Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 3 Matrix cognition compared

From: Local ecological knowledge of the artisanal fishers on Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822) (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) on Ilhéus coast – Bahia State, Brazil

Local ecological knowledge Scientific literature
Morphological characteristics
“The mero-canapu have thicker scales, spurs, all thicker. It has the eye niggling, which is more darker brown then whiting and a little yellowish beneath the tip.” Individuals of this species can be distinguished by morphological characters as small eye, wide mouth and coloration of the adult green with dark spots and bright [5, 70].
“Big fish, the scales black with yellow and white flesh, round head”
Habitat
“He lives there, walks in the depth wall, is not a fish to walk so far on deep waters do not. He lives in the place that has a hole he is there, into those places of stone, is a bottom fish.” Great copolymers are probably sedentary … they display little movement between reefs [14].
“On the stone edge, 50 m depth to around here. It’s fish that lives in rock, very dens, localized at the bottom near the dens.” In his adulthood, is usually found in shallow waters of the continental shelf (<50 m) associated with various types of substrate, such as reefs, rock formations, shipwrecks and other similar structures [14, 15].
“Experience in the rocks from outside and near the beach. In the stone which dens, is a bottom fish. The smaller (2–3 kg) we caught in the river back here (Almada River), 30 kg onwards is out there with 35 to 60 m deep.”
“Find it in shallow and deep, but is created in the shallows” The mangroves of the Florida, youth individuals gather in places with high structural complexity and unconsolidated funds [12].
Diet
“ Eat all because it is a larger predator, eats octopus and various fish: tuna, small snappers and parrotfish, up when the animals already greater.” The more important part of their diet is crustaceans, preferably lobster and crab, although fish and turtles were also found in their stomachs [2].
“The juvenil eats the same thing only smaller fish that takes” Juveniles eat shrimp, crab and catfish [14].
“The small eat shrimp.”  
Reproduction
“Come to shallow to spawn and then back to the depth”  
“The spawn is usually on the half moon …” In Florida the goliath grouper breeding season is occurs from August to September, in time of full moon [7].
“In Itacare is spawning nest of them, once the boats took 5–6 a day. I even took three a day and three in another. In April and May we took there more than a hundred fish.” In Belize and Puerto Rico have been recorded from July to August on the wreck to 30-45 m depth [2].
Conservation
“ The mero came to Ilheus reef, in a place near the river where the young is so much more guarded and more food.” The E. itajara is one of the most endangered fish in the tropical Atlantic [20].
“ Without spearfishing, it used to live longer, and it was just bigger, while today it reaches 70 or 80 kilograms and is shipped in large quantities.” The main threats to E. itajara are anthropogenic, such as overfishing and habitat degradation [21].
“Who is beaten gets to learn, is not it! the fish going harpoon and receiving fish hook, is decreasing production. Many arts, include gillnet, also becomes more difficult to fishing.” In Brazilian waters, the ban has been implemented for 5 years, during which time studies will address future management options [22].
“In handle bottom- line is rare, in shrimp trawl caught from time to time, and the diver kills everything.” At aggregation sites off Florida numbers of fish again following the moratorium capture is increasing [2].
“You can be the net both to trawls and lobster, if started a few years back here. The fishnet destroys the stone from the bottom where small fish hide, and the great escape because it has little to eat.”  
“It’s not ending, and the population must have increased with the prohibition. That is the logic, isn’t it!”