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Table 1 The wild food plants collected in the study areas

From: Traditional knowledge of wild food plants in a few Tibetan communities

Plants collected in Sapi, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India  
Botanical identification Tibetan name Part used Use in local diet C. index*
Arnebia euchroma (Royle ex Benth.) I.M. Johnston ‘bri mog roots used as spice to cook meat +++
Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Steckm. var. gmelinii bur tse, mkhan pa, leaves, flowers mixed with wheat flour and water to prepare ferments ++++
Capparis spinosa L. kabra fruits unripe fruits eaten as vegetables ++++
Chenopodium album L. sne’u leaves stir-fried in oil after eliminating their bitter taste by boiling them long time in water, and are eaten with other food ++++
Delphinium brunonianum Royle bya rgod spos leaves, flowers mixed with wheat flour and water to prepare ferments +++
Hippophae rhamnoides L. subs. turkestanica Rousi tshogs skyur, star bu fruits fruits eaten mainly in the past, today a juice is industrially prepared from them +++++
Oxyria digyna Hill chu lcum leaves eaten fresh as vegetable +++
Rheum spiciforme Royle chu rtsa stems petioles and young stems eaten as vegetables +++++
Rosa sericea Lindl. se ba fruits eaten by children ++++
Rosa webbiana Wallich ex Royle se ba fruits eaten by children, used to prepare a kind of jam +++++
Thymus linearis Benth. su lu leaves and stems mixed with chilly are used as condiment +++++
Urtica hyperborea Jacquem. ex Wedd. zwa young shoots young shoots used to prepare soups +++++
Plants collected in Lithang County, Sichuan, China  
Allium macranthum Baker byi’u sgog bulbs eaten fresh as vegetable and spice +++++
Allium prattii C.H. Wright rug sgog bulbs eaten fresh as vegetable and spice +++++
Allium sp. sha sgog bulbs eaten fresh as vegetable and spice ++++
Allium sp. sgog pa bulbs eaten fresh as vegetable and spice +++++
Arisaema flavum (Forssk.) Schott. dwa ba, dwa g.yung tubers eaten after being crushed and boiled ++++
Berberis sp. skyer pa fruits eaten by children +++
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Med. sog ka pa leaves fresh leaves are fried with vegetables, dry leaves are eaten in local soups (thug pa) +++++
Carum carvi L. go snyod seeds the crushed seeds are used as a spice +++++
Chenopodium album L. sne’u leaves stir-fried in oil after eliminating their bitter taste by boiling them long time in water, and are eaten with other food ++++
Cirsium souliei (Franch.) Mattf. spyang tsher roots eaten raw after removing the skin ++
Cynanchum sp. dug mo nyung, pha la roots in the past eaten boiled ++
Galium aparine L. zangs rtsi dkar po, phyi ‘dzin pa stalks, leaves stalks and leaves rubbed between hands are used as fermentation agent in the making of yoghurt. +++
Lepidium apetalum Willd. dar ya kan, khang phug leaves the leaves are cooked in water ++++
Malva verticillata L.   leaves stir-fried in oil before adding other vegetables and/or meat ++++
Plantago depressa Willd. tha ram leaves leaves eaten as vegetable ++++
Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T. S. Ying ‘ol mo se, ba ma lu lu fruits children eat fresh fruits ++++
Polygonum macrophyllum D.Don spang ram roots, seeds roots eaten fresh, flour obtained from ground seeds used as substitute for tsampa in the past ++++
Polygonum polystachyum Wallich ex Meisner snya lo stems stems eaten raw after removing the skin ++++
Polygonum viviparum L. ram bu rgod pa roots, seeds roots eaten fresh, flour obtained from ground seeds used as substitute for tsampa in the past +++++
Potentilla anserina L. gro ma rhizomes rhizomes eaten fresh and cooked, also during famines in the past +++++
Potentilla sp. ston ja aerial portion in the past used as a substitute for tea ++++
Quercus sp. be do shing acorns flour obtained from dry acorns used in the past as substitute for tsampa (roasted barley flour) +++++
Rheum alexandrae Batal. chu skyur stems stems eaten raw after removing the skin +++++
Rheum palmatum L. lcum, shog sbra stems stems eaten raw after removing the skin +++++
Rhododendron sp. sur dkar flowers and leaves in the past used as substitute for tea +++++
Rosa omeiensis Rolfe se ba fruits fruit edible (today eaten by children) ++++
Rubus subornatus Focke stag tsher fruits eaten fresh ++
Taraxacum officinale L. s.l. khur mang, khur dkar, khur nag, nyin dgun me tog, rnag gi me tog leaves the leaves are fried in oil or cooked in water +++++
Thlaspi arvense L. bre ga, ‘dre rnga leaves fresh leaves are fried with vegetables, dry leaves are eaten in local soups (thug pa) +++++
Urtica triangularis Hand. - Mazz. zwa young shoots used to prepare soups +++++
Plants collected in southern Mustang District, Nepal  
Allium roseum L. ‘dzim bu bulbs eaten fresh as vegetable and spice, kept to be consumed in winter +++++
Arisaema flavum (Forssk.) Schott. dwa ba, dwa g.yung tubers eaten after being crushed and boiled +++++
Arisaema jacquemontii Blume dwa ba, dwa g.yung tubers eaten after being crushed and boiled +++++
Carum carvi L. go snyod seeds the crushed seeds are used as a spice +++++
Chenopodium album L. sne’u leaves stir-fried in oil after eliminating their bitter taste by boiling them long time in water, and are eaten with other food ++++
Fragaria nubicola Lindl. ex Lacaita ‘bri ta sa ‘dzin fruits children eat fresh fruits ++++
Hippophae tibetana Schlecht. to ra, star bu fruits used to prepare a juice, fruits mainly eaten in the past +++++
Malva verticillata L. lcam pa, bod lcam leaves young leaves are eaten as vegetables, or stir-fried in oil before adding other vegetables and/or meat; leaves used to prepare a herbal tea ++++
Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All. ra mnye leaves, roots leaves eaten cooked, roots edible. +++
Polygonum vaccinifolia Wallich ex Meisner ram bu roots, seeds roots eaten fresh, flour obtained from ground seeds used as substitute for tsampa in the past +++++
Polygonum viviparum L. ram bu roots, seeds roots eaten fresh, flour obtained from ground seeds used as substitute for tsampa in the past +++++
Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don ba lu, ba lu dkar po flowers and leaves in the past used as substitute for tea +++++
Rosa macrophylla Lindl. se ba fruits fruits eaten fresh in the past, today by children ++++
Rumex hastatus D. Don sho mang, sha sna leaves eaten as vegetables ++++
Salvia hians Royle ex Benth. ‘jib rtsi, ‘jib rtsi sngon po stalks stalks are eaten as vegetables +++
Stachys recta L. bya pho rtse leaves young leaves are eaten fresh as vegetables +++
Thymus linearis Benth. smag tog pa leaves mixed with chilly are used as condiment; used to prepare herbal tea +++++
Urtica dioica L. zwa young shoots used to prepare soups +++++
Plants collected in Dhorpatan, Baglung District, Nepal  
Arisaema jacquemontii Blume dwa ba, dwa g.yung, kha tsha ba tubers eaten after being crushed and boiled ++++
Arisaema nepenthoides (Wall.) Mart. dwa ba, dwa rgod, kha tsha ba tubers eaten after being crushed and boiled ++++
Arisaema utile Hook. f. ex Schott dwa ba, dwa g.yung, kha tsha ba tubers eaten after being crushed and boiled ++++
Berberis angulosa Wallich ex Hook. f. & Thoms. skyer pa, skyer nag fruits eaten by children +++
Berberis aristata DC. skyer pa, skyer dkar fruits eaten by children +++
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Med. sog ka pa leaves fresh leaves are fried with vegetables, dry leaves are eaten in local soups (thug pa) ++++
Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke ‘bri ta sa ‘dzin fruits fruits eaten fresh +++
Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S.Ying ‘ol mo se fruits children (maily in the past) eat fruits ++++
Polygonum macrophyllum D. Don var. macrophyllum spang ram, spang ram dmar po seeds, roots roots eaten fresh, flour obtained from ground seeds used as substitute for tsampa in the past. ++++
Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don sur dkar, balu, ba lu dkar po flowers and leaves in the past used as substitute for tea +++++
Rosa macrophylla Lindl. se ba fruits fruits eaten mainly in the past, today by children ++++
Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wigger s.l. khur mang, ‘o ma me tog leaves the leaves are fried in oil or cooked in water ++++
Urtica dioica L. zwa young shoots young tender shoots are used to prepare a soup +++++
  1. *Consensus index. Indicates citation by % of informants. +: ≤10%; ++: 11-25%; +++: 26-50%; ++++: 51-75%; +++++: ≥76%.