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Table 3 Herb data chart

From: The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

Botanical and family name [25] Local name (Amharic) Voucher no. Use Preparation Informant (code) Quotes and observations Literature
Achyranthes aspera L. Amaranthaceae Telenj/qay telenj 1933 Part of a recipe for shotelay (Rhesus factor incompatibility in pregnancy) combined with Serabizu (Thalictrum rhynchocarpum), Quechine (Indigofera zavattarii), Y’imdur embway (Cucumis ficifolius), Tefrindo (Gomphocarpus purpurascens), Tult (Rumex nepalensis) The herbs are dried, chopped together and put in a cotton pouch to be hung around the pregnant woman’s neck in the seventh month. When the baby is born it is taken off the mother and put on the baby M3 “To be collected on a Wednesday or a Friday, having abstained from sexual relations, and having not spoken to anybody on the morning of the collecting day. The herbs are dried outside the house, chopped together and put in a cotton pouch. The cotton must be spun by a lady in menopause, and spun with her left hand not her right hand. The pouch is put on the lady’s neck and as soon as she gives birth it is taken from her and put on the baby’s neck….this is my specialty“ Anti-fertility [26]
        Fresh pulverised leaf or its juice is placed in the nostril or its juice is sniffed for epistaxis. The crushed fresh leaf is also placed in the genitalia as a remedy for menorrhagia and to stop post-partum haemorrhage [27]
        Herpes zoster, blood clotting[28]
        Wound [29]
        Wound [30]
        Vaginal fumigation [31]
    Wounds (kusil) Leaves rubbed and put on cut or wound F1   
Acokanthera schimperi (A.DC.) Schweinf. Mrenz 2016 Psychiatric disease (likuft) Used in a formula (see Solanum incanum) F3   Antiarrhythmic, vasoconstrictor, hypertensive agent, Na/K ATPase inhibitor [32]
Actiniopteris semiflabellata Pic.Serm Menna   Burn (severe) Powdered roasted plant applied topically M2 “It was immediately cured by a shamagalay (old man) around the church. The doctor’s treatment had not worked. I asked the shamagalay why this worked better than the clinic treatment. He said it was to contain the wound so that it did not affect the bone”  
Albizia anthelmintica Brongn. Musena   Taeniasis Musena and Enkoko (Embelia schimperi) given but not in combination M7 Drink either with tella (local beer) Bark powder is cooked with meat and soup is taken as tenifuge [33]
Fabaceae     The bark is mixed with Nug (Guizotia abyssinica) and sugar M5   
     The bark is mixed with Nug (Guizotia abyssinica), chopped together F2 “If you take musena you may never see the segments…it kills all internally, it is digested. There will not be another infection”  
      F1, F4 “We buy the Musena from the market”  
Allium cepa L. Shinkurt   Taeniasis As part of a formula comprising Arake (spirit brewed with fermented grains) with Kosso (Hagenia abyssinica), Tenadam (Ruta chalepensis), Zingibil (Zingiber officinale) and Quorofa (Cinnamomum verum) F2 The herbs are used in the brewing of Arake Widely used as a medicinal plant worldwide
Allium sativum L. Nech shinkurt   Asthma 3-4 cloves chopped and mixed with honey, dissolved by Kosso arake (spirit brewed with fermented grains and Hagenia abyssinica) F2 “The Kosso arake dissolves the Nech shinkurt. The Nech shinkurt can have a kind of side effect on the stomach (gastritis). If you want to protect yourself you may take lightly roasted Talba (Linum usitatissimum) or Abish (Trigonella foenum-graecum) For common cold, malaria, cough, lung TB…asthma…parasitic infections, diarrhoea (etc.) [34]
        Widely used as a medicinal plant worldwide
Aloe debrana    Wounds (kusil)   M1 “A wound that is infected and very dry, contracted, they will use Aloe debrana and it will relax”  
Aloe pulcherrima M.G.Gilbert & Sebsebe Sete eret 2000 Asthma The sap is boiled with water. Sugar is added. This is filtered to about ½ teacup. Drink this and suck on a lemon. Do this for four days. M6 “You will burp the lemon taste, not the bitter aloe taste. After using this recipe I am free from asthma” “The species grows….in Gonder, Gojam, Welo and Shewa floristic regions. It is so far not known anywhere else. It occurs in a very sporadic manner, mainly on cliffs, and almost always in inaccessible places” [35]
Aloe spp. Eret   Burn The burn is washed first with warm water and salt, then Eret placed on top F1 “We do not use alcohol to wash it like the doctors do”  
Andrachne aspera Spreng. Tekeze   Unexplained stomach ache (megagna) The root is chewed for stomach treatment and nausea (anti-emetic) M1, F1 “Not during pregnancy” Ascariasis, stomach distention, malaria, asthma, gastritis, liver disease and as anti-emetic [36]
Phyllanthaceae    Snake bite The root is chewed, followed by lots of water. Will cause to vomit F1   
Artemisia absinthium L. Ariti 2024 Unexplained stomach ache (megagna) Mixed with Tej sar (Cymbopogon citratus) and made into an infusion and filtered, and drunk F4 Ariti tastes bitter, like Kosso” (Hagenia abyssinica) The juice of the powdered leaves is taken with honey to treat stomach ache [37]
     Mixed with Tenadam (Ruta chalepensis), and Zingibil (Zingiber officinale) made into an infusion, filtered and drunk M3 Remembers megagna as a childhood illness. “The pain immediately disappeared when this mixture was drunk” Cholagogic, digestive, appetite-stimulating, wound-healing, anticancer, antiparasitic [38]
       Found on sale in Fiche market, as part of a fragrant bouquet (with Tej sar – Cymbopogon citratus, Ujuban – Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflorum, and Tenadam – Ruta chalepensis)  
Artemisia abyssinica Sch.Bip. ex A. Rich Asteraceae Chikugn 1999 Evil Eye, combined with Tenadam (Ruta chalepensis) and Shinkurt (Allium cepa) Take the dried skin of a hyena and put the herbs in a pouch of the leather as a charm around the neck. M6 “I used to suffer from evil eye in childhood. If that is prepared and is smelling in the house, someone who is suffering from evil eye will start shouting and moving around; they will tie him down by force and apply in his nose. If you apply this, he will tell you the person with the evil eye up to the seventh generation” Anti-leishmanial, intestinal problems, bronchitis and other inflammatory disorders, cold and fever, anorexia, colic, infectious diseases (bacterial, protozoal), headache, amenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea [39]
        Eye infection – topically [40]
    Psychiatric disease (lekeft)   F1   Haemostatic (nose), tonsillitis, cold, constipation, rheumatism [41]
     Take Chikugn (Artemisia abyssinica) and three young leaves of Set eret (Aloe pulcherrima) with Nech shinkurt (Allium sativum), Tenadam (Ruta chalepensis), the whole plant of Tekeze (Andrachne aspera), along with the leaves of Chat (Catha edulis) and Ye ahiya joro (Verbascum sinaiticum): chop together. The juice is applied to the nose F2 “My father was told by somebody”  
        Whole herb is use for tonsillitis [42]
    Fumigant for milk machinery   F1   
Asparagus africanus Lam. Seriti 1928 Rituals such as circumcision, and giving birth Branch hung in the doorway M1 Considered cleansing because “women are unclean just after giving birth” Fresh pulverised root taken mixed with water to stimulate milk secretion. The use of the plant against gouty arthritis and as abortifacient have been recorded [43]
Asparagaceae    Hung on the door where Tella (local beer) is being made, as protectant against uncleanliness (someone who is menstruating, or has recently had sexual relations)   F1   
Brucea antidysenterica J.F. Mill Fit aballo, aballo 2013 Eczema (chiffe) The leaves are collected and dried, the powder is then applied to the skin F2 “I had this disease in childhood” Bullad (weight loss, fever, itching, diarrhoea) [28]
        Evil eye (tied around neck) [30]
        Cancer treatment, diarrhoea, evil eye, leishmaniasis, rabies, scabies, skin disease, wound [12]
Calpurnia aurea(Aiton) Benth. Digita 2008 Child with diarrhoea (tekmet) The leaves of the young shoots from seven plants of Digita are rubbed in the hands for the juice; the juice is mixed with water Dosage is very important, depending on the age of the child F3 “5 year old, 1 teaspoon, just once. This is what I had as a child”. Some discussion about the toxicity of this plant Decoction of the fresh leaf has been used against hypertension. Quinolizidine alkaloid, calpurnine, has been isolated [44]
      M1 “The stem bark is poisonous. The dosage should be measured carefully. Only the young shoots are used. Even then one has to be very careful.”  
        Diarrhoea [45]
      F1 “You can become crazy from it. If you go crazy, then you are going to die” Amoebiasis, giardiasis [30]
        Kuruba (diarrhoea) [28]
        Used as a fish poison or as a cure for dysentery [46]
Capparis tomentosa Gumero   Psychiatric disease In formula (see Solanum incanum) F3   Bleeding after delivery [30]
Catha edulis (Vahl) Endl. Chat   Psychiatric disease In formula (see Artemisia abyssinica) F2 Frequently observed sold in streets Ephedrine has been isolated from this plant. Possesses psychostimulant properties [47]
Chenopodium murale L. Sinko 1930 Unexplained stomach ache (megagna) The young shoots are collected with scissors and rubbed through a sieve as used for the domesticated grass Tef (Eragrostis tef) F4   
Cinnamomum verum J. Presl Qorofa   Taeniasis In formula (see Allium cepa) F1   
Croton macrostachyus Hochst. Ex.Delile Euphorbiaceae Bisana 2007 Skin rash Mixed with egg yolk and applied to the skin F1   Aphasia, ascariasis, constipation, eye disease, haemorrhoid, induction of abortion, purgative, ringworm, taeniasis, stomach ache, venereal disease control [12]
    Skin rash The fresh bud is cut and the fluid applied to the rash. If the problem is on the head, the head is shaved and bud fluid applied M8   
    Dandruff     Scabies, kuruba (diarrhoea), hepatitis, Tinea versicolour [28]
        Malaria [30]
Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Tej sar 2004 Unexplained stomach ache (megagna) Mixed with Ariti (Artemisia absinthium) F5 Found at the marketplace as part of a fragrant bouquet Treatment of heart, chest and stomach complaints [48]
        Stomach ache, smallpox, common cold [12]
        Ascariasis [30]
Datura stramonium L. Astenagir/Astenagirt 1940 Hallucinogenic   M8, E   Eye disease (‘crying eyes’) (topical), bad breath (smoke inhaled, fungus infection of the head (topical), mumps (topical), relief of toothache (vapour inhaled), rheumatic pain (vapour inhaled), treatment of burn (topical), wound (topical) [12]
        Swelling (topical), toothache (inhalation), dandruff (topical) [49]
        Swelling, toothache, dandruff, wounds [28]
Echinops kebericho Mesfin Kerbericho 2001   To dispel nightmares in children E Found on sale in Fiche marketplace Constipation, headache, heart pain, stomach ache, typhus [12]
        Fumigant after childbirth. Typhus fever. Stomach ache. Snake repellent in the house. Intestinal pains [50]
        Lung TB, leprosy, syphilis [51]
        Cough [49]
        Evil eye [28]
Embelia schimperi Vatke Myrsinaceae Enkoko 2032 Taeniasis Chopped with Musena (Albizia anthelmintica) and Nug (Guizotia abyssinica) and eaten M3   Powder of fruit mixed with water and taken as taenicide [52]
     With Musena (Albizia anthelmintica) and Nug (Guizotia abyssinica), taken with a drink of Tella (local beer) M1 “Must be taken simultaneously with Tella. Drink, then jump up and down to dissolve internally. (M7) Taeniasis, disinfectant [12]
        Taeniasis, ascariasis [48]
        Tapeworm [30]
      M5 If not taken with Tella, you will become dizzy and fall” (M5)  
      M1 “Enkoko and Musena are both deadly”  
     With Meterre (Glinus lotoides) and Kosso (Hagenia abyssinica) M8 “I remember my mother giving me this combination”  
     The ripe fruits are collected and the exocarp removed. Fruit swallowed directly using water F2   
      M3 “It is ok to take Enkoko, Musena and Nug together”  
Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Nech bahirzaf 2027 Fever with headache (mich), colds Apply rubbed leaves directly to nose F5   Leaves are boiled with water and the vapour inhaled to treat cough, flu and sore throat [53]
Euclea racemosa L. Dedaho 2028 Warts of the rectum The root is to be collected early in the morning before urination. The root is dug up then boiled, and a full small teacup of the filtrate must be drunk before food. After the medicine is drunk well prepared food is eaten and well prepared Tella (local beer) is drunk M6 “Finally a kind of faeces will come out. If this does not happen initially, then the process is repeated the next day” Gonorrhoea, uterine prolapse, haemostatic, gastritis, diarrhoea, cataract, acne, chloasma, eczema, constipation, rabies, vitiligo, epilepsy [54]
Euphorbia tirucalli L. Qencheb 2026 Scorpion bite The skin around the bite is slashed, and the milky sap applied M5 “The scorpion has a venom that gives gland pain for three days. After this application I was ok. Previously with a bite I suffered for three days. This time I was back at work in three hours. I had a small glandular response this time” Reported use in India for scorpion bite [55]
Galium simense Fresen. Chogogit 1998 Skin fungus (qworqwor) The leaf is rubbed to get the juice which is applied to the affected place; the plant is then discarded. When applied, it irritates and causes a little bleeding. The next day it is washed off, and the patient has to wear newly washed clothing E “It will never come again” Extract of fresh leaves and inflorescences is used in Ethiopia to dress new wounds and cuts [56]
Rubiaceae      M1   Snake bite [13]
Glinus lotoides L. Meterre 2031 Taeniasis Mixed with Nug (Guizotia abyssinica) and Musena (Albizia anthelmintica). Taken orally as a paste F1, F5   Ascariasis, taeniasis, diabetes [12]
     Cleaned and ground with Nug (Guizotia abyssinica), added sugar and eaten before food. Fast until noon before taking it, then the first meal afterwards should be soup. E Found on sale in Fiche market Tapeworm – fruit powder mixed with Nug is taken orally [28]
     Meterre with Nug OR Musena with Nug M1, M7, M8 Remembers mother giving him all three  
     Meterre, Enkoko (Embelia schimperi) and Nug (Guizotia abyssinica) M8   
Gomphocarpus purpurascens A. Rich. Tefrindo 2005 Rhesus Factor problem in pregnancy (shotelay), as part of formula   M3   
Asclepiadaceae    (see Achyranthes aspera)     
Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass. Nug   Taeniasis Used as a binder with many preparations, mentioned here for tapeworm infection F1 Found on sale in Fiche market  
Hagenia abyssinica J.F. Gmel Kosso 2025 Taeniasis The flower taken with Tenadam (Ruta chalepensis), Shunkurt (Allium cepa), Zingibil (Zingiber officinale) and Qorofa (Cinnamomum verum) F1   Female flowers are employed as a taenicide against Taenia saginata[57]
        Eye disease, hypertension, scabies, m[12]
        Provides a strong and widely used anthelmintic [46]
Hordeum vulgare L. Poaceae Gebs   Hypertension Taken as a fermented barley drink. Gebs (germinated barley), Mashilla (Sorghum spp.) are baked together like a bread. This is broken up and fermented together with beqil (malt starter), brewed and distilled. Drunk from a shot glass F1   Hordenine with diuretic and in large doses with hypertensive action has been isolated [58]
Indigofera zavattarii Chiov. Quechine   Rhesus factor problem in pregnancy (shotelay) In formula: see Achyranthes aspera M3   
Jasminum grandiflorum L. Tembelel 1957 Abdominal pain The root is chewed M1   
Laggera tomentosa (Sch.Bip.) Shiro kese 1943 Unexplained stomach problems (megagna) Leaves crushed and inhaled PH   
Laggera crispata (Vahl) Hepper & J.R.I. Wood Ras kebdo 1929 Dandruff (forefore) Leaf rubbed and applied to the scalp F5   
Leonotis ocymifolia (Burm.f.) Iwarsson Lamiaceae Feres zeng 1942 Headache (ras metat) The collected leaves are rubbed between hands and put into nostrils to inhale F6 “Particularly for headaches with tonsillitis. It cures it well. If not, the patient should be taken to the doctor. Go to a traditional medicine healer for headaches with tonsillitis”  
     The juice is squeezed out and drunk with coffee.    
    Ulcer of the neck (nkersa) Chopped leaves are applied to the ulcer for 24 hours M7 “People here assume it is cancer of the neck, but it is an ulcer. My uncle tried many things but finally he cured me with this”  
    For sick chickens With Aya joro (Verbascum sinaiticum) F1   
Lepidium sativum L. Brassicaceae Feto 2020 Unexplained stomach problems (megagna) Ground, mixed with lemon juice and water F5 Found on sale in Fiche market Skin problems, fever, eye diseases, amoebic dysentery, abortion and asthma, intestinal complaints [59]
        Aphrodisiac, gastritis, headache, ringworm, buda beshita (evil eye) mich (fever with headache) [12]
        Stomach ache [30]
Leucas abyssinica (Benth.) Briq. Aychedamo 1941 Eye infection   E   For eye diseases, twigs of Leucas abyssinica are crushed and coated on eyes [60]
Linum usitatissimum L. Linaceae Talba   Demulcent Option as protective against gastritis when used with Allium sativum in treatment for asthma F2 Found on sale in Fiche market  
Lippia adoensis Hochst. Ex Walp. Var.Koseret Sebesebe Koseret 1931 Bee attractant   F1 Found on sale in Fiche market Dried leaves powdered together with barley eaten to get relief from stomach complaints [61]
        Malaria, fever, aphrodisiac [62]
Malva verticillata L. Malvaceae Lut 1935 Expulsion of placenta in cow The root is dug up and chopped and given as a decoction to cow F6   
Maytenus arbutifolia (Hochst. Ex A. Rich.) R. Wilczek Atat 2023 Psychiatric disease (in formula – see Solanum incanum)   F3   A number of Maytenus spp. Are used in traditional medicine to treat various disorders including tumors. A tumor inhibitor, maytansine, has been extracted [46]
Myrsine africana L. Primulaceae Kechemo 2022 Taeniasis Fruits are collected, chopped and filtered. Filtrate is drunk to expel tapeworm F2 “If Kechemo does not work, go for one of the other ones – Musena (Albizia anthelmintica), Enkoko (Embelia schimperi), Kosso (Hagenia abyssinica)” Fruit powder paste with Nug seed is taken against tapeworm and ascariasis [63]
        Twigs used as a toothbrush [46]
Nicotiana tabacum L. Solanaceae Tembaho 2029 Repels snakes from garden   F1, E   
Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. Ex Benth. Lamiaceae Demakese 1926 Fever with headache (mich) Rub in the hand and squeeze to get juice, add to coffee or drink F5 Demonstrated putting a gabi – heavy cotton shawl – over the head for inhalation of vapour The fresh leaves are squeezed and the juice sniffed to treat coughs and colds. The juice is also used as eye rinse to treat eye infections. The crushed leaves are put in the nostrils to stop nose bleeding [64]
    Influenza or cold OR    
    Fever with headache Boil the leaves, place on a hot iron pan and inhale the vapour   Found on sale in Fiche market Cough, cold, headache, eye infection, hematuria, mich (fever with headache) [12]
     Apply rubbed leaves directly into the nose    
     Juice in coffee F6 “If the juice of Demakese is red when the herb is rubbed by a person, then the person has mich. If it is green, it is not mich. The mother or the daughter will apply this” Kusil (wound), mich (fever) [28]
        Mich [29]
        Mich [4]
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cactaceae Culcal   Haemorrhage in childbirth In a formula (see Periploca linearifolia) M3   
Otostegia fruticosa Tinjut 1932 Unexplained stomach ache (megagna)   F1 Found on sale in Fiche market Insecticide, disinfectant, as a fumigant [12]
(Forssk.) Schweinf. ex Penzig        
Periploca linearifolia Quart.-Dill. & A.Rich. Apocynaceae Tikur hareg   Haemorrhage in childbirth Combined in a formula with Culcwal (Opuntia ficus-indica) and Qeret (unidentified). All are chopped together and then the juice is collected separately (filtered), used as ink to write on paper as a charm hung around the neck M3 “The debtera will write a charm with the filtrate and put it on her neck, and the blood will stop”  
    Prepared by debtera: A potion is prepared, buried in the ground for a week. When opened, the inky fluid is used as an ink to write a spell, or charm. Alternatively, the ink is used to tattoo into the skin with a needle M3 “The debtera will use this with other herbs to make a potion. This is put in a bottle and buried for seven days before September 11 (Addis amet – New Year’s Day). When opened it will have an inky constituency. The debtera will then use a pen made from Arundo (bamboo), and will write on white paper. It is then worn on the neck. Another way is to tattoo the ink into the skin with a needle”  
    To keep the wife from straying     
    To stop enemies from attacking     
    To prevent bullets from penetrating     
    To keep devils away     
    To stop pain     
Phytolacca dodecandra L’Herit Endod 1927 Bilharzia   E   Molluscide against Bilharzia [46]
    Contraception The whole roots of 7 young plants without branch, flower or fruit (sterile) are collected, being careful to get it all, on a Friday or a Monday. These are chopped and then mixed with honey, which is collected in October. The woman should take it at the end of menstruation F1 Debate on this application. Some say the woman should sleep with her husband on the day she takes the medication. “If she sleeps with her husband the ovary will not be badly affected” (M1). “If she goes to the doctor they will clean up that one and she will become pregnant” (F1). “She has to continue sexual relations to stop her ovary being badly affected” (M1). “She has to go to hospital” (M3). Some say it does not matter; used as a contraceptive, the woman will stay without child for 5–6 years. If she wants to become pregnant, she has to take an antidote (merfchow) – another plant. M7 says “If she takes the endod she is permanently sterile”. F1 says “If you spray poison on a flower, it will die”. M2 says “I gave it to my wife and 18 other people. No-one has given birth after that. My wife now wants to have a baby and cannot” Ascariasis, eczema, gonorrhoea, infertility, liver disease, malaria, rabies, soap substitute, syphilis [12]
Phytolaccaceae      M1   
      M3   Rabies [4]
    Skin blisters (ekek) – viral infection The chopped fruit is mixed with water as a wash for the hands M8   
Podocorpus falcatus (Thunb.) R.Br.ex Mirb. Podocarpaceae Zegba   Hepatitis formula Formula: M2 “My uncle took the leaf of Zegba and leaf of Togor and leaf of Nechilo. Then the root of Chifrig and the young shoot of Yerzingero addis and then Embwacho and the whole plant of Serabizu and the young shoot of Gesho. All this was put together, chopped, added to water and stirred. This is applied to whole body of the child every morning for seven day, starting on a Wednesday or a Friday and it must be a cloudy day. But it must not be too cloudy” Four species of Podocarpus including Podocarpus falcatus all exhibited strong inhibition against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans[65]
     Togor leaf (unidentified)    
     Nechilo (unidentified)    
     Chifrig (Sida massoika)    
     Yezingero addis (unidentified)    
     Embwacho (Rumex nervosus)    
     Serabizu (Thalictrum rhynchocarpum)    
     Gesho (Rhamnus prinoides)    
     Topical application    
Polygala hottentotta Etse adin 1996 Anti-venom   F5   
C. Presl        
Rhamnus prinoides L’Herit Gesho 1952 Hepatitis (in formula)    Found on sale in Fiche marketplace  
Rhus retinorrhoea Steud. Ex A.Rich. Anacardiaceae Tilum 2009 Wounds Rubbed in hands and then put on wound M4   
Rumex abyssinicus Jacq. Polygonaceae Mekmeko 2012 Hypertension   F1   Gonorrhoea, lung TB, leprosy, fever [66]
        Itching skin [4]
        Extracts drunk to control ‘mild form of diabetes’ [46]
Rumex nepalensis Spreng. Polygonaceae Tult 1936 Unexplained stomach ache (megagna) The root is dug out and chewed. If Tult is not available, then the leaves of Tenadam (Ruta chalepensis) may be used instead M2 Childhood memory of use. “Tult is very bitter. I was forced to chew it, I would be beaten if I did not chew it” Amoebiasis, tonsillitis, uterine bleeding [12]
        Abdominal cramp, child diarrhoea, toothache, liver disease, eye infection [4]
        Stomach ache [13]
    Rhesus factor problem in pregnancy Part of formula (see Achyranthes aspera) M3   
Rumex nervosus Vahl. Embwacho 2011 Eye problems Leaves are collected, dried and pounded F5 Remembers this from childhood For dysentery, roots powder of Rumex nervosus mixed with melted butter. Stomach ache, roots in a honey paste dressing. Warts (kintarot), roots powder on cut edge [49]
Polygonaceae    Wound (kusil)     
    Hepatitis In formula (see Podocarpus falcatus) M2   
    Roundworm Stem chopped with salt M1 ‘My father collected embwacho and he kept a stem and chopped it in small pieces, added salt, gave it to me and forbade me from eating for one hour. After three days there was expulsion of worms and no problem since then”  
Ruta chalepensis L. Tenadam 1997 Unexplained stomach ache (megagna) In formula (see Artemisia absinthium) M3 “The pain immediately disappeared” Snakebites, headaches, abdominal pain, strained eye, head lice, fever, poor blood circulation, local paralysis, nervous tension, cough, asthma, infected wound, rheumatism. An infusion is also used as a tea to treat headaches, cold, heart pain, earache and intestinal disorder. Dried fruits boiled with milk are used against diarrhoea, or with Tella (local beer) or “wet” (stew) against influenza [67]
Rutaceae     Chew the leaves M2, M4 Use if Tult (Rumex nepalensis) not available  
     Combine with Dingetegna (Taverniera abyssinica) and wood ash mixed with a little water F1 Will cause to vomit  
    Colic in baby   M3 Tenadam and Ariti (Artemisia absinthium) have the same use for treating the stomach”  
      PH Found on sale in Fiche marketplace Stomach problems [68]
        Evil eye and ‘flu’ [28]
Sansevieria ehrenbergii Schweinf. Ex Baker Wonde cheret   Ear infections   F1   
Sida massaica Vollesen Chifrig 1956 Roundworm The whole part is ground and made into an infusion, filtered and drunk F5   
Malvacaeae    Hepatitis In formula (see Podocarpus falcatus) M2   
Solanum americanum Miller Y’ayit Awut 1937 Gonorrhoea Leaves eaten as a vegetable. Root chopped, infused and drunk E   
Solanum anguivi Lam. Zerch embway 1938 Scabies   E   Lymphadenitis [4]
Solanaceae    Nosebleed Root used to brush teeth, the nosebleed will stop F5   
    Gonorrhoea Root infusion E   
Solanum incanum L. Embway 2030 Psychiatric disease (lekeft) (in formula) Young shoots (without branch), combined with: F3   Stomach problem, snake bite, chest pain, tonsillitis, mich[68]
Solanaceae    Nosebleed Mrenz root (Acokanthera schimperi)    
     Gumero root (Capparis tomentosa)    
     Atat (Maytenus arbutifolia)    
     All plants are combined and all the juice is applied through the left nostril. The combination may also be inhaled from smoke M6 “A nun showed me”  
Stephania abyssinica (Quart.-Dill.& A.Rich.) Walp. Y’ayit joro/Shinet 2002 Toothbrush Teeth brushed with the root M5   Rabies [29]
Menispermaceae        Used in traditional medicine to treat various stomach disorders and syphilis [46]
Taverniera abyssinica A. –Rich. Dingetegna   Unexplained stomach ache (megagna) Taken with Tenadam (Ruta chalepensis) and Amed (wood ash), mixed together with a little water and drunk F1 “Will cause to vomit” “Sudden disease”, headache, stomach ache [12]
Fabaceae        Vomiting, dysentery [28]
Thalictrum rhynchocarpum Dill. Quart.-Dill & A.Rich. Serabizu 2003 Rhesus factor problem in pregnancy (shotelay) as part of formula- see Achyranthes aspera   M3   Menorrhagia [12]
Ranunculaceae        Urinary tract infection [29]
    As part of hepatitis formula (see Afrocarpus podocarpus)   M2   
Thymus schimperi Ronniger Tosigne 1955 Whooping cough Boiled leaves, drunk as a tea F4 Found on sale in Fiche marketplace Used medicinally for headaches and coughs [69]
Lamiaceae    Hypertension Boiled leaves, drunk as a tea F4   
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Abish   Demulcent Mixed with garlic in the treatment of asthma (see Allium sativum), to protect against gastritis which may be caused by strong application of Allium sativum F2 Found on sale in Fiche marketplace Used in treating skin and stomach disorders [46]
Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. Ye ahiya joro 2034 Sick chickens Together with Feres zeng (Leonotis ocymifolia) F1   
Scrophulariaceae    Psychiatric disease (lekeft) In formula (see Artemisia abyssinica) F2   
Verbena officinalis L. Aqwarach/ 1950 Tonsillitis Chewed F5 “My mother would chew it, and she has to take 2 birr* for this. Unless they take the money they cannot be cured. If you refuse, it does not work” Leaf and/or root juice taken against diarrhoea. Decoction of leaf employed as gargle for tongue disease, sore throat and toothache [70]
Verbenaceae Telenz/       
       *Birr is the unit of currency in Ethiopia Dysentery, digestive after eating raw meat, eczema, eye disease, heart disease, heart pain, indigestion, induction of diarrhoea and emesis to relieve indigestion, insomnia, liver disease, malaria, mumps, snake/rabid dog bite, sore throat, stomach ache, stomach trouble, tongue disease, tonsillitis [12]
        Stomach disorder, Herpes zoster, ear problems, evil eye, snake bite, ascariasis [28]
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal Gizawa 2033 Unexplained stomach ache (megagna) Root is peeled then used as a fumigant by burning it and inhaling the smoke M4 Gizawa is my favourite medication. Especially for the stomach. Use the root, peel it, then use it as a fumigant” Decoction of the root powder taken for rheumatoid arthritis. Bark powder mixed with butter applied as a remedy for swelling [71]
Solanaceae    Bad spirits (Satan beshita) Adaptogen: whole system F1 Gizawa is an all-out treatment for the whole system”  
    Evil eye (buda)   F1 “Gizawa is like salt, it can go with anything. For devil spirit, epilepsy, buda. Not for wounds or physical sickness.” Evil spirit exorcism, joint infection, arthritis, malaria [12]
        Chest pain, mich, typhoid, evil eye [68]
      M8, PH Old saying: “Why did your child die if you had Gizawa growing in your garden?” Narcotic properties. Decoctions are used as pain killers [46]
        Main actions: Adaptogen, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal, anti-inflammatory, chondroprotective, anticancer, anxiolytic and antidepressant [72]
Zehneria scabra Sond. Hareg resa/Shahare 1954 Dandruff (forefore)   F2   Amenorrhoea, intelligence boost, mich (fever with headache) [12]
    Eye problem (possibly trachoma) The eyelid is peeled back and rubbed with the back of the leaf. The eyes should be covered and protected from the light until healed. F1, M8 “The women use it” Mich (fever with headache), stomach ache, wart [49]
      M8   Leprosy, wound dressing, measles, anthelmintic [73]
        Mich [28]
        Malaria [29]
Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Zingibil   Taeniasis As part of formula with Kosso (see Hagenia abyssinica) F1   Widely used as a medicinal plant worldwide
Zingiberaceae    Unexplained stomach ache (megagna) As part of formula with Ariti (see Artemisia absinthium) and Tenadam (see Ruta chalepensis) M3   
  1. Code: M = Male; F = Female; PH = Professional herbalist; E = Ethnobotanist.