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Table 1 List of pteridophytes used as fodder and human food in sub-Saharan Africa

From: Not just minor wild edible forest products: consumption of pteridophytes in sub-Saharan Africa

Species, family name Country, vernacular name Main uses and references
Blotiella glabra (Bory) R.M.Tryon; Dennsteadtiaceae DRC: Asaha, oheyi yasi, oheyi Young leaves eaten raw or cooked as leafy vegetable [24]
Botrychium lanuginosum Wall. ex Hook et Grev.; Ophioglossaceae Nigeria: Grape fern, iya, oziza ato Young leaves eaten as green vegetable [15]
Ceratopteris cornuta (P. Beauv.) Lepr.; Pteridaceae Liberia: Water lettuce Cultivated and eaten as a leafy vegetable [14, 25]
Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn.; Pteridaceae Madagascar Leaves eaten as salad or cooked as vegetable [26]
Swaziland Leaves eaten as leafy vegetable [27]
Christella dentata (Forssk.) Brownsey & Jermy; Thelypteridaceae DRC: Anole Young leaves cooked as leafy vegetable [24]
Cyclosorus gongylodes (Schkuhr) Link; Thelypteridaceae Gambia Leaves eaten as leafy vegetable [28]
Cyathea manniana Hook.; Cyatheaceae DRC: Oyaele Young leaves cooked as leafy vegetable [24]
Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw.; Athyraceae Nigeria: Akwukwo nni, vegetable fern Young leaves eaten as vegetable with yam (Dioscorea spp.) [15]
Diplazium proliferum (Lam.) Thouars; Athyriaceae Madagascar Young still enrolled fronds (croziers, fiddleheads) are eaten as a cooked vegetable [29]
Diplazium sammatii (Kuhn) C.Chr.; Athyraceae DRC: Andole, aneke Young leaves are cooked as leafy vegetable [24]
Nigeria: Nyama idim Young still enrolled fronds (croziers, fiddleheads) are eaten as a cooked vegetable [30]
Dryopteris wallichiana (Spreng) Hyl.; Dryopteridaceae Nigeria: Mountain wood fern, mbabe, ire, aja nmuo Leaves are used as fodder for goats and sheep [15]
Lomariopsis sp.; Lomariopsidaceae DRC: Asaha Young leaves cooked as condiment [24]
Marsilea minuta L.; Marsileaceae Gambia Tender leaves eaten as a potherb [31]
Marsilea minuta L.; Marsileaceae Senegal Tender leaves eaten as a potherb [31]
Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott; Davalliaceae DRC: Asaha, likekele Young leaves are cooked as condiment or leafy vegetable [24]
Nigeria Leaves used as fodder for goats and other ruminants [21]
Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) Presl.; Davalliaceae Nigeria: Erect swordfern, nma ozo Rhizomes are cleaned and boiled with salt and water and eaten as food [15]
Ophioglossum grande L.; Ophioglossaceae Nigeria: Ribbon fern, achu, tsage Young fronds used as fodder for goats [15]
Ophioglossum lusoafricanum Prantl; Ophioglossaceae Swaziland: Adder's tongue, sankunshane, sankuntjane, shucelane Edible leaves [27]
Ophioglossum ovatum Bory; Ophioglossaceae Madagascar, Antandroy tribe Leaves eaten as vegetable [32]
Ophioglossum polyphyllum A. Braun; Ophioglossaceae Namibia Used as famine food when few other plants are available but the species is not popular or well known [33]
South Africa: isiNkuntshane, isiNdletshane Leaves eaten as leafy vegetable [6, 34]
Ophioglossum reticulatum L.; Ophioglossaceae South Africa: Adder-tongue fern Leaves eaten as vegetable [35]
Swaziland: Adder's tongue Leaves eaten as leafy vegetable [27]
Zanzibar, Tanzania Leaves eaten as salad or cooked as vegetable [36]
Ophioglossum vulgatum L.; Ophioglossaceae Nigeria Leaves eaten as leafy vegetable [15]
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn; Dennsteadtiaceae Angola Several tribes eat the leaves [32]
Cameroon Consumed on a regular basis together with Vernonia amygdalina Delile and Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. [32]
DRC: lilele, isili Immature fronds cooked as condiment or vegetable [24, 37]
Gabon Young still enrolled fronds (croziers, fiddleheads) are eaten [32]
Madagascar Rhizome is eaten [32]
Nigeria: Eastern bracken, turkey foot fern, ogoni, ukwunnume Decoction of rhizome drunk as herbal health tea, young fronds eaten as vegetables [15]. Young still enrolled fronds (croziers, fiddleheads) are eaten as vegetable by the tribal people [38]
South Africa: Adelaarsvaring, brackern fern, eagle fern, umbewe, umhlashoshana South Africa: Young fronds and rhizomes are cooked and eaten by the Zulu and Tswana [39]
Stenochlaena tenuifolia (Desv.) T.Moore; Blechnaceae Madagascar The young fronds (croziers, fiddleheads) are eaten as vegetable [40]