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Table 3 List of Spanish traditional remedies based on the use of fish

From: Fish-based remedies in Spanish ethnomedicine: a review from a historical perspective

Fish species Historical period [Ref.] Part(s) used ICD-10 Treated ailment Remedy (route of administration–type) Geographical location
Acipenser sturio MED [34] Meat I Rabies It is useful for rabid dog bite (?)
  MED [34] Meat XX Bite and stings from venomous animals “If a person who has been bitten by a snake eats the crocodile like fish and then drinks wine vomits, this is good and will save them from death. This fish is useful for bites from the horned viper and those of scorpions and salamanders. If the sea hare is crushed in vinegar and applied this also relieves pain” (IN–EMP)
  CON [77] Swim bladder XIII Lumbago Give massages with fish jelly. The higher quality gelatin is obtained from the swim bladder of this species (EX–EMP) Doñana (Andalusia)
Anguilla anguilla ANC [26] Whole animal V Alcoholism The drink resulting from drowning two eels in wine … will cause rejection of wine in those who drink it (IN–EMP)
  ANC [29] Blood V Drunkenness (inebriation) To remove drunkenness, it is necessary to prepare a potion with wine and three drops of blood of eel, uttering magic words, in relation to the cabalistic numbers 3, 5 and 7. Once the drunk has taken this concoction, he will be free from drunkenness for the space of one month (IN–EMP)
  MED [34] Bile V Mental disorders Its bile removes madness when it is inhaled (IN–EMP)
  MED [34] XI Liver pain
  MED [34] XIV Aphrodisiac
  MED [34] XVIII Jaundice (unspecified)
  MDR [35] Whole animal V Alcoholism Those who drink wine in which eels have been drowned, develop an aversion to wine (IN–EMP)
  MDR [36] Whole animal, blood V Alcoholism “This property of making wine to be hated, attributed to eel, whenever they are drowned in wine, or if its blood is added to it” (IN–EMP)
  MDR [35] Fat VIII Otitis Its fat cures ears (?)
  MDR [36] Fat VIII Diseases of the ears “Its enxundia (fat), says the book entitled The Garden of Health, is used to cure ear diseases” (?)
  CON [68] Meat IV Obesity Obesity is prevented those whose parents ate eels while they were in the womb (IN–MAG) Talarrubias, Peloche, Herrera del Duque (Badajoz)
  CON [53] Blood V Alcoholism To cure his vice [of the drunk], we must make him drink the blood of eel, without him knowing. It is thought that drunkenness is remedied by drinking eel blood (IN–EMP) Basque Country
  CON [64] Whole animal V Alcoholism There were those who introduced a whole eel into the bottle of wine for them to drink the liquid [without them knowing] (IN–EMP) Goizueta (Navarra)
  CON [41] Meat XIII Gout Eel brine ointments (EX–EMP) Galicia
  CON [52] Meat XIII Gout pain Brine of eel (EX–EMP) Galicia
  CON [44, 56] Liver XV Facilitate delivery Eating eel liver is considered optimal (IN–EMP) Mogarraz (Salamanca)
Argyrosomus regius CON [73] Otoliths VII Eye diseases and their prevention “Piedra de corvina”… a patient had a stone as a pendant to protect him/her against the diseases of the eye (EX–MAG) Province of Palencia
  CON [42, 71] Otoliths XIV Sterility “Meagre White Stones”… are considered as a remedy in the irregularities of pregnancy… hang (amulet) around the waist two white stones (EX–MAG) Canary Islands
  CON [73] Otoliths XIV Nephropathies “Bone amulet: stone basse” … in our field work we found that this fish amulet has preventive properties and relieve failing “kidney diseases”. We have seen people wear it as a pendant in the neck for nephritic diseases (EX–MAG) Province of Palencia
  CON [77] Otoliths Prophylaxis (in general) This “little stone” is usually carried as a protective amulet. Although formerly many were fishermen that had just in the pocket or in a cloth bag, is now easier to see set in gold or silver as a pendant (EX–MAG) Doñana (Andalusia)
Brama brama MED [30] Bile VII Eye diseases Its bile is used in ophthalmic drugs (IN–EMP)
  MED [34] Bile VII Eye diseases Among the types of fish, the japuta is balanced. It tends to be hot, because of its speed of movement and how much it jumps. Its bile is more useful for the eyes than that of other fish, and so doctors use it as eye drops. Eye remedies made from bile refresh the body, especially in thin people (IN–EMP)
Clupea harengus harengus CON [43] Meat I Worms Cured herring … which indeed provides an adjuvant action (IN–EMP) Basque Country
  CON [55] Meat II Sarcoma A family member of my informant had a leg tumour removed that quickly returned. The diagnosis was sarcoma. In view of this, to cure of this evil it was recommended that he made use of a container used for herrings with several holes in its base. Introducing two live toads into the vessel it was closed with a lid and placed over the sarcoma, tied in position with a bandage. If the toads were still alive the day after having carried out this procedure, then the patient could be expected to recover. However, if the frogs were dead, it meant the irreversibility of the disease. In the house to which I allude, the toads died (EX–MAG) Basque Country
  CON [54] Meat XV To favour milk production Eating herrings in abundance (IN–EMP) Castillejo de Robledo (Soria)
  CON [43] Whole animal XVI For determining the sex of an unborn baby A superstitious practice consist in put on hot coals a herring, if it jumps or flips it indicates the birth of a boy (EX–MAG) Basque Country
  CON [51] Bone XVI For determining the sex of an unborn baby Throwing onto a fire herring bone to see if it jumps or turns (EX–MAG) Basque Country
Coris julis ANC [26] Whole animal XI Laxative Broth: releases the bowels. The best soup is made with sea scorpions and rainbow wrasse. It should be cooked with dill, celery, coriander, leek, oil and salt (IN–EMP)
Crystallogobius linearis ANC [27] Whole animal XI Laxative Fresh goby, if you put it into the belly of a pig, sew up well and cook in 12 sextarios [6.5 litres] of water until they are reduced to two, and then let to cool outdoors and drink it, will empty your bowels without discomfort (IN–EMP)
  ANC [27] Whole animal XX Dog and snake bites Applied as a poultice also benefits those bitten (EX–EMP)
  MDR [36] Meat XI Relaxing the belly “He remembers Dioscorides saying: If you put one goby in the stomach of a dog, and sew it up then in twelve parts of water boiled until two, the cooled liquid will, relax the belly without any pain” (IN–EMP)
  MDR [36] Meat XX Dog and snake bites “Applied externally it is also helpful for those who have been wounded by snake, or by dogs” (EX–EMP)
Cyprinus carpio CONT [71] Bile I Erysipelas An excellent remedy for erysipelas is the sweetly anointing with a feather dipped in the bile of carp… putting on top a clean, dry cloth (EX–EMP) Canary Islands
  CONT [77] Bone, swim bladder and other leftovers XIII Lumbago Give rubs with jelly fish, obtained from cooking the bones and other debris from these fish (EX–EMP) Doñana (Andalusia)
Dasyatis pastinaca ANC [26] Sting I Scrofulous tumours It is good to lance scrofulous tumours, so that there is no wound, with the sting of the stingray, it must be done daily until it is healed completely (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Sting XI Toothache Scarifying the gums with the sting sooths them (EX–EMP)
  ANC [27] Sting XI Toothache The sting soothes toothaches, making the teeth fall out (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Liver XII Skin diseases (lichen, exfoliative dermatitis) Seal fat removes lichen and exfoliative dermatitis, with three óbolos of honey, a stingray liver cooked in oil and the ashes of a sea horse or dolphin applied with water. The treatment, which causes scaring, should be applied after excoriation (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Sting XV Facilitate delivery The sting applied to the navel, if taken from a live ray the tossed back into the sea (EX–MAG)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XX Antidote It is its own sting remedy, applied as ash, or another ray with vinegar (EX–EMP)
  MDR [36] Sting XI Toothache “The sting in the tail of the stingray located between the scales pushed up between teeth, mitigates the pain of the teeth, making them fall” (EX–EMP)
Dicologoglossa cuneata CON [77] Meat XV As galactagogue It is suggested the consumption of this fish to improve breast milk production (IN–EMP) Doñana (Andalusia)
Dipturus batis ANC [26] Bile VIII Ear diseases Fresh bile is very good for the ears, but also preserved in wine (IN–EMP)
Engraulis encrasicolus MDR [35] Whole animal I Scabies If it is introduced through cut skin, chest scabies is cured with anchovy (IN–EMP)
  MDR [35] XX Bites It is good against dog bite or sea dragon (?)
  CON [70] Meat IX Low blood pressure Eating salty foods: anchovies (IN–EMP) La Aparecida (Alicante)
Gadus morhua CON [70] Meat I Tapeworm (infection) Take cod and lots of water (IN–EMP) La Aparecida (Alicante)
  CON [50] Liver III Nutritional anaemia Take cod liver oil (IN–EMP) Alba de Tormes, Cabeza de Béjar (Salamanca)
  CON [46] Liver IV Loss of appetite (malnutrition) As a dietary supplement, the most common and popular, … is the cod liver oil (a few tablespoons) (IN–EMP) Villena (Alicante)
  CON [64] Liver IV Work up an appetite To return appetite to those who lost it cod liver oil was given (IN–EMP) Basque Country, Navarra
  CON [69] Meat IV Open appetite Eaten (IN–EMP) Guadiana del Caudillo (Badajoz)
  CON [74] Liver IV Lack of appetite The cod liver oil was taken as a tonic (IN–EMP) Comarca de Campoo (Cantabria)
  CON [64] Liver IV Rickets Some locations underscore the importance of taking cod liver oil (IN–EMP) Basque Country, Navarra
  CON [70] Liver IV Food for strength Iron and cod liver oil (IN–EMP) La Aparecida (Alicante)
  CON [75] Liver IV Take strength, restorative Cod liver oil… taken as food (IN–EMP) Fuente de Cantos (Badajoz)
  CON [70] Meat IX Low blood pressure (hypotension) Eating foods high in salt: cod… (IN–EMP) La Aparecida (Alicante)
  CON [64] Liver IX St. Vitus Dance (Sydenham chorea or chorea minor) Cod liver oil is given to the sick (IN–EMP) Abadiano (Biscay)
  CON [78] Liver X Antitussive Cod liver oil, syrup (IN–EMP) Eastern Catalan Pyrenees
  CON [76] Maxillary XI Baby toothache The “gaia” of cod (jawbone), that many children wear around their necks, is gnawed like a dummy to relive teething pain (IN–EMP) Catalonia
  CON [46] Maxillary XI Encourage good dentition in children They gave the child a jawbone of cod to bite, “hueso de bacalao” (IN–EMP) Busot (Alicante); Castillo de Villamafela (Castellón); Adamuz, Aras de Alpuente, Villar del Arzobispo (Valencia)
  CON [59] Tooth XI Encourage good dentition in children Use a good cod tooth with a hole made in it and hung by a ribbon around the neck, biting that tooth was a good remedy to prevent and ensure good teeth (IN–EMP) Valencia
  CON [64] Jaw, fins XI Encourage good dentition in children They gave the child a jawbone of cod to bite, or the round part of the fin in dried cod (IN–EMP) Basque Country, Navarra
  CON [72] Gills XI Encourage good dentition in children To relieve the pain of first teeth coming out, a cod gill was given to the child to bite (IN–EMP) La Vall d’Uixó (Castellón)
  CON [43] Meat, whole animal XV Stimulate the secretion of milk (galactagogue) To ensure abundant production of milk from the breast, intake of fried cod or cod broth are empirically recommended (IN–EMP) Basque Country
  CON [49] Meat XV Stimulate the secretion of milk (galactagogue) Eat salads with cod (IN–EMP) Comarca de El Rebollar (Salamanca)
  CON [67] Meat XV Stimulate the secretion of milk (galactagogue) Eat this fish induces liquid intake and produces milk (IN–EMP) Campo de Cartagena (Murcia)
  CON [43] Meat XIX Seasickness Habit of chewing salted cod … is usual in our fishermen, at the first sign of imbalance, which even they are not immune (IN–EMP) Basque Country
  CON [62] Meat XIX Seasickness Taking a piece of salted cod to be taken, from time to time, a fragment is inserted into the mouth and is consumed slowly (IN–EMP) Basque Country
  CON [70] Liver XIX Hunger (effects) Cod liver oil (IN–EMP) La Aparecida (Alicante)
  CON [64] Liver XXI Convalescence Given to the sick (IN–EMP) Abadiano (Biscay)
Galeorhinus galeus ANC [26] XX Antidote Cures those stung by stingray(?)
Halobatrachus didactylus ANC [26] XX Antidote Among the poisonous parts of fish is the puerco marino dorsal spine, causing great pain to those affected, the remedy is the “silt” collected from the rest of the body of this fish (?)
  CON [48] Liver I Chest infections, when it is expected to be open to having to take all the pus Put the liver on the top of the boiler of the ship, slowly obtaining a large amount of oil of that liver, called “rat oil". Another way to obtain it is with the same operation but cooking the livers in a pot where it will melt to get rat oil. The oil is used even when healing is well under way (EX–EMP) Galicia
Hippocampus hippocampus; H. guttulatus ANC [28] Whole animal I Rabies One roasted them and gave them to the sick so that they are taken and others mashed in vinegar and honey, and thus made into a poultice and applied to the bite wounds, and the result of this operation was that the rabies was dominated in young people, given the desire for water caused in them by the seahorses (IN/EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal V Urinary incontinence Roasted and taken with food, they heal urinary incontinence (IN–EMP)
  ANC [27] Whole animal XII Alopecia Whose ashes … once burned, mixed with liquid pine resin or pig lard or marjoram perfume and applied as an ointment, it makes hair sprout on bald patches (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XII Dermatitis Ash (?)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XIII Rib pains Roasted (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XVIII Fever Drown seahorses in rose oil to anointing the sick with cold fevers, and placed as amulets on the sick (EX–MAG)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XX Antidote It counteracts the poison of sea hare (?)
  MDR [35] Skin I Scabies Its raw skin is useful for scabies, when mixed with other medicines (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Whole animal XI Diarrhoea Burned alive and drunk with sweet wine, cures diarrhoea (IN–EMP)
  MDR [35] Meat XI Stomach pains Dioscorides: The taste of the seahorse is good for the stomach, calms the tummy and is diaphoretic (IN–EMP)
  MDR [35] Whole animal XII Alopecia Seahorse ash burned with all the meat and oil, restores baldness (EX–EMP)
  MDR [36] Whole animal XII Alopecia “As Dioscorides said: A small marine animal, is the Hippocampo, whose ashes mixed with wet pine resin or fat, applied as an ointment, will make hair return to wherever is bald” (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Heads XII Chloasma (mask of pregnancy) Crushed and administered with water in the form of ointment, it stops the appearance of patches (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Whole animal XV Avoid deliveries developed The seahorse if pregnant women wear them as charms up to the time of delivery, prevents early births, for this it is preserved in salt (EX–MAG)
  MDR [35] Whole animal XIV Kidney stones Crushed with thorns and drunk in wine, they remove kidney stones, sometimes given as solid food (IN–EMP)
  MDR [35] Skin XIX Wounds Burnt, it cleans infected wounds and stops worsening (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Whole animal XIX Poisoning This same fish, retains the belly, for which seahorses are very good against dorycnium (poison) (IN–EMP)
  CON [40] Whole animal I Erysipelas Amulet: wear a seahorse (hippocampus) as a necklace (EX–MAG) Province of Badajoz (near Sierra de Aracena)
  CON [47] Whole animal XI Toothache “They dried seahorses in the pocket because they say toothache cure” (EX–MAG) Aragon
  CON [66] Whole animal XI Toothache Carry dried seahorses in your pocket because it is said that they cure toothache (EX–MAG) Province of Huelva
  CON [45] Whole animal XVIII Headache Levantine area
Lophius piscatorius ANC [26] Whole animal, heart I Dysentery Marine frogs cooked with sea squill, so as to make pills, or their hearts macerated with honey (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Bone I Scrofulosis Pricking is good for scrofulous tumours, so that there is no wound, with a small tail bone of the marine fish called “frog”, it should be done daily until it is completely healed (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal I Tetanus Drinking marine frog broth cooked in oil with salt. For those who have spasms we must add pepper (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal X Tonsils (enlargement) Marine frog broth cooked in vinegar (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XII Skin conditions Cooked in seawater. It should be cooked until it reaches the consistency of honey (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Bile XII Malignant ulcers, corrosive and rotten … worms growing in them are removed with marine frog gall (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XIII Stiff neck Drinking marine frog broth cooked in oil with salt (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Entrails XIII Gout and joint diseases Oil in which marine frog bowels are cooked (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XIII Arthritis Fresh marine frog calms arthritis attacks, some apply the frogs opened (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Fat XVIII Headache Marine frog fat poured drop by drop takes the pain away (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat XX Antidote Marine frog broth cooked in wine and vinegar is drunk against poisons; … If you eat the meat it is also useful against sea hare and against snakes mentioned above also against scorpions, boiled with wine (IN–EMP)
Luciobarbus sclateri CONT [77] Bone, swim bladder and other leftovers XIII Lumbago Give rubs with jelly fish, obtained from cooking the bones and other debris from these fish (EX–EMP) Doñana (Andalusia)
Merlangius merlangus ANC [26] Bile VIII Ear diseases For the ears fresh bile is very good, but also preserved in wine (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Otoliths XIV Kidney stones In the head of bacchus there are a kind of stone, which swallowed with water are very good for those who have kidney stones (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Otoliths XVIII Fever Also the small stones found in the head of the asellus, during a full moon is hung in a washcloth as an amulet (EX–MAG)
  MDR [38] Otoliths XIV Renal colic, kidney stones Make a fine powder, and grind down crab eyes, the stones of Perches Fish, and Merlancio: Take the blood of Macho, Millet and mealybugs, and add and store for use. They are appropriate for kidney stones, for sands, for nephritic colic, and to excite the urine. Its dosage is half a scruple to a dragma (IN–EMP)
Merluccius merluccius CON [62] Liver IX Cardiac pathologies It is food that is considered very good for the heart, and is recommended to those with cardiac pathology… it is usually eaten fried (IN–EMP) Basque Country
Mugil cephalus ANC [26] Head XI Chafing of the anus Cured with the ash of mullet heads (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Head XIII Sciatica The ash of the head cures (EX–EMP)
Mullus barbatus barbatus; M. surmuletus ANC [26] Whole animal V Alcoholism The resulting drink from drowning a goatfish, … and also from marinated sea grape, causes a rejection of wine in those who drink it (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal, meat XI Indigestion Rubbed or taken in food (IN/EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XI Induce vomiting Preserved, crushed and mixed with drinking (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal, head XII Carbuncle Gets rid of carbuncles rid … the ash of salting goatfish –some use only the head with honey– (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal, meat XX Antidote Against falangia (reaper), marine dragons and land scorpions. Rubbed or taken in food (IN/EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal, meat XX Antidote It cures those stung by the stingray. Rubbed in or taken in food (IN/EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Head XX Antidote The head of a fresh goatfish, reduced to ashes, serves against all poisons, especially against those of mushrooms (IN–EMP)
  MDR [35] Whole animal V Alcoholism Those who drink wine in which a goatfish was drowned, will be averse to wine (IN–EMP)
  MDR [36] Whole animal V Alcoholism “The greatest way to make those who get drunk reject wine is to give them the liquid in which a goatfish has been drowned” (IN–EMP)
  MDR [36] Whole animal V Alcoholism “And causes tedium of wine to drink that wine in which they were drowned” (IN–EMP)
  MDR [35] Whole animal XII Carbuncle The ash of salted goatfish (EX–EMP)
  MDR [36] Whole animal (salting) XII Carbuncle Goatfish ash salt … salt with which they have been salted, cures carbuncles (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Head XIII Sciatica The ash of several goatfish heads, cures sciatica sufferers: burn in a clay pot, and use as an ointment mixed with honey (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Meat XIV Menstruation problems Helps women when menstruating (IN–EMP)
  MDR [35] Head XIX Mushroom poisoning (toxic effect) The fresh head ash is good against any type of poison, and particularly against fungi (IN–EMP)
  MDR [36] Head XIX Mushroom poisoning (toxic effect) The ash from the head against all poisons, and primarily against fungi (IN–EMP)
  MDR [35] Whole animal, meat XX Poisonous stings Pliny: goatfish is good to make an ointment against stingrays, both terrestrial and sea scorpions (rockfish), dragons and falangia; also good if eaten (IN/EX–EMP)
  MDR [36] Whole animal XX Poisonous stings “In the book entitled Hortus Sanitatis, Pliny says that: The eating of mulo fish or rubbed in, can aid against the damage caused by stingrays, terrestrial and marine scorpions, marine dragons and falangios” (IN/EX–EMP)
  MDR [36] Whole animal, meat XX Antidote “Dioscorides says about these fish: mulo being eaten very frequently seems to obscure the sight. Uncooked and cut into pieces, and applied as a poultice, it cures the bites of marine dragons, and of scorpions and spiders” (EX–EMP)
Muraena helena ANC [26] Head XX Bite Bites from moray are cured by the ash of the head of the same fish (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Whole animal I Leprosy Moray ash, with three óbolos of honey (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Whole animal XII Lichen Moray ash, with three óbolos of honey (EX–EMP)
Ophisurus serpens ANC [26] Whole animal XIV Urinary incontinence Ophidion … a little fish similar to the conger, with iris root, and the small fish removed that it has eaten, burned, and the ashes taken with water (IN–EMP)
Oreochromis niloticus niloticus ANC [26] Meat I Abscesses The salt of salted coracinos dissolves abscesses (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Bile VII Sharpen sight The bile of coracino also sharpens of sight (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat XII Carbuncle An ointment of salted coracinos reduces carbuncles (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat XX Antidote Its meat … with a topical application is effective against scorpions (EX–EMP)
Oxynotus centrina CON [76] Liver XIX Heal burns Liver oil of the “peix porquet” (EX–EMP) Costa Brava (Gerona)
  CON [76] Liver XX To relieve pain in case of poisonous fish bite (fish spider, scorpion fish) Fishermen produce oil with fish liver. Heat the oil and apply it with a cloth (EX–EMP) Costa Brava (Gerona)
Pagellus erythrinus ANC [26] Meat XI Laxative If eaten erythini act as a laxative (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat XIV Increases libido Eat (IN–EMP)
Perca fluviatilis ANC [26] Vertebra I Quartan fevers (malaria) They say that carrying a perch vertebra as a charm cures fever (EX–MAG)
  ANC [26] Head I Abscesses Ash of head in brine, adding honey (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Head II Carcinomas Heads in brine stop carcinomas, more effective when the ashes are mixed with salt and Satureja and made into a paste with oil (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Head XV Problems uterus, expulsion of afterbirth The ash of perch heads with salt, savory and oil cures the matrix, and in fumigation expels the afterbirth (EX–EMP)
  MDR [38] Otoliths XIV Renal colic (kidney stones) Make a fine powder, and grind down crab eyes, the stones of Perches Fish, and Merlancio: Take the blood of Macho, Millet and mealybugs, and add and store for use. They are appropriate for kidney stones, for sands, for nephritic colic, and to excite the urine. Its dosage is half a scruple to a dragma (IN–EMP)
Raja clavata; R. microocellata; R. miraletus; Leucoraja naevus ANC [26] Liver XII Pruritus, eczema The liver of ray cooked in oil very effectively calms them (EX–EMP)
Remora remora ANC [26] Whole animal XIV Inhibit sex drive Applied to the genitals inhibits the loving impulse (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XV Nesting, early delivery Hung around the neck, they delay pregnancies with a premature tendency, and others, if kept in salt and used as an amulet, precipitates labour, and therefore are called by a different name, odynolites (EX–MAG)
Salmo trutta CON [49] Tail V Encourage early and proper development of language For the correct development of language introduce into the infant’s mouth a trout tail (IN–EMP) Sierra de Francia (Salamanca)
Sarda sarda ANC [26]   XX Antidote Against prester (viper) bite (IN–EMP)
Sardina pilchardus CON [57] Heads, innards XII Sore feet and blisters Rub sore and blistered feet with the intestines and heads of salty sardines (EX–EMP) Sierra de Segura (Albacete)
  CON [42] Whole animal XVI Forecast sex Put a sardine to the fire, in the presence of the pregnant woman. Failure to release the scales, will mean a male, and if the scale jumps then a female. In Huesca the reverse is said (EX–MAG) Burgos, Huesca
  CON [43] Bone XVI For determining the sex of an unborn baby Another type of superstitious practice … put on hot coals the bone of a sardine, if it jumps or flips it indicates the birth of a boy (EX–MAG) Basque Country
  CON [51] Bone XVI For determining the sex of an unborn baby Throwing a sardine bone onto the fire to see if it jumps or flips (EX–MAG) Basque Country
  CON [61] Bone XVI For determining the sex of an unborn baby Cast on to the grill sardine bones. It was said that “if it turns, there will be son if not, a daughter”. In … [other places] it was said “if it jumps a boy if it falls a girl” (EX–MAG) Larraun, Lekaroz, Irurita (Navarra)
  CON [46] Whole animal XVIII Bloating A cure based on the application on the stomach of a poultice made by kneading sardines in a mortar with chopped celery, adding barley flour and sprinkling it with vinegar (EX–EMP) Villena (Alicante)
  CON [46] Whole animal XVIII Fever (unspecified) Apply to sole of the foot a salty sardine half open, and then bandaging (EX–MAG) Benilloba (Alicante); Villores, Castillo de Villamalefa (Castellón)
  CON [63] Head XIX Chilblains When were stale, sardine heads were baked and the resulting water was used to wash chilblains (EX–EMP) Pandón de Lada –Langreo– (Asturias)
  CON [70] Head XIX Chilblains Giving rubs with the head of a sardine (EX–EMP) La Aparecida (Alicante)
  CON [46] Innards XIX Chapped hands Cracks are rubbed with innards of salted sardines (EX–EMP) Comarca de Los Serranos (Valencia)
Sciaena umbra ANC [26] Intestines, scales XII Abscesses It dissolves them (EX–EMP)
Scophthalmus maximus ANC [26] Whole animal III Diseases of spleen It is good to apply them, then throw into the sea (EX–MAG)
Scorpaena porcus ANC [26] Bile I Warts Removes warts (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Bile VII Incipient cataracts, eye white spots Bile with rancid oil or Attic honey. Rub on eyes three times leaving several days in between applications (IN–EMP)
  MDR [36] Bile VII Cataracts, clouds and vision problems Talking about this fish Dioscorides, says: The bile of marine scorpion, is helpful against cataracts, against clouds, and other weaknesses of sight (IN–EMP)
Scorpaena scrofa ANC [27] Bile VII Diseases of the eye The bile of red scorpionfish is good for cataracts, walleye, amblyopia (IN–EMP)
Scyliorhinus canicula ANC [26] Tooth V Sudden terrors As an amulet (EX/MAG)
  ANC [26] Encephalon XI Toothaches It sooths by scarifying the gums (IN–EMP)
  CON [62] Skin V Behaviour modification in children who cleaned the snot with the forearm … To these children a piece of fish skin was placed in the sleeve, thus making them abandon this bad habit (EX–EMP) Basque Country
Silurus glanis ANC [27] Whole animal I Dysentery Its brine, in sitting baths, is good to those who begin to suffer from dysentery, because it attracts out flows and as enema (IN/EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Head I Erysipelas Salted wels catfish head ash dissolved in vinegar (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Liver I Warts Used topically (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Head VII Serpiginous ulcers The ash of the head of catfish stops serpiginous ulcers, and their excretions (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat X Improves voice Fresh or salted (IN–EMP)
  ANC [27] Meat X Tracheitis, voice Salted wels catfish … is not nutritious but it purifies the trachea and tempers the voice (IN–EMP)
  ANC [27] Meat XI Belly troubles Fresh wels catfish, eaten, is nutritious and beneficial for the stomach (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat XI Laxative Wels catfish in its juices releases the belly (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XII Pyoderma gangrenosum Phagedenic ulcer is cured with rancid catfish crushed with rejalgar (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat XIII Sciatica The brine of wels catfish, administered as enema, after evacuation (IN–EMP)
  ANC [27] Whole animal XIII Sciatica And its brine, in a sitting bath, …, cures those affected by sciatica (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] XV Facilitate delivery It is also said that fumigation of catfish, especially if it is African make simpler deliveries (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat XIX Foreign bodies in the skin Splinters lodged in the body are extracted with … the use of river catfish meat (EX–EMP)
  ANC [27] Meat XIX Expel thorns Salted meat, applied as a poultice, expels splinters (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Fat XIX Chilblains Cured by means application of wels catfish fat (EX–EMP)
  MED [34] Meat IV Metabolism When you eat the flesh of this fish, if eaten fresh, it nourishes and slows nature. If salted less so (IN–EMP)
  MED [34] X Apnoea, throat It’s useful for shallow breathing and useful for a good voice (?)
  MED [34] Whole animal XI Intestinal ulcers The salting water is good for intestinal ulcers if you make a enema with it, also if the person sits on top (IN–EMP)
  MED [34] XII Dandruff, oily hair If placed as ashes on the head, it removes grease and dandruff (EX–EMP)
  MED [34] Bile XIII Sciatica The bile, mixed with musk, is good for sciatica (EX–EMP)
  MDR [36] Meat I Dysentery “If you bathe in its brine, it is helpful at the beginning of the dysentery, because it attracts to the surface the humours that are in the belly” (EX–MAG)
  MDR [36] Meat X Bronchitis, clear your throat “it also clears the tubes of the lungs and clears the throat” (IN–EMP)
  MDR [36] Meat XI Soften the belly “According to Dioscorides, speaking about its properties says: Freshly cooked Catfish, nourishes and softens the belly, but salted offers very little maintenance” (IN–EMP)
  MDR [36] Meat XIII Sciatica “It heals sciatica, taken after fasting” (IN–EMP)
  MDR [36] Meat XX Chips kneeling “It removes swollen splinters from any part of the body” (EX–EMP)
Solea solea ANC [26] Whole animal II Splenic tumour (malignant neoplasm of spleen) It is good to apply, then throw it into the sea (EX–MAG)
  MDR [35] Meat IV Sick diet According to doctors, it is a very light food for the sick, it is less phlegmatic than others … (IN–EMP)  
Sparisoma cretense ANC [28] Bile XVIII Jaundice If a sick man you give him escaro bile to eat then he will heal, as taught by experienced fishermen (IN–EMP)
Sparus aurata ANC [26] Meat XX Antidote Where there is poisonous honey produced, the remedy is to eat gilt-head bream (IN–EMP)
Spicara maena ANC [26] Head, meat I Abscesses Ashes of mena head, and the cooked meat are applied (IN/EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Head I Warts The ash of mena head crushed with garlic (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Head I Genital warts Ashes of the head (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Head VII Serpiginous ulcers The ash of mena head stops serpiginous ulcers, and their excretions (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Head X Tonsils Ash of salted heads applied with honey (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Head XI Anal fissures Ashes of the head (EX–EMP)
  ANC [27] Head XI Anal fissures The burnt head, pulverized, removes anal cracks (EX–EMP)
  ANC [27] Guts XI Mouth sores The “garo” (garum) used as a mouthwash heals festering sores in the mouth (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal, head XI Mouth ulcers The brine from the mena and ash of the head heal mouth ulcers (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XI Laxative Salted mena spread on the naval with bull bile causes the release of the belly (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Head XII Nail harshness The ash of mena heads soften the rough edges of nails (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Head XV Problems uterus, expulsion of afterbirth The ash of the heads of mena heads with salt, savory, and oil cure the matrix, and as a fumigation expel the afterbirth (IN–EMP)
  MDR [36] Whole animal XI Mouth sores “Its brine dries up mouth sores full of corruption, if used as mouthwash” (IN–EMP)
  MDR [36] Head XI Anal fissures “About this fish Dioscorides says: The ash from head of salted Menas, heals the anal cracks” (EX–EMP)
Spicara smaris ANC [26] Whole animal I Warts Crushed and applied on warts (EX–EMP)
  ANC [27] Head I Scab and plantar warts The burnt head of salted caramel reduces scab and warts … (EX–EMP)
  ANC [27] Head XIX Healing wounds and ulcers The salted burnt head of the caramel reduces sores and stops fleshy excretion and infection (EX–EMP)
  ANC [27] Head XX Bites and stings The salted burnt head of the caramel… goes well against scorpion stings and dog bites (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat XV Increase milk production Taken with barley or cooked with fennel (IN–EMP)
  MDR [36] Head I Scab and plantar warts Removes hardened scab and warts (?)
  MDR [36] Head XII Ulcers “The Smarido head, salted and burnt, represses the growth on the wounds and reduces those about to break out” (EX–EMP)
  MDR [36] Meat XX Dog bites “Its salted meat, like almost all brine, is helpful against dog bites” (EX–EMP)
  MDR [36] Meat XX Scorpion stings “Its salted meat, like almost all brine, is helpful against scorpion stings” (EX–EMP)
Squalus acanthias MED [32] Whole animal VI Convulsions Crush, cook and make a poultice (EX–EMP)
Squatina oculata; Squatina squatina ANC [26] Skin I Abscesses Applying the burnt skin (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XIV Stop breast growth The application of angelshark impedes the growth of the breasts (EX–MAG)
  CON [66] Roe X Asthma “Angelote” (Squatina squatina L.) … its roe (eggs) collected on Good Friday cure asthma (IN–MAG) Gran Canaria (Canary Islands)
Thunnus thynnus ANC [26] Head I Abscesses Applying head ash (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Head I Genital warts The head of salted pelamys [one year old tuna] with honey (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat XI Toothaches Rancid tuna, washed in a bowl and crushed is effective (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Head XI Anal fissures The head of salted pelamys [one year old tuna] with honey (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat XII Malignant ulcers, corrosive and rotten With pieces of stale tuna (EX–EMP)
  ANC [28] Blood XII Depilatory If a young man desires to be without beard for a very long time, if he smears that part with tuna blood he will remain hairless (EX–EMP)
  ANC [27] Whole animal XX Dog bite Apply as a poultice (EX–EMP)
  ANC [27] Meat XX Viper bite The so-called “salting raw” (ōmotárikhos) is preserved salted tuna meat. If taken it assists those bitten by the snake called “that which swells” (prēstêr), it is necessary to add the maximum amount of wine and to drink heavily to force them to vomit (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat XX Antidote Against the sea dragon (IN–EMP)
  MDR [36] Meat XI Indigestion “It’s also useful to provoke the vomiting of meals that bother the stomach” (IN–EMP)
  MDR [35] Liver XII Cosmetics Its liver, chopped and mixed with cedar oil, preserved in a lead chest, outline the eyelids (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Blood, bile, liver XII Depilatory From the blood, bile and liver of tuna, fresh or preserved, a cream is made (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Whole animal XX Dog bites Applied in poultices (EX–EMP)
  MDR [36] Meat XX Dog bites Useful applied against dog bites (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Meat XX Snake bites (antidote) Dioscorides: If you eat a lot of salted tuna, harm from snakebite is reduced (IN–EMP)
  MDR [36] Meat XX Viper bites “Salted tuna, which is called in the Greek language Omotarichos, if eaten in large quantities, cures the bites from the viper called Prester. But you should give it with a large amount of wine, and force them to vomit” (IN–EMP)
Torpedo marmorata; Torpedo torpedo ANC [26] Whole animal III Spleen diseases It is good to apply, then throw it into the sea (EX–MAG)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XI Laxative Marbled electric ray in its juices releases the belly (IN–EMP)
  ANC [27] Whole animal XI Rectal prolapse Applied in the anus it reduces anal prolapse (EX–EMP)
  ANC [28] Meat XII Depilatory If its meat is subjected to a process of putrefaction in vinegar and smeared onto the chin, the effect is said to be the disappearance of hair (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Bile XIV Inhibits sex drive Applied to the genitals it inhibits the sexual impulse (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XV Facilitate delivery If you capture a marbled electric ray when the moon is in the sign of Libra and keep it for three days outdoors, then deliveries are made easy, as often as it is presented to a woman in labour (EX–MAG)
  ANC [27] Whole animal XVIII Headache Applied in cases of chronic headaches, it alleviates the severity of the pain (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Whole animal III Spleen diseases Used as a poultice, it cures the spleen (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Meat XI Digestive Pliny, book 32: Taken as food, the marbled electric ray softens the belly (IN–EMP)
  MDR [35] Whole animal XI Hernia Placed on top it inhibits the illness that causes the fall of the intestine (EX–EMP)
  MDR [36] Meat XVIII Headache “…because as Galen says, it has the virtue of removing headache, placed on it, and also so says Dioscorides, that it relaxes the head” (EX–EMP)
Trachinus draco ANC [26] Bones XI Toothache Sea dragon bones soothe the gums (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat XX Stings The sea dragon sting is cured by directly applying its own meat (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal, brain XX Antidote Against the venom of the sting of the sea dragon the application of the fish itself is effective, or a potion made from its own brain (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat XX Antidote The sting is cured by applying the meat (directly) (EX–EMP)
  ANC [27] Whole animal XX Antidote … opened up and applied over the wound is a cure for its own sting (EX–EMP)
  MDR [36] Whole animal XX Wound he did with his own spine “Dioscorides says: the Marine Dragon, opened and applied, heals the wound caused by its own sting” (EX–EMP)
  MDR [35] Whole animal XX Antidote Pliny… Likewise, the sea dragon itself is good if it placed as a poultice against the venom of its sting, which caused the wound./Avicenna… The same author in the second book: As Galen says, the sea dragon is sliced and placed on their own bite as a cure (EX–EMP)
Trachinus radiatus ANC [26] Whole animal I Abscesses Cooked in wine, thereby making poultices, the abscesses are dissolved (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Whole animal XI Liver pain Drowned in wine, then drank (IN–EMP)
  ANC [26] Bile XII Scars Applied directly removes scars (EX–EMP)
  ANC [26] Meat XX Antidote The sting is cured by applying the meat (EX–EMP)
Trachurus trachurus ANC [26] Liver I Mumps
Trigla lyra ANC [27] Meat XX Bites, antidote The trigla, raw, split and applied it cures the bites of sea spider, sea scorpion and spiders (EX–EMP)
  MED [34] Skinned animal XII Pustules The triga skinned and placed on the pustules of the body, cures and heals them (EX–EMP)
  MED [34] Whole animal XX Foreign bodies deep in the body Crushed and smeared on a site where there is an arrowhead or a thorn stuck deep in the body, it extracts them thanks to its vigorous nature and amazing properties (EX–EMP)
Trigloporus lastoviza MED [34] Whole animal XX Contact with venomous animals If cut up and placed on a jellyfish, scorpion or spider sting, it feels good (EX–EMP)
Uranoscopus scaber ANC [26] Bile VII Eye wounds Heals scars and removes growths from the eye. No other fish has such an abundant bile (IN–EMP)
  1. Historical periods: ANC = Ancient; MED = Medieval; MDR = “Modern” (15th-19th centuries); CON = “Contemporary” (20th century-at present). Route of administration: IN = internal use; EX = external use. Type of remedy: MAG = magical remedy, EMP = empirical remedy.