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Table 4 Ethnobotanical inventory and some quantitative indexes of useful wetland plants in China

From: Diversity of wetland plants used traditionally in China: a literature review

Species UV RFC CI CV Use Reference(s)
Acorus calamus L. 1.55 0.20 0.30 0.03795 ED,ME,FI,FO,PE,OR,ID [2729, 45, 46, 59, 63, 65, 68, 62, 67]
Acorus gramineus Aiton 1.00 0.11 0.11 0.00209 ED,ME [27, 44, 46, 59, 63, 78]
Actinostemma tenerum Griff. 3.20 0.09 0.29 0.01160 ED,ME,FO,GR,ID [2729, 58, 64]
Adenostemma lavenia (L.) Kuntze 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00046 ED [27, 29, 46, 58]
Aeginetia indica L. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Aeschynomene indica L. 2.00 0.05 0.11 0.00157 ME,GR,FI [29, 46, 58]
Ageratum conyzoides L. 2.00 0.05 0.11 0.00209 ME,FO,GR,EN [28, 29, 46]
Ajuga ciliata Bunge 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Ajuga multiflora Bunge 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 29]
Alisma canaliculatum A. Braun & C. D. Bouché 1.50 0.04 0.05 0.00035 ME,OR [29, 46]
Alisma gramineum Lej. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [64]
Alisma plantago-aquatica L. 1.13 0.14 0.16 0.00417 ME,OR [2729, 45, 46, 59, 64, 65]
Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. 2.83 0.11 0.30 0.01183 ME,GR,FO,EN [2729, 46, 57, 58]
Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC. 2.80 0.09 0.25 0.00812 ED,ME,FO,GR [27, 29, 46, 58, 62]
Amethystea coerulea L. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 29]
Ammannia baccifera L. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00023 ME,FO [46, 62]
Amphicarpaea trisperma Baker 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [28]
Anemone hupehensis (Lemoine) Lemoine 1.67 0.05 0.09 0.00087 ME,PE [28, 29, 46]
Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) F. Muell. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [28]
Apocynum venetum L. 2.67 0.05 0.14 0.00278 ED,ME,FI,ID [28, 29, 46]
Arisaema amurense Maxim. 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00046 ME [27, 28, 46, 59]
Arisaema du-bois-reymondiae Engl. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [29]
Arisaema heterophyllum Blume 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [69]
Artemisia capillaris Thunb. 2.20 0.09 0.20 0.00957 ED,ME,FO,LI,PE,ID [2729, 58, 67]
Artemisia selengensis Turcz. ex Besser 1.60 0.09 0.14 0.00348 ED,ME,FO [27, 29, 46, 65, 70]
Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino 1.50 0.07 0.11 0.00209 ME,FI,FO [28, 46, 57, 67]
Arundinella anomala Steud. 2.00 0.04 0.07 0.00046 FI,FO [28, 29]
Arundo donax L. 2.63 0.14 0.38 0.02922 ME,FI,FO,OR,EN,OT [2729, 36, 37, 45, 46, 59]
Arundo donax var. versicolor (Mill.) Stokes 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 OR [27, 38]
Astilbe chinensis Franch. & Sav. 1.67 0.05 0.09 0.00130 ME,OR,ID [28, 29, 46]
Astragalus adsurgens Pall. 1.67 0.05 0.09 0.00130 ME,FO,EN [28, 29, 46]
Atropanthe sinensis Pascher 1.67 0.05 0.09 0.00087 ME,ID [28, 29, 46]
Azolla imbricata (Roxb.) Nakai 2.22 0.16 0.36 0.02087 ME,FO,GR,PE [2729, 31, 32, 46, 58, 59, 62]
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 29]
Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald 1.67 0.05 0.09 0.00130 ED,ME,FO [28, 57, 68]
Berteroa incana DC. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ID [28]
Bidens parviflora Willd. 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 ED,ME [28, 29, 46]
Bidens tripartita L. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Blyxa aubertii Rich. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [28]
Blyxa echinosperma (C. B. Clarke) Hook. f. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 FO [27, 28]
Blyxa japonica Maxim. ex Asch. & Gürke 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [28]
Blyxa leiosperma Koidz. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [27]
Boehmeria gracilis C. H. Wright 1.67 0.05 0.09 0.00130 ME,FI,ID [28, 29, 46]
Brasenia schreberi J. F. Gmel. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00052 ED,ME [27, 29, 46]
Bromus catharticus Vahl 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 FO [27, 29]
Bromus inermis Leyss. 2.50 0.04 0.09 0.00087 ED,FO,EN [27, 28]
Bromus japonicus Thunb. 1.83 0.11 0.20 0.00957 ED,ME,FO,FI,LI [27, 28, 45, 46, 57, 62]
Bromus remotiflorus (Steud.) Ohwi 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 FI,FO [45, 57, 62]
Butomus umbellatus L. 1.50 0.04 0.05 0.00035 FI,OR [28, 64]
Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth 2.60 0.09 0.23 0.00754 FI,FO,OT,EN [2729, 57, 67]
Calamagrostis pseudophragmites (Hall. f.) Koel. 2.00 0.07 0.14 0.00186 FO,EN [2729, 57]
Caldesia reniformis Makino 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 OR [29]
Caltha palustris L. 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00104 ED,ME,PE [29, 68, 82]
Canna generalis L. H. Bailey 1.50 0.04 0.05 0.00035 FI,OR [27, 29]
Canna indica L. 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00139 ED,ME,FI,FO [27, 46, 62]
Capillipedium parviflorum (R. Br.) Stapf 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [28]
Cardamine flexuosa With. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 58]
Cardamine impatiens L. 1.75 0.07 0.13 0.00244 ED,ME,FO [2729, 63]
Cardamine leucantha (Tausch) O. E. Schulz 1.25 0.07 0.09 0.00116 ED,ME [28, 29, 46, 70]
Cardamine lyrata Bunge 1.75 0.07 0.13 0.00162 ED,ME [2729, 46]
Cardamine macrophylla Willd. 1.67 0.05 0.09 0.00130 ED,ME,FO [29, 81, 82]
Carex baccans Nees 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00023 ED,ME [28, 46]
Carex dispalata Boott 1.50 0.04 0.05 0.00035 FI,FO [28, 67]
Carex leiorhyncha C. A. Mey. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 FO [28, 67]
Carex scabrifolia Steud. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 FI [28, 29]
Carex tangiana Ohwi 1.50 0.04 0.05 0.00035 FO,OR [28, 67]
Catabrosa aquatica P. Beauv. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [28]
Centaurium meyeri Druce 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 46]
Centipeda minima (L.) A. Braun & Asch. 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00046 ME [28, 29, 46, 78]
Ceratophyllum demersum L. 1.71 0.13 0.21 0.00487 ME,FO [2729, 46, 58, 63, 64]
Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. 1.33 0.11 0.14 0.00278 ED,ME [2729, 46, 58, 63]
Chenopodium ambrosioides L. 2.20 0.09 0.20 0.00638 ME,ED,PE,ID [2729, 46, 58]
Chenopodium serotinum L. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00023 ME,FO [46, 62]
Cicuta virosa L. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 46]
Clematis cadmia Buch.-Ham. ex Hook.f. & Thomson 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 46]
Clematis finetiana H. Lév. & Vaniot 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Clematis orientalis L. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [28]
Clinopodium chinense Kuntze 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 46]
Clinopodium gracile (Bentham) Matsumura 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss. 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 ME,FO [28, 29, 46]
Coix lacryma-jobi L. 2.30 0.18 0.41 0.04000 ED,ME,FI,FO,LI,OT [27, 41, 42, 45, 46, 59, 62, 63, 65, 71]
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott 1.83 0.11 0.20 0.00574 ED,ME,FO [27, 29, 46, 65, 59, 62]
Commelina benghalensis L. 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00093 ME,OR [2729, 46]
Commelina communis L. 1.20 0.09 0.11 0.00261 ED,ME,FO [2729, 46, 70]
Corydalis racemosa Pers. 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00046 ME [28, 29, 46, 58]
Crotalaria assamica Benth. 2.00 0.04 0.07 0.00093 ME,FI,FO,GR [28, 29]
Crypsis aculeata Aiton 1.50 0.04 0.05 0.00035 FO,EN [28, 29]
Cyperus compressus L. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 FO [62, 67]
Cyperus difformis L. 1.00 0.11 0.11 0.00209 ME,FI [28, 46, 6264, 67]
Cyperus exaltatus Retz. 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00093 FI,FO [28, 29, 62, 67]
Cyperus glomeratus L. 1.60 0.09 0.14 0.00464 ME,FO,FI,GR [28, 46, 62, 64, 67]
Cyperus imbricatus Retz. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 FI [28, 29]
Cyperus iria L. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00052 ME,FO [46, 62, 67]
Cyperus michelianus (L.) Link 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [46]
Cyperus microiria Steud. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [62]
Cyperus pilosus Vahl 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00139 ME,FI,FO [27, 45, 62, 63]
Cyperus pygmaeus Rottb. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [62]
Dichrocephala auriculata Druce 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Dichrocephala benthamii C. B. Clarke 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Dicliptera chinensis (L.) Juss. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke 1.20 0.09 0.11 0.00261 ED,ME,PE [28, 29, 46, 69, 78]
Echinochloa caudata Roshev. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [28]
Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. 2.40 0.09 0.21 0.01044 ED,ME,FI,FO,GR,LI [28, 45, 46, 57, 62]
Echinochloa crus-galli var. mitis (Pursh) Peterm. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [62]
Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis (Kunth) Hitchc. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [62]
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Kunth) Schult. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [62]
Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms 2.67 0.11 0.29 0.01670 ED,ME,FO,OR,GR,EN [2729, 46, 57, 62]
Eleocharis dulcis Trin. ex Henschel. 2.00 0.11 0.21 0.00626 ED,ME,FO [27, 29, 43, 62, 65, 73]
Eleocharis plantagineiformis Tang & F. T. Wang 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [28]
Eleocharis valleculosa Ohwi 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 FI,FO [27, 57, 62]
Eleocharis yokoscensis (Franch. & Savat.) Tang & F. T. Wang 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [46]
Elsholtzia kachinensis Prain 1.40 0.09 0.13 0.00304 ED,ME,FO [28, 29, 46, 63, 72]
Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Vaucher 1.50 0.07 0.11 0.00139 ME,OT [27, 28, 46, 58]
Equisetum hyemale L. 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 ME,OT [28, 46, 67]
Equisetum pratense Ehrh. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 67]
Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [27, 28, 65]
Eriocaulon australe R. Br. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 46]
Eriocaulon buergerianum Körn. 1.00 0.11 0.11 0.00104 ME [2729, 45, 46, 59]
Eriocaulon cinereum R. Br. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 63]
Eriocaulon decemflorum Maxim. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [27]
Eriocaulon robustius Makino 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [28]
Euphorbia thymifolia L. 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00046 ME [28, 29, 46, 68]
Euryale ferox Salisb. 3.00 0.18 0.54 0.06088 ED,ME,FO,GR,LI,OR,ID [27, 29, 45, 46, 57, 58, 6265]
Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl 1.67 0.05 0.09 0.00130 ME,FI,FO [27, 28, 46]
Geranium sibiricum L. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 46]
Geum aleppicum Jacq. 1.75 0.07 0.13 0.00244 ED,ME,ID [28, 29, 46, 67]
Glaux maritima L. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ED [28, 70]
Glechoma longituba (Nakai) Kuprian. 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00046 ME [28, 29, 46, 63]
Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc. 3.50 0.07 0.25 0.00974 ED,ME,FI,FO,GR,EN [28, 29, 57, 67]
Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora Maxim. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00078 ME,FI,GR [28, 29, 46]
Halerpestes cymbalaria Greene 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [28]
Halerpestes ruthenica (Jacq.) Ovcz. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 PE [28]
Hemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf & C. E. Hubb. 1.50 0.04 0.05 0.00035 FO,FI [27, 28]
Hemarthria compressa (L. f.) R. Br. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [28]
Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle 2.00 0.05 0.11 0.00104 FO,GR [27, 28, 64]
Hydrocharis dubia (Blume) Backer 1.67 0.05 0.09 0.00130 ED,FO,GR [2729]
Hygrophila salicifolia (Vahl) Nees 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 46]
Inula japonica Thunb. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Iris tectorum Maxim. 1.25 0.07 0.09 0.00116 ME,OR [27, 29, 46, 59]
Ixeris japonica Nakai 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 46]
Ixeris polycephala Cass. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [29]
Juncus effusus L. 1.71 0.13 0.21 0.00731 ME,FI,OT [2729, 46, 64, 65, 67]
Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 46]
Kyllinga colorata (L.) Druce 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [28]
Lactuca tatarica C. A. Mey. 2.00 0.02 0.04 0.00012 ED,FO [28]
Lagedium sibiricum (L.) Soják 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ED [70]
Lamium amplexicaule L. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 79]
Lamium barbatum Siebold & Zucc. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Lapsana apogonoides Maxim. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 FO [28, 29, 57]
Leersia hexandra Sw. 1.50 0.04 0.05 0.00052 ME,FO,ID [28, 46]
Leersia japonica Makino 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [46]
Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [28]
Lemna minor L. 1.75 0.07 0.13 0.00244 ME,FO,GR [28, 48, 59, 62]
Lemna trisulca L. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [28]
Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 FO [27, 29, 62]
Limonium sinense Kuntze 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Lobelia chinensis Lour. 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00046 ME [28, 29, 46, 58]
Lotus tenuis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 46]
Ludwigia adscendens (L.) H. Hara 1.17 0.11 0.13 0.00244 ME,FO [2729, 46, 58, 62]
Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G. Don) Exell 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Ludwigia prostrata Roxb. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00052 ME,FO [27, 46, 62]
Lycopus lucidus Turcz. 1.20 0.09 0.11 0.00174 ED,ME [28, 29, 46, 69, 70]
Lycoris radiata (L'Hér.) Herb. 2.50 0.07 0.18 0.00812 ED,ME,PE,LI,FI,OT,ID [2729, 46]
Lygodium japonicum (Thunb.) Sw. 1.50 0.07 0.11 0.00209 ME,PE,ED [28, 29, 46, 77]
Lysimachia christinae Hance 1.00 0.09 0.09 0.00072 ME [2729, 46, 58]
Lysimachia congestiflora Hemsl. 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00046 ME [2729, 46]
Lysimachia fortunei Maxim. 1.20 0.09 0.11 0.00174 ME,FO [2729, 46, 58]
Lysimachia heterogenea Klatt 2.00 0.02 0.04 0.00012 ME,GR [28]
Lythrum salicaria L. 1.50 0.14 0.21 0.01113 ME,OR,FO,ID [2729, 46, 58, 62, 64, 65]
Marsilea quadrifolia L. 1.71 0.13 0.21 0.00974 ED,ME,FO,GR [2729, 46, 56, 58, 59]
Mazus japonicus (Thunb.) Kuntze 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [27, 46]
Melilotus indicus (L.) All. 2.33 0.05 0.13 0.00244 ME,FO,GR,EN [28, 46, 57]
Mentha haplocalyx Briq. 1.67 0.21 0.36 0.02087 ED,ME,ID [2729, 45, 46, 58, 59, 65, 67, 70, 78, 77]
Microstegium ciliatum A. Camus 1.50 0.04 0.05 0.00035 FI,FO [28, 29]
Mimulus tenellus Bunge 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00052 ED,ME [28, 29, 46]
Miscanthus floridulus Warb. ex K. Schum. & Lauterb. 1.83 0.11 0.20 0.00765 ME,FO,FI,EN [2729, 46, 57, 62]
Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Hack. 2.00 0.09 0.18 0.00435 FI,FO,EN [27, 28, 45, 57, 62]
Miscanthus sinensis Andersson 2.00 0.11 0.21 0.00835 ME,FI,FO,EN [2729, 45, 46, 62]
Monochoria hastata (L.) Solms 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ED [28, 56]
Monochoria korsakowii Regel & Maack 2.00 0.14 0.29 0.01855 ED,ME,FO,OR,GR [2729, 46, 56, 57, 62, 64]
Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) C. Presl ex Kunth 1.67 0.11 0.18 0.00696 ED,ME,FO,GR [27, 46, 56, 57, 62, 70]
Mosla dianthera (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Maxim. 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 ME,PE [28, 29, 46]
Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Mazz. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [28]
Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 29]
Murdannia triquetra G. Brückn. 2.00 0.07 0.14 0.00278 ME,ED,FO [27, 29, 46, 49]
Myosoton aquaticum Moench 2.00 0.05 0.11 0.00157 ME,ED,FO [28, 29, 46]
Myriophyllum spicatum L. 1.25 0.07 0.09 0.00116 ME,FO [2729, 64]
Myriophyllum verticillatum L. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 FO [27, 28, 64]
Najas foveolata A. Braun ex Magnus 2.00 0.02 0.04 0.00012 FO,GR [28]
Najas graminea Delile 2.00 0.04 0.07 0.00046 FO,GR [28, 29]
Najas marina L. 1.50 0.07 0.11 0.00139 FO,GR [27, 28, 62, 64]
Najas minor All. 1.50 0.07 0.11 0.00139 FO,GR [27, 28, 62, 64]
Nanocnide japonica Blume 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [27, 28, 46]
Nanocnide lobata Wedd. 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 ME,GR [28, 29, 46]
Nasturtium officinale R. Br. 2.25 0.07 0.16 0.00417 ED,ME,OR,ID [28, 46, 58, 65]
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. 2.22 0.16 0.36 0.02087 ED,ME,OR,FO [27, 29, 45, 58, 46, 59, 62, 65, 66]
Nepeta cataria L. 1.50 0.07 0.11 0.00139 ME,ID [28, 29, 46, 66]
Nuphar pumila (Timm) DC. 2.00 0.13 0.25 0.01136 ME,ED,OR,FO [27, 29, 46, 54, 58, 59, 62]
Nymphaea tetragona Georgi 3.13 0.14 0.45 0.02899 ED,LI,ME,OR,GR [27, 29, 45, 46, 58, 62, 64, 65]
Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze 2.00 0.02 0.04 0.00012 FO,GR [27]
Nymphoides peltata (S. G. Gmel.) Kuntze 2.13 0.14 0.30 0.01971 ME,FO,GR,OR,ED [2729, 46, 58, 59, 62, 70]
Oenanthe benghalensis Benth. & Hook.f. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 46]
Oenanthe javanica DC. 1.36 0.25 0.34 0.02313 ED,ME,FO [2729, 45, 46, 5658, 6466, 72, 70, 76]
Oenanthe sinensis Dunn 3.00 0.02 0.05 0.00026 ED,ME,FO [28]
Oenothera rosea Aiton 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 29]
Origanum vulgare L. 2.00 0.05 0.11 0.00157 ME,ID,LI [28, 29, 46]
Ottelia acuminata (Gagnep.) Dandy 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00023 ED,ME [65, 75]
Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers. 2.60 0.09 0.23 0.00942 ED,ME,OR,GR,FO [2729, 46, 59]
Panicum paludosum Roxb. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [28]
Paspalum dilatatum Poir. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 FO [29, 40, 62]
Paspalum distichum L. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00023 FO,EN [27, 62]
Paspalum paspaloides Scribn. 2.00 0.02 0.04 0.00012 FO,EN [28]
Paspalum thunbergii Kunth ex Steud. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 FO [57, 62]
Penthorum chinense Pursh 2.33 0.05 0.13 0.00244 ED,ME,FO,GR [28, 29, 46]
Phalaris arundinacea L. 2.00 0.05 0.11 0.00104 FO,FI [2729]
Phragmites australis Trin. ex Steud. 3.71 0.13 0.46 0.03693 ED,FI,ME,LI,EN,OT,OR [27, 29, 45, 46, 62, 64, 65]
Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. 2.00 0.04 0.07 0.00070 ME,FI,EN [28, 46]
Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. 2.75 0.07 0.20 0.00510 ED,ME,PE,ID [2729, 69]
Pilea notata C. H. Wright 1.20 0.09 0.11 0.00174 ME,FO [2729, 58, 46]
Pistia stratiotes L. 1.50 0.14 0.21 0.00835 ME,FO,GR [2729, 46, 58, 57, 59, 62]
Plantago asiatica L. 1.20 0.09 0.11 0.00261 ME,FO,ED [28, 46, 57, 65, 70]
Plantago lanceolata L. 1.50 0.04 0.05 0.00035 ME,FO [28, 46]
Plantago major L. 1.00 0.09 0.09 0.00145 ME,ED [28, 46, 69, 70, 76]
Pluchea indica (L.) Less. 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 ED,ME [28, 29, 46]
Poa acroleuca Steud. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [28]
Pogonatherum crinitum Kunth 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 ME,FO [28, 29, 46]
Polygonum amphibium L. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 46, 55]
Polygonum aviculare L. 1.50 0.14 0.21 0.01391 ED,ME,FO,ID,PE [28, 29, 46, 57, 58, 67, 70, 74]
Polygonum barbatum L. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 46]
Polygonum capitatum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00046 ME [28, 29, 46, 58]
Polygonum chinense L. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Polygonum excurrens Steward 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [55]
Polygonum hydropiper L. 1.41 0.30 0.43 0.07096 ME,ED,FO,OT,PE,ID [28, 29, 45, 46, 5053, 55, 5759, 62, 63, 67, 70, 75]
Polygonum japonicum Meisn. 1.17 0.11 0.13 0.00244 ME,PE [2729, 46, 55, 58]
Polygonum jucundum Meisn. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00023 ME,PE [55, 58]
Polygonum kawagoeanum Makino 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [58]
Polygonum lapathifolium L. 2.13 0.14 0.30 0.03154 ED,ME,FO,PE,LI,ID,EN,GR [27, 46, 50, 55, 57, 58, 62, 67]
Polygonum lapathifolium var. salicifolium Sibth. 2.50 0.04 0.09 0.00116 ME,PE,LI,ID [55, 58]
Polygonum longisetum var. rotundatum A. J. Li 1.25 0.07 0.09 0.00116 ME,ID [27, 46, 55, 58]
Polygonum macranthum Meisn. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [55, 58]
Polygonum nepalense Meisn. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 46, 58]
Polygonum orientale L. 2.60 0.18 0.46 0.05276 ED,ME,FO,PE,LI,OR,ID [2729, 45, 46, 55, 5759, 62]
Polygonum perfoliatum L. 2.50 0.07 0.18 0.00348 ME,PE,ID [27, 28, 46, 58]
Polygonum persicaria L. 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00104 ME,FO,PE [28, 58, 67]
Polygonum posumbu Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [58]
Polygonum sibiricum Laxm. 2.00 0.02 0.04 0.00012 ME,FO [28]
Polygonum sieboldii Meisn. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Polygonum taquetii H. Lév. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [58]
Polygonum thunbergii Siebold & Zucc. 2.00 0.05 0.11 0.00209 ED,ME,FO,ID [28, 46, 58]
Polygonum viscosum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don 1.67 0.05 0.09 0.00130 ED,ME,ID [28, 58, 63]
Potamogeton crispus L. 2.00 0.11 0.21 0.00835 ED,ME,FO,GR [27, 29, 35, 46, 62, 64]
Potamogeton cristatus Regel & Maack 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00023 ME,FO [46, 62]
Potamogeton distinctus A. Benn. 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 FO,GR [27, 28, 62]
Potamogeton lucens L. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 GR [27, 62]
Potamogeton maackianus A. Benn. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [62]
Potamogeton malaianus Miq. 2.00 0.05 0.11 0.00104 FO,GR [27, 28, 62]
Potamogeton natans L. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00078 ME,FO,GR [46, 54, 64]
Potamogeton octandrus Poir. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [62]
Potamogeton oxyphyllus Miq. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [62]
Potamogeton pectinatus L. 1.60 0.09 0.14 0.00348 ME,FO,GR [2729, 46, 62]
Potamogeton perfoliatus L. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [46]
Potamogeton pusillus L. 2.00 0.04 0.07 0.00046 FO,GR [27, 62]
Potentilla anserina L. 2.17 0.11 0.23 0.01357 ED,ME,FO,ID,OT,LI [28, 29, 46, 70, 69, 79]
Potentilla discolor Bunge 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 ED,ME [28, 29, 46]
Potentilla flagellaris D. F. K. Schltdl. 2.00 0.04 0.07 0.00093 ED,ME,FO,GR [28, 29]
Potentilla kleiniana Wight & Arn. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Potentilla reptans L. 1.50 0.04 0.05 0.00035 ED,ME [28, 46]
Prunella vulgaris L. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Pseudoraphis sordida (Thwaites) S. M. Phillips & S. L. Chen 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 FO [27, 29]
Ranunculus cantoniensis DC. 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00046 ME [28, 29, 46, 58]
Ranunculus chinensis Bunge 1.17 0.11 0.13 0.00244 ME,PE [2729, 46, 58, 68]
Ranunculus japonicus Thunb. 1.17 0.11 0.13 0.00244 ME,PE [2729, 46, 58, 74]
Ranunculus sceleratus L. 1.00 0.09 0.09 0.00072 ME [28, 29, 46, 58, 59]
Ranunculus sieboldii Miq. 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00046 ME [2729, 46]
Ranunculus ternatus Thunb. 1.00 0.09 0.09 0.00072 ME [2729, 46, 58]
Reynoutria japonica Houtt. 2.50 0.04 0.09 0.00116 ED,ME,PE,ID [28, 46]
Roegneria ciliaris (Trin.) Nevski 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 FO [28, 29, 57]
Rorippa dubia (Pers.) Hara 2.50 0.04 0.09 0.00116 ED,ME,FO,ID [28, 29]
Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Hayek 1.60 0.09 0.14 0.00348 ED,FO,ID [27, 28, 58, 62, 67]
Rorippa islandica (Oeder) Borbás 3.33 0.05 0.18 0.00348 ED,ME,FO,ID [27, 28, 45]
Rotala indica Koehne 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00139 ED,ME,FO [27, 28, 63, 62]
Rotala rotundifolia (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Koehne 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00093 ME,FO [46, 75, 29, 62]
Rumex acetosa L. 3.17 0.11 0.34 0.01652 ED,ME,FO,PE,ID [2729, 46, 58, 65]
Rumex crispus L. 1.00 0.09 0.09 0.00145 ED,ME [28, 30, 46, 67, 79]
Rumex dentatus L. 1.75 0.07 0.13 0.00244 ME,FO,PE [27, 28, 46, 62]
Rumex japonicus Houtt. 2.60 0.09 0.23 0.00942 ED,ME,FO,ID,LI [28, 29, 46, 57, 58]
Rumex maritimus L. 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 ME,FO [28, 29, 63]
Rumex nepalensis Spreng. 1.25 0.07 0.09 0.00116 ME,ID [28, 29, 46, 68]
Rumex patientia L. 2.50 0.04 0.09 0.00116 ED,ME,ID,LI [28, 46]
Rungia chinensis Benth. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [28]
Saccharum spontaneum L. 3.00 0.05 0.16 0.00313 FI,FO,OT,EN [2729]
Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 FO [27, 28]
Sacciolepis myosuroides (R. Br.) A.Camus 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 FO [28, 29]
Sagina japonica (Sw. ex Steud.) Ohwi 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00046 ME [27, 28, 46, 58]
Sagittaria pygmaea Miq. 1.25 0.07 0.09 0.00174 ME,FO,GR [2729, 46]
Sagittaria trifolia L. 1.88 0.14 0.27 0.01739 ED,ME,FO,LI,OR [2729, 45, 46, 63, 65, 64]
Salicornia europaea L. 2.50 0.04 0.09 0.00087 ME,ID,EN [27, 28]
Salvia plebeia R. Br. 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00046 ME [2729, 46]
Salvinia natans (L.) All. 1.89 0.16 0.30 0.01331 ME,FO,GR [2730, 46, 57, 58, 62, 64]
Saururus chinensis Hort. ex Loudon 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 ME,GR [28, 29, 46]
Scirpus juncoides Roxb. 1.50 0.04 0.05 0.00035 ME,FI [28, 46]
Scirpus planiculmis F.Schmidt 2.75 0.07 0.20 0.00765 ED,ME,FI,FO,LI,EN [28, 57, 62, 67]
Scirpus tabernaemontani Salzm. ex Ball 2.50 0.11 0.27 0.01304 ME,FI,FO,EN,OR [27, 28, 45, 57, 64, 65]
Scirpus triangulatus Roxb. 1.40 0.09 0.13 0.00304 ME,FO,FI [28, 29, 45, 46, 67]
Scirpus triqueter L. 1.43 0.13 0.18 0.00406 FI,FO [2729, 45, 57, 62, 64]
Scirpus wallichii Nees 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [28]
Scirpus yagara Ohwi 2.57 0.13 0.32 0.01826 ME,FI,FO,ID,LI [27, 28, 45, 46, 59, 62, 64]
Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Sesbania cannabina (Retz.) Poir. 2.67 0.05 0.14 0.00417 ME,FI,FO,GR,EN,ID [28, 29, 46]
Sinosenecio oldhamianus (Maxim.) B. Nord. 2.00 0.04 0.07 0.00046 FO,GR [28, 57]
Sium suave Walter 1.00 0.07 0.07 0.00093 ME,FO [28, 29, 46, 64]
Solanum torvum Sw. 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 ED,ME [28, 29, 46]
Sparganium stoloniferum (Graebn.) Buch.-Ham. ex Juz. 1.78 0.16 0.29 0.02505 ME,OR,FO,FI,GR,OT [2729, 45, 46, 57, 59, 62, 64]
Spilanthes paniculata Wall. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. 1.50 0.18 0.27 0.01304 ME,FO,GR [2729, 4648, 59, 63, 64, 62]
Stachys adulterina Hemsl. 1.75 0.07 0.13 0.00162 ED,ME [27, 46, 58, 61]
Stachys chinensis Bunge ex Benth. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [46, 64]
Stachys japonica Miq. 1.75 0.07 0.13 0.00325 ED,ME,ID,LI [2729, 58]
Stachys oblongifolia Wall. 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 ME,FO [28, 29, 46]
Stellaria uliginosa Murray 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00023 ME,FO [28, 46]
Stephania japonica (Thunb.) Miers 1.00 0.09 0.09 0.00072 ME [2729, 46, 80]
Suaeda glauca Bunge 1.60 0.09 0.14 0.00464 ED,ME,ID,OT [2729, 46, 70]
Suaeda salsa Pall. 2.00 0.05 0.11 0.00209 ED,FO,GR,ID [27, 29, 70]
Thalictrum simplex L. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Trapa bicornis L. f. 1.67 0.16 0.27 0.01957 ED,ME,FO,ID,LI [27, 29, 45, 46, 57, 58, 62, 65, 73]
Trapa bispinosa Roxb. 2.33 0.05 0.13 0.00244 ED,ME,FO,LI [28, 29, 46]
Trapa incisa Siebold & Zucc. 1.50 0.07 0.11 0.00278 ED,ME,FO,ID [27, 29, 46, 65]
Trapa maximowiczii Korsh. 1.50 0.04 0.05 0.00035 ED,LI [28, 29]
Trifolium pratense L. 2.50 0.04 0.09 0.00116 ME,FO,GR,ID [28, 46]
Typha angustata Bory & Chaub. 1.50 0.04 0.05 0.00035 ME,FI [28, 46]
Typha angustifolia L. 1.63 0.14 0.23 0.00904 ED,ME,FI [2729, 45, 46, 64, 65, 67]
Typha latifolia L. 2.17 0.11 0.23 0.00904 FI,ME,ED,OR [28, 29, 46, 64, 65, 70]
Typha orientalis C. Presl 2.13 0.14 0.30 0.01577 ME,FI,ED,OR [2729, 33, 34, 46, 59, 64]
Typhonium giganteum Engl. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Urtica angustifolia Fisch. ex Hornem. 2.33 0.05 0.13 0.00244 ED,ME,FI,ID [28, 29, 46]
Utricularia aurea Lour. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00023 FO,OR [58, 60]
Utricularia vulgaris L. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 FO [64]
Valeriana flaccidissima Maxim. 1.00 0.02 0.02 0.00003 ME [28]
Valeriana officinalis L. 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [28, 29, 46]
Vallisneria natans (Lour.) H. Hara 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 ME,FO [27, 28, 46]
Verbena officinalis L. 1.00 0.09 0.09 0.00072 ME [28, 29, 46, 68, 78]
Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. 1.33 0.05 0.07 0.00070 ED,ME [28, 29, 46]
Veronica undulata Wall. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00012 ME [28, 29]
Vicia bungei Ohwi 2.00 0.04 0.07 0.00046 FO,GR [28, 57]
Viola grypoceras A.Gray 1.00 0.05 0.05 0.00026 ME [2729]
Viola inconspicua Blume 1.00 0.09 0.09 0.00072 ME [2729, 46, 58]
Wolffia arrhiza (L.) Wimm. 1.50 0.07 0.11 0.00209 ED,FO,GR [2729, 48]
Zantedeschia aethiopica (L.) Spreng. 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00023 OR,OT [27, 29]
Zizania latifolia Turcz. 3.33 0.16 0.54 0.06262 ED,ME,FI,FO,OT,ID,GR,OR [27, 29, 39, 45, 46, 57, 62, 64, 65]
  1. UV: Use value; RFC: Relative Frequency of Citation; CI: Cultural Importance Index; CV: Cultural Value Index.