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Table 1 Medicinal plants use in Chail valley

From: An Ethnobotanical study of Medicinal Plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (District Swat- Pakistan)

*Taxon (BN/ VSN/ F/LN) **Life form Part used Preparation method Disease treated ***FC n = 142 ****RFC *** Previous uses in Neighboring regions
Achyranthes aspera L. H Stem Dried ground stem mixed with powdered leaves of Menthalongifolia and taken orally. High Fever, Chest problems 49 0.34 1 , 2 ▲, 3 , 4 ▲
ISL 582        
Amaranthaceae        
Spay Butay        
Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf ex Holmes H Rhizome Powder of dried rhizomes is used. Joint pain, High fever, Stupor, Soothing 111 0.78 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 614        
Ranunculaceae        
Zahar Mora        
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle H Roots and rhizomes The dried pulverized roots are mixed with butter oil and taken orally. Mild fever, Sexual weakness, Anthelminthic 69 0.48 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 615        
Ranunculaceae        
SarbaZelai        
Acorus calamus L. H Root Dried powdered roots are mixed with sugar and taken orally. Digestive disorders, Chronic dysentery 43 0.30 1 , 2 , 3 ■, 4 ■
ISL 587        
Aracaceae        
Skhawaja        
Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth H Leaves Leaves are washed, boiled in water and left overnight in dew; this decoction is taken before breakfast. Skin infections, High fever 35 0.24 1 ■, 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 599        
Lamiaceae        
Khawaja booti        
Amaranthus spinosus L. H Leaves and young shoots Leaves and young shoots are boiled in water and this decoction is directly used. Biliousness 45 0.31 1 ▲, 2 , 3 ▲, 4
ISL 583        
Amaranthaceae        
Chalveray        
Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. H Fruit and flower Dried fruits and flowers mixed with dried fruits ofBuniumpersicum, ground and taken. Heart diseases, Bronchial asthma/Breathing problems, Whooping cough 107 0.75 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 585        
Apiaceae        
Sperkai, Gangahai        
Artemisia biennis Willd. H Leaves Leaves are boiled in water and decoction is taken, Warm poultice of leaves is applied externally. Digestive disorders, Anthelminthic, Skin infections 27 0.19 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 590        
Asteraceae        
Tarkha        
Atropa acuminate Royle ex Lindl. H Leaves, roots and floral buds Powdered roots, leaves and floral parts are taken with milk twice a day. Urinary disorders, Stupor, Asthma/breathing problems 32 0.22 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 626        
Solanaceae        
Bargak        
Berberis lyceum Royle S Root Roots are dried and ground, butter oil is mixed with powder drug and taken with milk. Hepatitis, Menorrhagia, Chronic fever, Jaundice 127 0.89 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ■
ISL 591        
Berberidaceae        
Speen Kwaray        
Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. H Rhizome Decoction of rhizome is taken thrice a day. Urinary disorders, Skin infections, Demulcent 44 0.30 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ■
ISL 623        
Saxifragaceae        
Gat panra,        
Bistorta amplexicaulis (D.Don) Greene H Roots Powdered roots are mixed with sugar and used with milk. Urinary disorders, Cough, Sore throat, Joint pain 65 0.45 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 611        
Polygonaceae        
Anjabar, Tarvapanra        
Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch H Fruits and leaves Fresh ground leaves are taken orally, Fruits are boiled in water and decoction is used. Hearts problems 17 0.11 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 586        
Apiaceae        
Thorazera, Da ghrasperkai        
Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand S Stem, leaves and flowers Decoction of stem and leaves is taken; Latex is mixed with castor oil and applied on skin. Malarial fever, Ulcer, Eczema, Ring worms 36 0.25 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ▲
ISL 589        
Asclepiadaceae        
Spulmai        
Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke H Leaves Black pepper is mixed with decoction of leaves and taken in morning for regulating mental disorders. Mental disorders, Sexual weakness 23 0.16 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 618        
Rosaceae        
Da zamakay toot        
Elaeagnus angustifolia L. S Whole plant The paste of young shoots is mixed with juice of Datis cacannabina and applied on forehead for curing headache. Headache, Heart burning, Skin infections 113 0.79 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 593        
Elaeagnaceae        
Ghanum Rangay        
Fragaria nubicola (Hook. f.) Lindl. ex Lacaita H Leaves and roots Leaves and roots in powdered form are mixed Berberis lycium and used directly. Skin infections, Urinary disorders, Diarrhea 41 0.28 1 , 2 , 3 ■, 4
ISL 619        
Rosaceae        
Da Zmakay Toot        
Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley H Whole plant Decoction of plant is used thrice a day by adults. Blood purifier, High fever, Chest pain 61 0.42 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 596        
Fumariaceae        
Paprra        
Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet H Rhizomes Rhizomes are dried and ground into powder form. This powder is mixed in wheat flour, sugar, butter oil and traditional sweet dish is cooked and is taken once in a day. Backache, Mouth ulceration, Chronic diarrhea 132 0.92 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 598        
Geraniaceae        
Srazela, Ratanjot        
Hedera nepalensis K. Koch H Leaves Fresh and ground leaves are boiled in water and taken orally. Heart disease, Cancer, Diabetes 105 0.73 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 588        
Araliaceae        
Palulzelai        
Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Benth.) Codd S Shoots and seeds Seeds are boiled in water and then this decoction is taken orally. Skin infections, blood purifier, Gastric and abdominal pain 18 0.12 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
    Fresh shoots are crushed and soup is made which is taken orally.     
ISL 600        
Lamiaceae        
Sperkai, krachai        
Justicia adhatoda L. S Root and leaves Dried, ground leaves mixed with sugar and root extract mixed with honey are taken orally. Asthma, Cold, Cough, High fever 86 0.60 1 , 2 ▲, 3 , 4 ■
ISL 581        
Acanthaceae        
Bhaikar        
Maytenus royleana (Wall. ex M.A. Lawson) Cufod S Whole plant Fresh leaves are collected, cleaned, crushed and extract is used as eyes drops. Toothache, Eyes inflammation 45 0.31 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 592        
Celastraceae        
Spin Azghkay        
Melia azedarach L. T Fruit Ripened fruits are crushed and mixed with wheat flour. Leprosy, Urinary disorders 49 0.34 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 605        
Meliaceae        
Shandai        
Mentha longifolia (L.) L. H Leaves, shoots and floral tops Dried leaves are ground to form powder drug and then taken orally. Joint pain, Digestive disorders 126 0.88 1 ■, 2 , 3 , 4 ▲
ISL 601        
    Leaves are boiled in water and then taken for curing digestive disorders.     
Lamiaceae        
Velanay        
Micromeria biflora (Buch.-Ham ex D. Don) Benth. H Stem and leaves Stem and leaves are chewed and juice swallowed. Urinary disorders, Digestive disorders 71 0.5 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 602        
Lamiaceae        
Naraishamakai        
Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. T Leaves Leaves are boiled in water and decoction is used thrice a day. Gonorrhoea, High fever, Skin infections 65 0.45 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 606        
Oleaceae        
Khona        
Origanum vulgare L. H Whole plant Decoction of plant is taken orally. Skin infections, Sexual weakness, Digestive disorders, Intestinal pain, Urinary disorders 135 0.95 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
    Juice made from crushed plant is used for curing stomach and urinary pain.     
ISL 603        
Lamiaceae        
Shamakai        
Otostegia limbata (Benth.) Boiss. S Leaves Leaves are dried, ground and powder is mixed with honey. A table spoon is taken once a day for wound healing. Gum disease, Wounds 73 0.51 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 604        
Lamiaceae        
SpeenAzghakay        
Oxalis corniculata L. H Whole Plant Juice of fresh plant is used in stomach problems. Digestive disorders, wounds, 46 0.32 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 607    Fresh leaves are crushed and applied to wounds to stop bleeding. Jaundice,    
Oxalidaceae        
ManzakeenTarukay        
Paeonia emodi Royle H Roots Dried ground roots are fried and taken orally. Diarrhea, Rheumatic pain, Gynecological disorders, Vomiting 92 0.64 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 608    Powdered roots mixed with butter oil and taken orally.     
Paeoniaceae        
Mamaikh        
Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle. H Roots and rhizomes Decoction of rhizome is taken twice a day for a week. Digestive complaints, Heart disease 29 0.20 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 624        
Scrophulariaceae        
Karroo        
stacia integerrima J.L. Stewart ex Brandis T Bark and fruit The boil extract of bark is used. Jaundice, Bronchial disorder 66 0.46 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 584    Fruit is roasted in mustard oil, ground and then used.     
Anacardiaceae        
Shanai, Kakarsinghai        
Plantago lanceolata L. H Leaves and fruits Leaves and fruits are boiled in water. The extract is cooled and mixed with sugar which is used for curing dysentery. Urinary disorders, dysentery, Skin sores, Burns, Wounds 112 0.78 1 , 2 , 3 ▲, 4
ISL 609        
Plantaginaceae        
BaltangaJabai        
Podophyllum emodi Wall. ex Royle H Roots A decoction of dried ground roots is taken thrice a day. Vomiting, Purgative, Abdominal pain 57 0.40 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 610        
Podophyllaceae        
Gangora, Kakorra        
Quercus incana Bartram T Bark and fruits Half roasted fruit powder is mixed in honey and taken. Urinary disorders, Asthma/breathing problems, Diarrhea, Gonorrhoea 50 0.35 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 595        
Fagaceae        
Spin Banj        
Rheum australe D. Don H Whole plant Powder of plant is sprayed over the wounds for early healing. Intestinal pain, Skin infections, blood purifier 71 0.5 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 613        
Polygonaceae        
Chontal        
Ricinus communis L. S Leaves and seeds Leaves are heated and applied over the abdomen. Constipation, Jaundice, Abdominal pain 64 0.45 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 594        
Euphorbiaceae        
Aranda, Harhanda        
Rumex hastatus D. Don S Leaves and young shoots Decoction of leaves and young shoots is taken thrice a day for the treatment of constipation Urinary disorders, Cooling, Constipation, Worms problem 81 0.57 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 612        
Polygonaceae    Dried ground leaves are taken orally with water for removal of tape worms.     
Tarukay        
Salix babylonica L. T Leaves Leaves are warmed and wrapped around the infected wounds and areas of insect bites for releasing their poisonous effects. Wounds, Insect bites 69 0.48 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 622        
Salicaceae        
Aseelawala        
Skimmia laureola (DC.) Siebold & Zucc. exWalp. S Leaves Dried ground leaves are taken orally with water. Small pox, Worms problems, colic 129 0.90 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 620        
Rutaceae        
Nazarpanra, Nameer        
Swertia chirayita Roxb. H. Karst. H Whole plant An infusion of the herb is generally employed. Digestive disorders, Hepatitis, Worms problems, Dyspepsia, Diarrhea 82 0.57 1 ▲, 2 , 3 , 4 ■
ISL 597        
Gentianaceae        
Chirayata        
Valeriana jatamansi Jones H Rhizome Dried ground rhizome is taken orally with milk. Intestinal pain, neurosis, Insomnia, Constipation 61 0.42 1 , 2 , 3 ▲, 4 ■
ISL 628        
Valerianaceae        
Shingatai        
Verbascum thapsus L. H Leaves, floral parts and seeds Decoction of seeds is taken orally. Diarrhea, Dysentery, Analgesic, Skin infections 42 0.29 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
    Decoction of floral part is applied externally to the burnt part of the body.     
ISL 625        
Scrophulariaceae        
KharGhwag        
Viola pilosa Blume H Leaves and flowers Decoction of dried ground leaves and flowers mixed with honey is used thrice a day. Chest pain, High and mild fever, Stomach ulcer 115 0.80 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 630        
Violaceae        
Banafsha        
Vitex negundo L. S Leaves and stem Leaves are boiled in water, filtered and extract is use orally. Mild fever, Urinary disorders, Worms problem anthelmintic 78 0.54 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
ISL 629        
Verbenaceae        
Marwandai        
Withanias omnifera (L.) Dunal S Whole plant Roots are ground and mixed with wheat flour and butter oil and a traditional sweet is made which is used as tonic. Urinary disorders, Sexual weakness, narcotic, Rheumatic pain 83 0.58 1 , 2 ■, 3 , 4
ISL 627        
Solanaceae        
Kutilal        
Zanthoxylum armatum DC. S Bark and fruit Decoction of bark is use orally. Digestive disorders, Skin infections, Gum diseases, Toothache 123 0.86 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ■
ISL 621    Young shoots are chewed and juice is swallowed to treat the gum diseases and toothache.     
Rutaceae        
Dambara, Timbar        
Zizyphus jujuba Mill. T Leaves and fruits Leaves are chewed by diabetic patients to decrease sugar level. Skin infections, Diabetes 112 0.78 1 ▲, 2 , 3 , 4 ▲
ISL 616        
Rhamnaceae        
Markhanai, Unnab        
Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew. S Roots and fruits Roots are crushed and boiled in water. The extract is cooled, filtered and kept in dew overnight. This decoction is taken in morning for curing jaundice. Jaundice, Burnings 79 0.55 1 ▲, 2 , 3 , 4 ▲
ISL 617        
Rhamnaceae        
Markhanai, Elanai        
  1. *BN = Botanical Name, VSN = Voucher Specimen Number, F = Family, VN = Vernacular Name.
  2. **H = Herb, S = Shrub, T = Tree.
  3. ***FC = Frequency Citation, ****RFC = Relative frequency of Citation.
  4. Symbols indicate comparison of use with neighboring regions: (■) Similar use, (▲) Different use. () Use not reported.