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Table 2 Medicinal local plant uses recorded in the study area

From: Resilience at the border: traditional botanical knowledge among Macedonians and Albanians living in Gollobordo, Eastern Albania

Taxon, family and voucher specimen code Folk name(s) recorded among Albanians Folk name(s) recorded among Macedonians Status Plant part(s) used Recorded modalities of medicinal uses(s) and treated pathologies Alb Mac
Achillea collina (Becker ex Rchb.f.) Heimerl   Бело цвеkе W Fl Decoction: cicatrizing on wounds   +
Achillea millefolium L.
CAME 26294
Allium cepa L. # # C J Instilled in the ear for treating earaches   +
Allium porrum L. # # C AP Heated, mixed with water and salt, to externally treat chilblains   +
     J Instilled in the ear for treating earaches +  
Allium sativum L. # # C Bu Consumed as an anti-hypertensive + +
      To be worn as amulet against the evil-eye in the or in necklaces (sysh, naok) + +
Arum italicum Mill. Shakulliza   W Fr Infusion: arthritis +  
Asplenium trichomanes L. Fier guri   W L Infusion: diuretic + +
CAME 26293
Bovista sp. Fenë arrushe, Fushkaica Пуша W DFB Externally applied on wounds + +
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.   Овцец W AP Fodder   +
Cornus mas L. # # W Fr Consumed as snack for strengthening the heart   +
CAME 26279
      Fermented into vinegar, applied on the breast: anti-fever +  
      Fermented and distilled in raki, drunk: anti-asthmatic; believed to able to treat “seven” diseases   +
     FB As part of the lule ditvere (“flower of the summer”) bunch, which is hang in March on the churn and on the stable doors, as a good omen for the diary production + +
Corylus avellana L. # # W FB As part of the lule ditvere (“flower of the summer”) bunch, which is hung in March on the churn, as a good omen for the dairy production   +
CAME 26242
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. # # W Th Externally applied: for treating snake bites +  
CAME 26280
Crataegus sericea Dzekov§
CAME 26278
     L; F Infusion: for treating headaches, insomnia, hypertension, anti-rheumatic, anti-cancer   +
     Fr Decoction: cardiotonic, stomachaches, anti-fever, anti-rheumatic   +
     FB As part of the lule ditvere (“flower of the summer”) bunch, which is hung in March on the churn and on the stable doors, as a good omen for the dairy production; same at St. George’s day (May 6th )   +
Cruciata laevipes Opiz Gjak edhe qumësht   W AP Crushed, mixed with salt, and given as fodder to the sheep at St. George’s Day (May 6th): considered propitiatory for the good health of the animals +  
CAME 26276
Cydonia oblonga Mill. # # C L Infusion: stomachache + +
CAME 26290
Euphorbia characias L. Rrydh, Shpengull Лишај W R As part of the lule ditvere (“flower of the summer”) bunch, which is hang on the churn, as a good omen for the diary production + +
CAME 2628
Fraxinus excelsior L.   Jасика W L Infusion: diuretic   +
CAME 26304
Helleborus odorus Waldst. et Kit. ex Willd. Kukurek, Lule ditvere Кукурек W R Inserted on the horse ear: panacea +  
CAME 26282
     F As part of the lule ditvere (“flower of the summer”) bunch, which is hang on the churn, as a good omen for the dairy production + +
Helichrysum plicatum DC. and other Helichrysum species Borsillok i verdhë Свилен W FAP Infusion: appetizing, stomachaches, as a digestive, anti-diarrheal, cardiotonic, diuretic, anti-moths   +
CAME 26274
      Infusion: hepatitis +  
Hypericum perforatum L.   Балсам W FAP Infusion: stomachache   +
CAME 26270
Juglans regia L. # # SD UF Infusion: for treating hyperthyroidism   +
CAME 26238
      Crushed, externally applied on the hair as dyeing agent + +
Juniperus communis L. # # W Fr Infusion: diuretic, stomach-aches, anti-cold, bechic   +
CAME 26253
      Fermented and distilled into raki, which is drunk for treating asthma   +
Juniperus oxycedrus L.   Смрека W Fr Infusion: bechic +  
CAME 26267
Malus domestica Borkh. # # C Fr Sliced and dried; consumed boiled for treating stomachache   +
CAME 26236
Malva sylvestris L.   Леблебија W Fr Snack   +
CAME 26295
Matricaria chamomilla L. Kamomill   W FT Infusion: recreational +  
Melissa officinalis L. Bosillek Micël   C AP Infusion: headaches   +
CAME 26235
      Infusion in external washes for newlyweds, as a good omen +  
      High dosage to be avoided by males, who could lose their libido   +
Nicotiana tabacum L. Duhan   C L Dried and ground (tobacco), externally applied on wounds +  
Orchis spp. Salep Салеп W R Dried, powdered, then in decoction: panacea, reconstituent (often consumed with bread); to improve fertility in males + +
      Dried, powdered, then in decoction: hepatitis   +
Origanum vulgare L. Bozillek i malit, Çaj i malit, Çaj i zi, Çaj veni Планински чај W FT Infusion: recreational, anti-flu, bechic + +
CAME 26233        
      Infusion: anti-hepatitis +  
      Infusion: for treating stomachaches, panacea +  
Phaseolus vulgaris L. # # C Se Half beans are applied on the skin affected by a dog bite; when the beans fall off, the wound is healed +  
Plantago lanceolata L. Bar prenash, Dell, Lulë dheli, Premie Жилавец W L Crushed and topically applied on wounds: haemostatic + +
CAME 26284  
Plantago major L.  
CAME 26261
      Infusion: for treating stomachaches   +
Primula veris L. Lulë aguliçe, Lula dasht, Sgarifet Гороцвеке W FAP Infusion: panacea, cough   +
CAME 26317
      Infusion: intestinal troubles in kids   +
      Infusion: externally applied on eye inflammations   +
Prunus domestica L. # # C Fr Fermented and distilled in raki, topically applied, especially for wounds + +
CAME 26239
      Fermented and distilled into raki, which is drunk hot with sugar for treating cold   +
      Fermented and distilled into raki, externally applied with salt for treating toothache   +
Prunus spinosa L.   # W Fr Infusion: anti-rheumatic and anti-fever   +
CAME 26260
      Infusion: stomachache anti-diarrheal +  
Pyrus pyraster (L.) Burgsd. # # W Fr Decoction of the dried fruits with sugar: stomachaches   +
CAME 26244        
Pyrus amygdaliformis Vill.        
CAME 26316        
Ribes multiflorum Kit. ex Roem. et Schult.   # W Fr Consumed as snack and for treating digestive discomfort   +
CAME 26263        
Rosa canina L. s.l. Karametha, Kroc, Kroza Шипинка W Fr Infusion: panacea + +
CAME 26237
      Infusion: anti-diarrheal, stomachaches   +
      Infusion: sore throats, bechic, flu + +
      Infusion: to treat “seven diseases”, blood depurative, diuretic, cardiotonic, anti-fever   +
Rubus hirtus Waldst. et Kit. # # W Fr Oleolite in topical application: anti-haemorrhoidal +  
CAME 26258
Rubus ulmifolius Schott
CAME 26310
Rubus caesius L.
CAME 26245
      Fermented and distilled into raki, which is considered cardiotonic   +
     L Infusion: for treating stomachaches, anti-diarrheal, esp. in children +  
     Sh Externally applied on skin for treating infections +  
Sambucus ebulus L.   Див боз W Fr Externally for treating herpes   +
CAME 26254
Sideritis raeseri Boiss. et Heldr. Çai i bardhë, Çai mali   W FAP Infusion: flu +  
CAME 26281
Solanum tuberosum L. # # C T Externally applied (in slices) for treating eye inflammations or head-aches*   +
Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H. Wigg. # # W Fl As part of the lule ditvere (“flower of the summer”) bunch, which is hung on the churn, as a good omen for the diary production   +
CAME 26289
Thymus longicaulis C. Presl.   Полски чаj W AP Infusion: panacea   +
CAME 26272
Tilia platyphyllos Scop. Çaj blini Пушала W Fl Infusion: panacea + +
CAME 26241
      Infusion: recreational, flu   +
Ulmus minor Mill. and other Ulmus spp. Vidh   W G Infusion: anti-hepatitis +  
CAME 26303
Urtica dioica L. # # W L Externally rubbed on the affected part (eventually with salt): anti-rheumatic +  
CAME 26262
     L; R Infusion: anti-rheumatic + +
     YL Cooked with rice with rice, eggs, and dairy products (buranjeALB/zeljeMAC), as post-partum reconstituent   +
     AP Externally applied for treating bruises + +
      Externally rubbed on breasts in cows affected by the evil-eye   +
     R Decoction: anti-rheumatic +  
Vaccinium myrtillus L. # # W Fr Snack for treating stomachache   +
      Infusion: anti-fever   +
Verbascum longifolium Ten.   Допушке W L Infusion: flu   +
CAME 26287
Diverse tree species    W; C WC Hot charcoal put in water and the resulting liquid in external washes on the face of the child suffering from the evil-eye; or thrown on the person suspected to be the gazer   +
     WC Powdered and applied on the mom’s breast to wean the baby* +  
Diverse tree species    W; C DW Smoked, as a deterrent for bees and then anti-bites   +
     WA Externally applied (warm) on the cheek for treating toothache or on the neck for treating tonsillitis   +
Not identified   Млечка W AP Infusion: hepatitis   +
  1. §: first record of the species in Albania.
  2. In bold: folk taxa quoted by more than 40% of the informants.
  3. C: cultivated; SD: semi-domesticated; W: wild.
  4. *: past use.
  5. #: see Table 1.
  6. +: recorded use.
  7. Plant part(s) used: AP aerial parts; Bu bulbs; DFB dried fruiting body; DW decayed wood; FAP flowering aerial parts; FB flowering branches; Fl flowers; Fr fruits; FT flowering tops; G galls; J juice; L leaves; R roots; Se seeds; Sh Shoots; T tubers; Th thorns; UF unripe fruits; WA ashes from wood; WC charcoal from wood; YL young leaves.