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Table 1 Medicinal plants used in Maale and Ari communities with plant parts used, growth form and applications

From: Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

No Vernacular names: Maale (M), Araf (A) Ailments Scientific name Family Name Voucher № Parts used Growth form Application route Study sites
1 Tsinkaso (M) Eye disease (infection), Headache Barleria ventricosa Hochst. ex Nees Acanthaceae 210 , 356 Leaves Herb Topical M
2 Moro Golodo (M) Gastritis Blepharis maderaspatensis (L.) Roth. Acanthaceae 234, 637 Whole Herb Oral M
3 Golodo (M) Oral trash, Gastritis, Malnutrition Justicia bizuneshiae Ensermu Acanthaceae 357 Leaves Herb Oral M
4 Busino (M) Amoebiasis, Stomach ache, Diarrhea Hypoestes forsskaolii (Vahl) R. Br. Acanthaceae 30 Root Herb Oral M
5 Kati Murso (M) Constipation, Ascariasis Thunbergia alata Boj. ex Sims Acanthaceae 232,366, 391 whole Climber Oral M
6 Majimaylo(M) Tape worm Celosia trigyna L. Amaranthaceae 679 Leaves Herb Oral M
7 Tsami shinkurt (A) Stomach ache Allium sativum L. Amaryllidaceae - Bulb Herb Oral A1, A2
8 Salvano (M) Ascariasis Ozoroa insignis Delile Anacardiaceae 177 224 289 302 Stem bark Tree Oral M
9 Kubri (M) Diarrhea, Toothache, Food poisoning, Vomiting Rhus natalensis Krauss Anacardiaceae 28 Leaves Shrub Oral M
10 Muralatse (M) Food poisoning, vomiting Uvaria leptocladon Oliv. Annonaceae 24 Leaves Shrub Oral M
11 Afi Deshe (A) Evil eye Agrocharis melanantha Hochst. Apiaceae 309 Leaves Herb   A 2
12 Etsewayo (M), Ountinkam (A) Gastritis, Headache Evil eye Centella asiatica (L.) Urban Apiaceae 36,128 whole Herb Oral M, A1, A2
   Swelling Centella asiatica (L.) Urban    Whole Herb Topical  
13 Ambelto (M), Almi (A) Tonsilites Carissa spinarum L. Apocynaceae 33,119 Leaves Tree Oral M, A1
   Snake protection Carissa spinarum L.    Root Tree Smoke  
   Stomach ache, Carissa spinarum L.    Root Tree Oral  
   Evil eye Carissa spinarum L.    Root Tree Inhale  
14 Pijie (M) Ascariasis Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov. Apocynaceae 304 Root Climber Oral M
   Malnutrition (Child) Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov.    Leaves   Oral M
15 Metse (M) Retained placenta Leptadenia hastata (Pel's.) Decne. Apocynaceae 101 Leaves Shrub Oral M
   Liver disease(Ara) Leptadenia hastata (Pel's.) Decne.    Leaves   Inhale  
16 Zolpe (M) Liver disease (Ara) Stereospermum kunthianum Cham. Bignoniaceae 282,402 Leaves Tree Inhale M
17 Achenti (A) Stomach ache Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. Boraginaceae 2 Root Herb Oral A2
18 Kolpo (M) Common cold Brassica carinata A. Braun Brassicaceae   Leaves Herb Oral M
19 Feto Common cold Lepidium sativum L. Brassicaceae - Seed Herb Oral A2
20 Afi Deshe (A) Evil eye Monopsis stellarioides (Presl) Urb. Campanulaceae 246 Leaves Herb Oral A2
  Guni deshe (A) Snake bite Monopsis stellarioides (Presl) Urb.       
21 Chedi (A) Oral trash Garcinia livingstonei T.Anders. Clusiaceae 14 Fruit Tree Topical A2
22 Yemdir Berbere (A) Tooth ache, Tonsillitis Acmella caulirhiza Delile Compositae 89,313 Flower Herb Topical A1
23 Dunko (M), Duno (A) Stomach ache Artemisia absinthium L. Compositae - Leaves with stem Herb Oral M, A1
   Evil eye, Sudden disease, Headache Artemisia absinthium L.    Leaves with stem   Oral/Inhale  
24 Hachenti (M) Diarrhea Bidens pilosa L. Compositae 233 Root Herb Oral M
25 Azi deshe (A) Swelling(eti) Conyza gouanii (L.) Willd. Compositae 311 Leaves Herb Topical A2
26 Rebasho (M) Haro mato (M) Rheumatism Tagetes minuta L. Compositae 203 Leaves Herb Topical M
   Amoebiasis Tagetes minuta L.    Leaves Herb Oral  
27 Gera (A) Malaria Vernonia amygdalina Delile Compositae - leaves shrub Oral M, A1
28 Kwakuch deshe (A) Skin disease (‘Kwakucha) Cuscuta campestris Yuncker Convolvulaceae 259 Leaves with succulent stem Herb Topical A1
29 Lago (M) Malnutrition (Child) Diarrhea, Hheart disease, Gastritis Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker-Gawl. Convolvulaceae 211 Leaves Herb/climber type Oral M
30 Welanke (M) Liver disease Ipomoea spathulata Hall.f. Convolvulaceae 173,404 Leaves Herb Inhale M
31 Kamakarsho (M) Ascariasis Combretum aculeatum Vent. Combretaceae 287,504 Leaves Shrub Oral M
32 Gaal (M) Typoid Terminalia brownii L. Combretaceae   Leaves Tree Oral M
   Snake bite Terminalia brownii L.    Bark   Oral/Topical  
33 Hachirindo (M) Lower extremity weakness Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb. ex Spach Cucurbitaceae 15 Leaves Herb Topical M
   Amoebiasis Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb. ex Spach    Whole   Oral  
34 Botayilashe (M), Bota (A) Tape worm Cucurbita pepo L. Cucurbitaceae - Seed Herb Oral M, A1
  Bota Tape worm Cucurbita pepo L.    Seed Herb Oral  
35 Shuntee (M) Mouth wound Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn Cucurbitaceae 84 Leaves Herb Topical M
36 Choko (M) Amoebiasis Momordica foetida Schumach. Cucurbitaceae 204, 242 Whole Herb Oral M
37 Najie (M) Evil eye Momordica pterocarpa Hochst. ex A. Rich. Cucurbitaceae 20 Leaves Climber Topical M
   Amoebiasis Momordica pterocarpa Hochst. ex A. Rich.    Leaves Climber Oral  
38 Ounsi (M) Stomach ache Euclea divinorum Hiern Ebenaceae 26 Root Shrub Oral M
39 Sauto zao (M) Stomach bloating, food poisoning, Vomiting Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. Euphorbiaceae 98 Leaves Shrub Oral M
   Stomach ache Acalypha fruticosa Forssk.    Stem   Oral M
40 Sauti (M) Eye injury Acalypha volkensii Pax Euphorbiaceae 223 Leaves Herb Topical M
41 No local name Eye disease (Cataract) Euphorbia hirta L. Euphorbiaceae 496 Latex Herb Topical M
42 Tsedo (M) Rabies Euphorbia tirucalli L. Euphorbiaceae 285 Root Shrub Oral M
43 Tsamo desho (M) Wound Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae 350 Seed Shrub Topical M,A2
44 Beto (M) Beta (A) Gonorrhea ,Tape worm Croton macrostachyus Hochst. ex Ferret & Galinier Euphorbiaceae   Leaf bud Tree Oral M, A1, A2
45 Gaina deshe/Azi deshe (A) Stomach bloating, Geranium arabicum Forssk. Geraniaceae 312,445 Leaves Herb Oral A2
   Swelling Geranium arabicum Forssk.    Leaves Herb Topical  
46 Bato ketero deshe (M) Amoebiasis Pelargonium quinquelobatum Hochst. ex A.Rich., Geraniaceae 227 Whole Herb Oral M
47 Afi Deshe (A) Evil eye Hypericum peplidifolium A.Rich. Hypericaceae 263 Leaves Herb Oral A1,A2
48 Harsi deshe/ Gaina deshe/Shai Shar (A) Diarrhea Ajuga leucantha Lukhoba Lamiaceae 274, 278, 441 Leaves Herb Oral A1,A2
49 Baye Apo Desho (M) Stomach ache, Heart, Rheumatism Becium filamentosum (Forssk.) Chiov. Lamiaceae 196,221,324 Whole Herb Oral M
50 Bokolo (M), Dumfeken (A) Stomach bloating, vomiting Clerodendrum myricoides (Hochst.) Vatke Lamiaceae 195,346 Leaves Shrub Oral M, A1, A2
   Evil eye Clerodendrum myricoides (Hochst.) Vatke Lamiaceae 38 Root Shrub Oral ,Inhale  
51 Apo Desho (M) Evil eye Endostemon tereticaulis (Poir.) M.Ashby Lamiaceae 99,165 Whole Herb Topical M
52 Tsamo desho (M) Cold Fuerstia africana T.C.E. Fr. Lamiaceae 230 Leaves Herb Topical M
53 Pelo Tsala (M) Stomach ache, Amoebiasis, Stomach bloating, Head ache, Food poisoning, Vomiting Leucas abyssinica (Benth.) Briq. Lamiaceae 167,321 Leaves Shrub Oral M
   Rheumantism Leucas abyssinica (Benth.) Briq.    Leaves   Topical  
54 Chergicola Pus from Ear, nose, mouth; Eye disease (cataract), Rheumatism Leucas glabarata (Vahl) Sm. in Rees Lamiaceae 237, 281, 320, 365 Leaves Herb Topical M
   Headache     Leaves   Oral/inhale  
55 Azi deshe Swelling Leucas martinicensis (Jacq.) R.Br. Lamiaceae 315 Leaves Herb Topical A2
56 Lamo (M) Stomach ache Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae 222 ,317 Leaves Herb Oral M
57 Gurdarindo (M) Headache, Diarrhea Stomach bloating, Stomach ache, Vomiting Ocimum forskolei Benth. Lamiaceae 214 , 235 Whole Herb Oral M
58 Pasi kedo Heart disease Ocimum laliifolium Hochst. ex Benth. Lamiaceae 225,37 Leaves Herb Oral M,
  Demakesse Headache Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth.   134 Leaves   Oral/Inhale A1, A2
59 Kuliti kup (M) Herpes simplex ( “Mich”) Ocimum urticifolium Roth Lamiaceae 133 Leaves Shrub Topical A1,A2
   Stomach ache, Vomiting Ocimum urticifolium Roth      Oral  
   Headache Ocimum urticifolium Roth      Inhale  
60 Pero (M) Amoebiasis, Stomach ache Plectranthus barbatus Andrews Lamiaceae 85 Root Herb Oral M
61 Dumio (M) Lower extremity weakness Plectranthus cylindraceus Hochst. ex Benth. Lamiaceae 229,503 Leaves Herb Topical M
62 Ketero Desho Solelo (M) Stomach ache, Amoebiasis, Diarrhea Plectranthus longipes Baker Lamiaceae 464 whole Herb Oral M
63 Banjirindo (M) Ease of Birth Plectranthus punctatus (L.f) L.'Hér. Lamiaceae 207,318,369 Whole Herb Oral M
64 Anchip (M) Amoebiasis, Diarrhea, Stomach bloating, Stomach ache, Food poisoning Pycnostachys abyssinica Fresen. Lamiaceae 205, 319 Leaves Herb Oral M
65 Sheto (M) Constipation Satureja abyssinica (Benth.) Briq. Lamiaceae 292, 690 Leaves Herb Oral M
66 Zene gaime Deshe (A) Stomach ache Satureja paradoxa (Vatke) Engl. ex Seybold Lamiaceae 310, 371 Leaves Herb Oral A2
67 Kayneka/Digita (A) Stomach ache Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. Leguminosae 247,272 Leaves shrub Oral A1, A2
   Diarrhea Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth.    Root Herb Oral  
68 Aro Dor deshe (M) Malnutrition (Child) Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene Leguminosae 197,322 Whole Herb Oral M
69 Dongordoso (M) Tonsilites Indigofera spicata Forssk. Leguminosae 202, 251, 256,261, 345,388 Root Herb Oral M, A1
  Afi Deshe/Gaina Deshe/Wesfat deshe (A) Diarrhea, Evil eye Ascariasis, Stomach ache Indigofera spicata Forssk.   467 Whole   Oral  
70 Birbira (A) To close wound caused by Jiggers Millettia ferruginea (Hochst.) Baker Leguminosae - Seed Tree Topical A2
71 Dawrake (M) Liver disease Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh. Leguminosae 117 Leaves Tree Inhale M
72 Ara Deshe (A) Liver disease (Ara) Senna petersiana (Bolle) Lock Leguminosae 260 Leaves Shrub Inhale A1, A2
73 Karhaleko (M) Stomach ache, Diarrhea , Food poisoning, Vomiting, Ascariasis Senna singueana (Delile) Lock Leguminosae 59,28 Root Shrub Oral M
74 Dino desho (M) Diarrhea ( Children) Stylosanthes fruticosa (Retz.) Alston Leguminosae   Leaves Herb Oral M
   Snake bite Stylosanthes fruticosa (Retz.) Alston    Root   Oral  
75 Dolkoiso (M) Stomach ache, Vomiting Tephrosia bracteolata Guill. & Perr. Leguminosae 291 Leaves Shrub Oral M
76 Seringo demo golodo (M) Gastritis Zornia pratensis Milne-Redh. Leguminosae 192, 328 Leaves Herb Oral M
77 Polo Golodo (M) Stomach ache, Diarrhea, Gastritis Abutilon longicuspe Hochst. ex A.Rich Malvaceae 193 Leaves Herb Oral M
78 Puta (M) Heart, food poisoning Gossypium herbaceum L. Malvaceae 621 Leaves Shrub Oral M
   Ear ache Gossypium herbaceum L.    Leaf bud   Topical  
79 Wari Beshe (M) Civil deshe (A) Oral trash, Diarrhea , Malnutrition (Child) Kosteletzkya adoensis (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Mast. Malvaceae 209,368,465 Leaves Herb Oral M,
   Fresh cut to stop bleeding Kosteletzkya adoensis (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Mast.    Leaves Herb Topical A1
80 Chuksha (A ) Swelling Sida rhombifolia L. Malvaceae 93, 314 Leaves Herb Topical A2
81 Kautso (M) Vomiting, Food poisoning Sterculia africana (Lour.) Fiori Malvaceae 47 Leaves Tree Oral M
82 Gontersa (M) Snake bite, Liver disease Bersama abyssinica Fresen. Melianthaceae 436,475 Stem bark Shrub Oral/
83 Chorahe (M) Amoebiasis Chasmanthera dependens Hochst. Menispermaceae 100 Stem Herb Oral M
   Swelling Chasmanthera dependens Hochst.      Topical  
84 Balari (M) Amoebiasis, Diarrhea, Rabies, Stomach ache Cissampelos mucronata A.Rich. Menispermaceae 29,96 Root Herb Oral M
85 Haleko, Kellengi (A) Eye disease (cataract) Moringa stenopetala (Bak.) Cuf. Moringaceae - Stem bark Tree Topical M,
   Malaria Moringa stenopetala (Bak.) Cuf.    Leaves Tree Oral A1
86 Musi (A) Diarrhea Musa paradisiaca L. Musaceae - Fruit Herb Oral A1
87 Enkoko (A) Tape worm Embelia schimperi Vatke Myrsinaceae - Seeds Shrub Oral A2
88 Diko (M) Lower extremity weakness, Rheumatism Commicarpus grandiflorus (A.Rich) Standley Nyctaginaceae   Leaves Herb Topical M
89 Mukalle (M) Wound Ximenia caffra Sond. Olacaceae 22 Seed Tree Topical M
90 Chamo (M) Tape worm Jasminum grandiflorum L subsp. floribundum (R.Br. ex Fresen.) P.S.Green: Oleaceae 415,727   Climber Oral M
91 Rimiti (M) Ascariasis, Gonorrhea Olea europaea L. subsp. cuspidata (Wall.ex G.Don) Cif. Oleaceae 108 Leaves Tree Oral M
92 Afi deshe (Bere Keno) (A) Evil eye Biophytum umbraculum Welw. Oxalidaceae 264 Leaves Herb Oral A2
93 Solcarindo (M), Kinsa kins (A) Malnutrition (children) Diarrhea, Tooth ache, Stop fresh cut bleeding Oxalis radicosa A. Rich. Oxalidaceae 212, 326 Leaves with succulent stem Herb Oral M, A1
94 Azi (ite) deshe Swelling Phyllanthus ovalifolius Forssk. Phyllanthaceae 200 Leaves Shrub Topical A1,A2
95 Afi Deshe (A) Evil eye Phyllanthus rotundifolius Willd Phyllanthaceae 244, 305 Leaves Herb Oral A1
96 Tolsi (M), Andod (A) Gonorrhea, Stomach bloating Phytolacca dodecandra L 'Hérit. Phytolaccaceae 97,241 Leaves Climber Oral M,A1
97 Kurupe (M), Guni deshe (A) Tooth ache Plumbago zeylanica L. Plumbaginaceae 90, 279, 284,306,367 Root bark Climber Topical M, A1,A2
   Snake bite Plumbago zeylanica L.    Whole   Oral  
98 Tsoralle (M) Skin burns Portulaca quadrifida L. Portulacaceae   Leaves Herb Topical M
99 Wuchanbe (M) Tape worm Myrsine africana L. Primulaceae 178 Seed Shrub Oral M
100 Gero (M) Tooth ache Faurea speciosa Welw. Proteaceae 109,413 Leaves Tree Topical M
101 Dishoo (M) Ear ache Clematis hirsuta Perr. & Guill. Ranunculaceae 110,231 Leaves Climber Topical M
   Headache Clematis hirsuta Perr. & Guill.    Leaves   Oral  
102 Afi Deshe (M) Evil eye Ranunculus multifidus Forssk. Ranunculaceae 381,111, 270 Leaves Herb Topical A2
   Tonsillitis Ranunculus multifidus Forssk.      Oral  
103 Ziambee Ascariasis Caylusea abyssinica (Fresen.) Fisch. & Mey Resedaceae 16 Leaves Herb Oral M
104 Kulmi (A) Tonsilities Rhamnus prinoides L.'Hérit. Rhamnaceae - Leaves Shrub Oral A1,A2
105 Kosso (A) Tape worm Hagenia abyssinica (Brace) J.F.Gmel. Rosaceae - Flower Tree Oral M, A2
106 Afi Deshe(b) Evil eye Oldenlandia lancifolia (Schumach.) DC. Rubiaceae 245 Leaves Herb Oral A1
107 Wari ampi (M) Liver disease (Ara) Pavetta gardeniifolia A.Rich. Rubiaceae 325 Leaves Shrub Inhale M
   Common cold Pavetta gardeniifolia A Rich.       
108 Afi deshe/gaina deshe (A) Diarrhea, Evil eye, Tooth ache, Stomach ache, Head wound Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) Deflers Rubiaceae 277,243,250, 276, 249 Root Herb Oral A1, A2
109 Garo (M) Ascariasis Vangueria apiculata K. Schum. Rubiaceae 8,157 Leaves Shrub Oral M
110 Gembala (M) Malaria Gardenia ternifolia Schumach. & Thonn. Rubiaceae 352 Leaves Tree Oral M
111 Onaki (M) Ascariasis Meyna tetraphylla (Schweinf. ex Hiern) Robyns Rubiaceae 4 Leaves Tree Oral M
112 Lomi (A) Oral trash; Food poisoning Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle Rutaceae - Fruit Tree Oral A1
113 Tselto (M) Stomach ache, common cold Ruta chalepensis L. var.tenuifolia D'Urville Rutaceae - Leaves with succulent stem Herb Oral M, A1.A2
114 Gedai (M) Common cold Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Rutaceae 31 Seed Tree Oral M
115 Wulchi (M) Scorpion bite Anemia schimperiana Presl. Schizaeaceae 290 Leaves Herb Oral M
116 Mitmita (A) Malaria Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae - Fruit Herb Oral A1
117 Guni deshe (A) Snake bite Datura metel L. Solanaceae 103 Whole Herb Oral/topical A1
118 Atsefaris (M) Toothache Datura stramonium L. Solanaceae   Leaf bud Shrub Topical M
119 Ara Deshe (A) Liver disease Discopodium penninervium Hochst. Solanaceae 339 Leaves Tree Inhale A2
120 Tumbaho (M) Leeches Nicotiana tabacum L. Solanaceae - Leaves Herb Topical/ Oral A1,A2
121 Achi Kolpo (M), Garenti (A) Amoebiasis, Stomach ache, Evil eye Solanum dasyphyllum Schumach. Solanaceae 9,94 Root Herb Oral M,A1,A2
122 Kotse Garenti (A) Bulabulo(M) Ascariasis, stomach ache Solanum incanum L. Solanaceae 94 Root Herb Oral M
123 Muto (M) Cold Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal Solanaceae 176, 208 Root Herb Oral M
124 Azi deshe/masna (A) Swelling Veronica abyssinica Fres. Scrophulariaceae 316, 334 Leaves Herb Topical A2
125 Enaro (M) Headache, Vomiting Lantana camara L. Verbenaceae 169 Leaves Shrub Oral M
126 Dolo amede (M) Headache Lantana trifolia L. Verbenaceae 190 Leaves Shrub Oral M
127 Atuch Stomach ache Verbena officinalis subsp. africana R.Fernandes & Verdc. Verbenaceae 268 Leaves Herb Oral A2
128 Kuze (M) Ascariasis, Food poisoning ,Vomiting Balanites rotundifolia (van Tieghem) Blatter Zygophyllaceae 41 Leaves Tree Oral M
  1. Study sites: M= Maale, A1= Ari 1and A2= Ari 2 ; Plant names are checked based on