Skip to main content

Table 3 The growth habit, habitat, harvest season and consumption form of the Ficus found in the ethnic diet in Xishuangbanna, SW China

From: An ethnobotanical study of the less known wild edible figs (genus Ficus) native to Xishuangbanna, Southwest China

SpeciesA Growth habit (M/D)B Habitat Intensive harvest period Edible parts Mode of consumptionC
FAL Large trees (M) Insides and margins of the thick forest in valleys or mountains, or grow as individuals in plains February – March Leaf buds Vegetables boiled with pork ribs (water blanching before cook, Hani), the stipules act as sour taste ingredients
FAU Small trees (D) Tropical or subtropical forests in moist valleys, or surroundings of farmland and village January – April (young leaves), March – July (ripe female figs) Young or ripe female figs, young leaves Ripe figs are eaten raw or for making jelly beverage; Young figs are used as salad with condiments (Dai and Jinuo); Young leaves are used as vegetables boiled with spareribs (water blanching or rubbing with salt before cook); Young figs and young leaves are sold for cash income
FCA Large trees (M) Forests in basins or valleys in lower mountains January – May Young leaves Vegetables cooked with tomato (the red kind need water blanching before cook, Dai, Jinuo); sold for cash income
FHI Shrubs or small trees (D) Slopes or margins of mountain forests or open fields near villages August – October Ripe female figs Child snacks (Hani, Jinuo and Yao)
FMR trees (M) Plains or thin forests along river and stream sides February – April Leaf buds Fresh vegetables, or store up after quickly baked and dried for use out of season (Dai); Being sold for cash income
FOL Small trees (D) Forests in higher mountainous areas, (Similar to FAU) Ripe female figs, young leaves Ripe figs are eaten raw or for making jelly beverage; Young leaves are used as vegetables boiled with spareribs (water blanching or rubbing with salt before cook); Young leaves are sold for cash income
FRA Large trees (M) Thin forests along river and stream sides, or valleys of lower mountains March – May Young leaves As salad with condiments or as vegetables cooked with green moss (Dai, Hani, Jinuo)
FSE Small trees (D) Forest edge or thin forests in valleys, beside rivers and roads Irregular (2 – 3 crops per year) Ripe female figs Ripe figs are eaten raw
FSM Small trees (D) Forest edge or road side Irregular (3 crops per year) Ripe female figs Ripe figs are eaten raw
FTI Prostrate woody vines (D) Slopes of limestone mountain and grass land at higher elevations June – September (ripe female figs) Ripe female figs; whole plant Ripe female figs are eaten raw; Whole plant is used for tea preparation (Yao)
FVA Trees (M) Seasonal rain forests at lower elevations January – June Young leaves Soup vegetables boiled with other wild greens or fried vegetables (Dai, Hani); Sold for cash income
FVI Large trees (M) Forests in valleys or lower mountains January – April Leaf buds As salad with condiments (Yao) or as vegetables boiled with pig trotter, the stipules give a sour taste; Being sold for cash income
FVS Large trees (M) Forests in valleys or lower mountains, or growing as individuals in plains January – April Leaf buds Vegetables boiled with pig trotter, the stipules give a sour taste (Dai)
  1. AFAL, F. altissima; FAU, F. auriculata; FCA, F. callosa; FHI, F. hirta; FMR, F. maclellandii var. rhododendrifolia; FOL, F. oligodon; FRA, F. racemosa; FSE, F. semicordata; FSM, F. semicordata var. montana; FTI, F. tikoua; FVA, F. vasculosa; FVI, F. virens; FVS, F. virens var. sublanceolata.
  2. BD, Dioecious; M, Monoecious.
  3. CThe consumption modes without brackets indication mean they are common to all four ethnic groups in this study.