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Table 3 428 applications of 315 homemade herbal remedies containing a single herb (HSHR): routes of administration, categories of use, and target animal species

From: Ethnoveterinary herbal remedies used by farmers in four north-eastern Swiss cantons (St. Gallen, Thurgau, Appenzell Innerrhoden and Appenzell Ausserrhoden)

Botanical family (Number of named plant species in this family) Plant species with ≥ 3 named HSHR (Number of named remedies are given in brackets) (Numbers indicate the frequency of mentioned applications, 428 applications are mentioned totally)
Routes of administration Categories of use Target animal species Total different applications
External Internal Treatment of housing environment  
I A OR IH IU Skin Gast Infe Mast Musc Resp Others11 Cattle No spec. Others12
Asteraceae (11) All Asteraceae (73) 13 77 17   5   79 16 6 1 6   4 92 15 5 112
Matricaria recutita L. (26)   17a 13   4   15a 13 5     1 31a 2 1 34
Flos (26)
Calendula officinalis L. (24) 4b 39b 1   1   42b 1 1   1    35b 7b 3 45
Flos and flos sine calice (24)
Arnica montana L. (8) 5c 5      5     5c    6c 4   10
Flos (8)
Senecio ovatus Willd. (4)   5      5        3 2   5
Herba (4)
Senecio alpinus (L.) Scop (3)   3      3        3    3
Herba (3)
  Others1 (8) 4d 8d 3     9d 2   1    3 14d   1 15
Polygonaceae (1) Rumex obtusifolius L. (21)   1 3     1 3       4    4
Radix (4)
Folium (16) 18 8      9    6 7   4 21 3 2 26
  Herba cum radice (1)    2      2       1   1 2
Urticaceae (1) Urtica dioica L. (21)   1 28     2 8 9     10 17 1 11 29
  Herba (21)
Malvaceae (3) All Malvaceae (19) 1 23 4   1   23   5   1    26 1 2 29
Malva neglecta Wallr. (13) 1 21      21     1    19 1 2 22
Herba (12)
Flos (1)   1      1        1    1
Tilia cordata Mill. (5)    4   1     5      5    5
Cortex (5)
Others2 (1)   1      1        1    1
Rubiaceae (1) Coffea arabica L. (16)    18      17 1      16   2 18
Semen (16)
Boraginaceae (1) Symphytum officinale L. (15) 10e 4      4    1 9e    9e 5   14
Radix (13)
  Folium (2) 3           3    1 1 1 3
Rosaceae (7) All Rosaceae (15)    10    7 7 5 2     3 16   1 17
  Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. (4)       4 4        4    4
Herba (4)
  Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch. (4)    5f      4f      1 5f    5
Rhizoma (4)
  Prunus spinosa L. (3)       3 3        3    3
Herba (3)
  Others 3 (4)    5      1 2     2 4   1 5
Pinaceae (2) All Pinaceae (13) 5 14 7     15    3   6 2 25 1   26
  Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. (12)    5          4 1 5    5
Herba (5)
  Resina (7) 5 14 1     15    3   2   19 1   20
  Others4 (1)    1           1 1    1
Hypericaceae (1) Hypericum perforatum L. (12) 7g 12g    2   14g   2 1 4g    17g 4   21
  Flos (12)
Linaceae (1) Linum usitatissimum L. (11) 1   12   1    10 2   1   1 14    14
  Semen (11)
Lamiaceae (4) All Lamiaceae(9) 3 1 5 1   2 2 3   2 1 2 2 10 1 1 12
  Mentha canadensis L. (3) 3h   2      2   2h 1h    5h    5
Folium (3)
  Salvia officinalis L. (3)    3     1 1     1   2   1 3
Folium (3)
  Others5 (3)   1   1i   2 1      1i 2 3i 1   4
Apiaceae (4) All Apiaceae (8)   2 5   1   2 4 2      8    8
  Carum carvi L. (3)    3      3       3    3
Fructus (3)
  Sanicula europaea L. (3)   2    1   2   1      3    3
Herba (3)
  Others6 (2)    2      1 1      2    2
Brassicaceae (3) All Brassicaceae (8) 3 4 3     4 2    2   2 9 1   10
  Brassica oleracea L. (4) 2 3      3     2    4 1   5
Folium (4)
  Brassica napus L. (3) 1 1 2     1 2      1 4    4
Oleum (3)
  Others7 (1)    1           1 1    1
Geraniaceae(2) All Geraniaceae (8)   6 4     6   2    1 1 8 1 1 10
  Geranium robertianum L.s.str. (7)   6 3     6   2     1 7 1 1 9
Herba (7)
  Others8 (1)    1k          1k   1k    1
Amaryllidaceae (2) All Liliaceae (6) 1   4 1         1 5 4   2 6
  Allium sativum L. (4) 1   3           4 2   2 4
Bulbus (4)
  Others 9 (2)    1 1         1 1 2    2
Theaceae (1) Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (6)    7      7       6   1 7
  Folium (6)
Adoxaceae (1) Sambucus nigra L. (5)    5      4 1      5    5
  Herba (5)
Fagaceae (1) Quercus robur L. (5)   1 3   1   1 3 1      5    5
  Cortex (5)
Aquifoliaceae (1) Ilex aquifolium L. (4)       3 2       1 3    3
Herba (3)
  Folium (1)    2          2   2    2
Poaceae (1) Avena sativa L.s.str. (3) 1   2      1     1 1 3    3
Fructus (3)
Rhamnaceae (1) Rhamnus cathartica L. (3)       3 3        3    3
  Herba (3)
Others 10 (26) 26 other plant species (34) 5 10l 18    6l 8l 9 3 4 3 1 11l 34l 3l 2 39
Total (76)   71 164 159 2 11 21 182 94 36 18 37 14 47 359 37 32 428
  1. I – intact skin; A – alterated or sore skin; OR – oral; IH – inhalation; IU – intravaginal/intrauterine; Skin – skin afflictions and sores; Gast – gastrointestinal disorders and metabolic dysfunctions; Infe – Infertility and diseases of female genitals; Mast – Mastitis; Musc – Musculoskeletal system (including hematomas in the connective tissue; Resp – diseases of the respiratory tract; No spec. – no specification of the animal species (external administration).
  2. 1Arnica chamissonis Less. (2), Solidago virgaurea L. (2), Achillea millefolium L. (1), Helianthus annuus L. (1), Tanacetum vulgare L. (1), Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip.(1); 2Althaea officinalis L. (1); 3Alchemilla vulgaris L.Agg. (1), Rubus idaeus L. (1), Malus domestica Borkh.(1), Prunus domestica L. (1); 4Abies alba Mill. (1); 5Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (2), Thymus vulgaris L. (1); 6Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (1), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (1); 7Capsella bursa- pastoris (L.) Medik (1); 8Pelargonium sidoides DC (1); 9Allium cepa L. (2); 10Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Conditiva group (1) (Amaranthaceae); Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (1) (Aspidiaceae); Betula pendula Roth (1) (Betulaceae); Cannabis sativa L. (1) (Cannabaceae); Chenopodium bonuscphenricus L. (1) (Chenopodiaceae); Juniperus communis L.s.str. (2) (Cupressaceae); Thuja occidentalis L. (2) (Cupressaceae); Equisetum arvense L. (1) (Equisetaceae); Vaccinium myrtillus L. (2) (Ericaceae); Anthyllis vulneraria L.s.str. (1) (Fabaceae); Gentiana lutea L. (1) (Gentianaceae); Juglans regia L. (1) (Juglandaceae); Cinnamomum verum J.Presl (1) (Lauraceae); Lycopodium clavatum L. (1) (Lycopodiaceae); Myristica fragrans Houtt. (2) (Myristicaceae); Melaleuca alternifolia Maiden&Betche ex Cheel (2) (Myrtaceae); Fraxinus excelsior L. (2), Olea europaea L. (1) (Oleaceae); Pedicularis verticillata L. (1) (Orobanchaceae); Euphrasia officinalis L. (1), Plantago lanceolata L. (2) (Plantaginaceae); Citrus x limon (L.) Burm.f. (1) (Rutaceae); Salix caprea L. (1) (Salicaceae); Quassia amara L. (1) (Simaroubaceae); Solanum tuberosum L. (2) (Solanaceae); Tropaeolum majus L. (1) (Tropaeolaceae);11parasites, general strengthening, behaviour, sensory organs, varia; 12horses, pigs, donkeys, goats, sheep, dogs, hens, rabbits.
  3. aKamillosan® Liquidum used for two applications; bCalendula tincture (pharmacy) used for two applications, calendula unguent (pharmacy) used for five applications; cArnica oil (pharmacy) used for one application, arnica ointment (pharmacy) used for one application; dGoldenrod unguent (pharmacy) used for three applications; eComfrey emulsion (pharmacy) used for one application; fCommon tormentil tincture (pharmacy) used for one application, gSt John's wort oil (pharmacy) used for four applications; hNPJ Liniment® and OPIFIX® (both containing Mentha arvensis L. var. piperascens) used for three applications; 1Thyme oil used for one application; kPelargonium Spray® used for one application;1Tea Tree oil used for two applications.