Skip to main content

Table 2 Extraction procedure to prepare the 315 homemade single species herbal remedies (HSHR)

From: Ethnoveterinary herbal remedies used by farmers in four north-eastern Swiss cantons (St. Gallen, Thurgau, Appenzell Innerrhoden and Appenzell Ausserrhoden)

Botanical family Plant species with ≥ 3 named HSHR On farm extraction procedure (Numbers indicate the frequency of mentioned 315 HSHR)
(Number of named plant species in this family) (Numbers indicate the frequency of mentioned 315 HSHR)
None Water Alcohol Oil/Fat
Room temperature Infusion Decoction Room temperature Room temperature Heated up
Asteraceae (11) All asteraceae (73) 11   33   12 13 4
Matricaria recutita L. (26) [vs] 2a   22    2  
Flos (26)
Calendula officinalis L. (24) 4b   2   6 8 4
Flos and flos sine calice (24)
Arnica montana L. (8) 2c     5 1  
Flos (8)
Senecio ovatus Willd. (4)    4     
Herba (4)
Senecio alpinus (L.) Scop (3) [vs]    3     
Herba (3)
  Others1 (8) 3d   2   1 2  
Polygonaceae (1) Rumex obtusifolius L. (21) [vs]     4    
Radix (4)
Folium (16) 3      6 7
  Herba cum radice (1)    1     
Urticaceae (1) Urtica dioica L. (21) [vs] 11   10     
  Herba (21)
Malvaceae (3) All Malvaceae (19) 1 1 10 4   2 1
Malva neglecta Wallr. (13) [vs]   1 8    2 1
Herba (12)
Flos (1)    1     
Tilia cordata Mill. (5) 1    4    
Cortex (5)
  Others2 (1)    1     
Rubiaceae (1) Coffea arabica L. (16)    16     
  Semen (16)
Boraginaceae (1) Symphytum officinale L. (15) [vs] 5e     4 2 2
Radix (13)
  Folium (2) 2       
Rosaceae (7) All Rosaceae (15) 11   1 2 1   
Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC . (4) 4       
Herba (4)
Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch. (4) [vs] 1f    2 1   
Rhizoma (4)
Prunus spinosa L. (3) 3       
Herba (3)
  Others3 (4) 3   1     
Pinaceae (2) All Pinaceae (13) 7       6
Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. (12) 5       
Herba (5)
Resina (7) 1       6
  Others4 (1) 1       
Hypericaceae (1) Hypericum perforatum L. (12) [vs] Flos (12) 2g      10  
Linaceae (1) Linum usitatissimum L. (11) 2    9    
  Semen (11)
Lamiaceae (4) All Lamiaceae (9) 6   2    1  
Mentha canadensis L. (3) 2h   1     
Folium (3)
Salvia officinalis L. (3) 2   1     
Folium (3)
  Others5 (3) 2i      1  
Apiaceae (4) All Apiaceae (8)    5 2 1   
Carum carvi L. (3)        
Fructus (3)    1 2    
Sanicula europaea L. (3)        
Herba (3)    2   1   
  Others6 (2)    2     
Brassicaceae (3) All Brassicaceae (8) 7 1      
Brassica oleracea L. (4)        
Folium (4) 4       
Brassica napus L. (3)        
Oleum (3) 3       
  Others7 (1)   1      
Geraniaceae (2) All Geraniaceae(8) 3     1 3 1
Geranium robertianum L.s.str. (7) [vs]        
Herba (7) 2     1 3 1
  Others8 (1) 1k       
Amaryllidaceae (2) All Liliaceae (6) 4 2      
Allium sativum L. (4)        
Bulbus (4) 2      
  Others9 (2) 2       
Theaceae (1) Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (6)        
  Folium (6)    6     
Adoxaceae (1) Sambucus nigra L. (5)        
  Herba (5) 4   1     
Fagaceae (1) Quercus robur L. (5)        
  Cortex (5) 1    4    
Aquifoliaceae (1) Ilex aquifolium L. (4)        
Herba (3) 3       
  Folium (1)     1    
Poaceae (1) Avena sativa L.s.str. (3)        
  Fructus (3) 1    2    
Rhamnaceae (1) Rhamnus cathartica L. (3)        
  Herba (3) 3       
Others 10 (26) 26 other plant species (34) [vs] 181   7 2 3 3 1
Total (76)   105 4 92 30 22 40 22
  1. [vs]: voucher specimens available, voucher numbers are visible in the Additional file 1.
  2. 1Arnica chamissonis Less. (2), Solidago virgaurea L. (2), Achillea millefolium L. (1), Helianthus annuus L. (1), Tanacetum vulgare L. (1), Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip. (1); 2Althaea officinalis L. (1); 3Alchemilla vulgaris L.Agg. (1), Rubus idaeus L. (1), Malus domestica Borkh. (1), Prunus domestica L. (1); 4Abies alba Mill. (1); 5Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (2), Thymus vulgaris L. (1); 6Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (1), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (1); 7Capsella bursa- pastoris (L.) Medik (1); 8Pelargonium sidoides DC (1); 9Allium cepa L. (2); 10Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Conditiva group (1) (Amaranthaceae); Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (1) (Aspidiaceae); Betula pendula Roth (1) (Betulaceae); Cannabis sativa L. (1) (Cannabaceae); Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. (1) (Chenopodiaceae); Juniperus communis L.s.str. (2) (Cupressaceae); Thuja occidentalis L. (2) (Cupressaceae); Equisetum arvense L. (1) (Equisetaceae); Vaccinium myrtillus L. (2) (Ericaceae); Anthyllis vulneraria L.s.str. (1) (Fabaceae); Gentiana lutea L. (1) (Gentianaceae); Juglans regia L. (1) (Juglandaceae); Cinnamomum verum J.Presl (1) (Lauraceae); Lycopodium clavatum L. (1) (Lycopodiaceae); Myristica fragrans Houtt. (2) (Myristicaceae); Melaleuca alternifolia Maiden&Betche ex Cheel (2) (Myrtaceae); Fraxinus excelsior L. (2), Olea europaea L. (1) (Oleaceae); Pedicularis verticillata L. (1) (Orobanchaceae); Euphrasia officinalis L. (1), Plantago lanceolata L. (2) (Plantaginaceae); Citrus x limon (L.) Burm.f. (1) (Rutaceae); Salix caprea L. (1) (Salicaceae); Quassia amara L. (1) (Simaroubaceae); Solanum tuberosum L. (2) (Solanaceae); Tropaeolum majus L. (1) (Tropaeolaceae).
  3. aKamillosan® Liquidum used in two remedies; bCalendula tincture (pharmacy) used in one remedy; Calendula ointment (pharmacy) used in three remedies; cArnica oil (pharmacy) used in one remedy; Arnica ointment (pharmacy) used in one remedy; dGoldenrod ointment (pharmacy) used in one remedy; eComfrey emulsion (pharmacy) used in one remedy; fCommon tormentil tincture (pharmacy) used in one remedy; gSt John's wort oil (pharmacy) used in two remedies; hNPJ Liniment® and OPIFIX® (both containing Mentha arvensis L. var. piperascens) used in two remedies; iThyme oil used in one remedy; kPelargonium Spray® used in one remedy; lTea Tree oil used in two remedies.
  4. § one extraction with milk.