours +  
      Jam   +
Prunus avium (L.) L. Qershija Цреша (питома) C Fr Raw + +
Rosaceae
CAME 26240
Prunus cerasus L.
CAME 26298
Rosaceae
      Jams + +
      Compote (fruits boiled with water and sugar)   +
      Fermented (?) beverage obtained boiling the fruits in water for a few hours (the resulting beverage is kind of fruit soda, which is kept in the fridge or in the cellar)   +
      Dye for hard boiled eggs to which are consumed on St. George’s Day, as a good omen   +
Prunus cerasus var. marasca (Host) Vis. Qershija e egër Дива цреша W; C Fr Raw + +
Rosaceae
CAME 26299
Prunus cocomilia Ten.   Дива слива W Fr Fermented and distilled into raki   +
Rosaceae
CAME 26277
Prunus domestica L. Kumbulla Слива (блага, магарица, жолта, синица) C Fr Raw and dried + +
Rosaceae
CAME 26239
      Fermented and distilled into raki + +
      Jam + +
      Fermented (?) beverage obtained boiling the fruits in water for a few hours (the resulting beverage is kind of fruit soda, which is kept in the fridge or in the cellar)   +
Prunus spinosa L. Kolumbria, Kurmulia Дива слива W Fr Gathered after the frost and consumed raw as snack, or fermented and distilled into raki, or transformed into a compote +  
Rosaceae
CAME 26260
Pyrus communis L. Dardha Kруша C Fr Raw and dried +  
Rosaceae
CAME 26306
      Compote (fruits boiled with water and sugar)   +
      Jam +  
      Fermented and distilled into raki +  
      Fermented (?) beverage obtained boiling the fruits in water for a few hours (the resulting beverage is kind of fruit soda, which is kept in the fridge or in the cellar)   +
Pyrus pyraster (L.) Burgsd. Dhardhë e egër, Gorrica Дива круша W Fr Gathered after the frost, ripened on straw, and consumed dried or in compote + +
Rosaceae
CAME 26244
Pyrus amygdaliformis Vill.
Rosaceae
CAME 26316
      Jam   +
Ribes multiflorum Kit. ex Roem. et Schult.   Диво грозje W Fr Snack   +
Grossulariaceae
CAME 26263
Rubus idaeus L.   Малина W; C Fr Snack   +
Rosaceae
CAM 26321
      Syrup and compote (fruits boiled with water)   +
Rubus hirtus Waldst. et Kit. Fermoza, Manaferra Капина W Fr Raw and jams + +
Rosaceae
CAME 26258
Rubus ulmifolius Schott
Rosaceae
CAME 26310
Rubus caesius L.
Rosaceae
CAME 26245
      Syrup and compote (fruits boiled with water)   +
      Fermented and distilled in raki +  
Rumex acetosa L. Ufull, Uthull Киселец W L Boiled, then in filling for pies (byrekALB/komatMAC) or as vegetables cooked with rice and dairy products (buranjeALB/zeljeMAC); traditionally dried and then used during the whole winter   +
Polygonaceae
CAME 26243
Rumex conglomeratus
Murray
CAME 26286
Polygonaceae
      Infusion: to be used for preparing yogurt (if starter culture is missing)   +
     L; St Snack + +
Rumex patientia L. Lepjeta Щавел W L Boiled, then used filling for pies or as vegetables cooked with dairy products; traditionally dried and then used during the winter + +
Polygonaceae
CAME 26285
Secale cereale L. Thekna Рж C Frfl Mixed with corn flour: bread, esp. in the past* + +
Poaceae
     Fr Roasted and decocted, as a kind of coffee +  
Solanum lycopersicum L. Domate, Patlixhan kuqe Црвени патлиџани C UF Lacto-fermented in water and salt + +
Solanaceae  
     Fr Raw and cooked + +
     L Cooked (emergency/famine food)* +  
Solanum melongena L. Patlixhan i zezë Црни патлиџани C Fr Cooked +  
Solanaceae
Solanum tuberosum L. Patate Компири C T Cooked + +
Solanaceae
     YL Filling for pies (only in the past among Albanians)*. The bitter taste is particularly appreciated by the Macedonian communities; young potatoe leaves are the most common filling for the traditional pie (komat) in June, after the young nettle’s season end + +
      Sarma   +
Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H. Wigg. Qumështore Млечак, Млекаица, Жело W L Salads   +
Asteraceae
CAME 26289
Urtica dioica L. Hjeth, Hisel, Hithra, Hith Коприва W YL Boiled, then used in filling for pies or cooked with rice and dairy products + +
Urticaceae
CAME 26262
Vaccinium myrtillus L. Borovnica, Rrush i egër Диво грозje, Цршине W Fr Snack + +
Ericaceae   
      Fermented into a fruit soda-like beverage   +
      Compote   +
Vitis labrusca L. Rrush (variety Çelek) Грозje (Шилек) C Fr Fermented into wine or vinegar + +
Vitaceae
CAME 26265
      Concentrated juice (pekmez)   +
      Fermented (?) beverage obtained boiling the fruits in water for a few hours (the resulting beverage is kind of fruit soda, which is kept in the fridge or in the cellar   +
     L Sarma + +
Zea mays L. Misër Пченка C Frfl Bread, pies + +
Poaceae
     YL Filling for pies   +
Diverse tree species    W; C WA Added to flour, water, and eggs for producing home-made noodles (jufka) +  
      As a disinfectant, rubbed onto the sheep’s stomach before it is cooked and eaten   +
      Added to water when boiling corn   +
  1. §: first record of the species in Albania.
  2. In bold: folk taxa quoted by more than 40% of the informants.
  3. C: cultivated; SD: semi-domesticated; W: wild.
  4. *: past use.
  5. +: recorded use.
  6. Plant part(s) used: AP aerial parts; Bu bulbs; Fr fruits; Frfl flour from fruits; K kernels; L leaves; R roots; Se seeds; St stems; T tubers; UF unripe fruits; Wo wood; WA ashes from wood; YL young leaves.