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Table 5 Concentration of medicinal plants in homemade single species herbal remedies (HSHR) in preparations for topical use

From: Ethnoveterinary herbal remedies used by farmers in four north-eastern Swiss cantons (St. Gallen, Thurgau, Appenzell Innerrhoden and Appenzell Ausserrhoden)

Plant species with ≥ 3 HSHR and documented dosage g dry plant equivalent in 100 g finished product Recommended concentration g dry plant equivalent in 100 g finished product [41],[42],[48],[49]
Extraction
with water
Extraction with alcohol Extraction with oil/fat Arithmetic mean (median; minimum value - maximum value) Extraction with water Extraction with alcohol Extraction with oil/fat
Calendula officinalis L. Flos and flos sine calice (21) 0.10, 0.20 0.01, 0.03, 0.34, 0.38, 0.43, 0.91, 2.33 0.28, 0.34, 0.50, 1.22, 1.10 0.67-1.33 [42] 50.001[42] 1.00-5.003[42]
1.52, 1.73, 1.76, 1.82,
20.002[42]
  (0.91; 0.01-3.27)
  1.82, 1.87, 2.22, 3.27
Rumex obtusifolius L. Folium (13)    1.52, 1.52, 4.31 - - -
1.75, 1.82,
1.98, 2.00,
2.33, 2.77, (2.33; 1.52-20.00)
3.08, 3.59,
  3.64, 10.00, 20.00
Hypericum perforatum L.    0.62, 0.66, 1.58 5.00- 10.004[41] - 5.005[49] 11.004[48]
0.76, 1.43,
(1.69; 0.62-3.00)
1.49, 1.89,
Flos (10)
1.96, 2.00,
  2.00, 3.00
Matricaria recutita L. Flos (10) 0.04, 0.18, 0.23, 0.37, 0.40, 0.40, 0.85, 5.00   2.12, 5.65 1.52 0.5 [42] - -
  (0.40; 0.04- 5.65)
Symphytum officinale L. Radix (8)   3.51, 4.26, 4.43, 8.33 1.82, 3.45, 6.35, 6.67 4.85 - - up to 17.5 [42]
  (4.35; 1.82-8.33)
Malva neglecta Wallr. Herba (6) 0.20, 0.40, 0.40, 0.80   1.82, 1.82 0.79 - - -
(0.40; 0.10-1.82)
Flos (1) 0.10       
Arnica montana L. Flos (6)   0.90, 0.91, 1.14, 1.96, 2.33 10.00 2.87 2.0 [42] 10.00-33.33 [42] -
  (1.55; 0.90-10.00)
Geranium robertianum L.s.str. Herba (4)    0.71, 0.74, 0.90, 0.94 0.82 - - -
  (0.82; 0.71-0.94)
Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. Resina (4)    3.53, 12.93, 27.27, 31.75 18.87 - - -
  (20.10; 3.53- 31.75)
  1. 140% ethanol, 290% ethanol, 3semi-solid preparations, 4herb, 5flowering twigs.