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Table 3 List and sum of driving forces (explicit + implicit) in pre-capitalistic Székely village laws

From: Landscape ethnoecological knowledge base and management of ecosystem services in a Székely-Hungarian pre-capitalistic village system (Transylvania, Romania)

Type of driving forces Pressure-related driving forces Response-related driving forces Translated texts of quotations from Székely village laws
(explicit pressure-related driving forces)
1. demand for wood (not specified) 136 277 “4 trees per capita are given for the need of community members” “When one fails to join the group extinguishing fires, he shall pay 20 Denars.” [5: 234]
2. demand for timber 24 0 “When a community member has the intentions to build, he must report his will to the court and ask for permission to cut trees down; a slip is given to him containing the amount, the species and the location of the trees to fell.” [5: 454]
3. demand for firewood 16 1 “When herdsmen herd cattle to the forest, they are allowed to collect lying dead trees (except oak) for fire in prohibited forests.” [5: 307]
4. demand for lumber and wood for tools 12 0 “When one cuts apple or pear trees that is not his own tree for sheep or for any other reason (even for tools), he shall be fined 3 Hungarian Forints.” [5: 387]
5. demand for wood for carting 6 1 “Wood for spoke, wheel and hub can be cut down to meet the needs of community members.” [5: 328]
6. demand for oak or beech bark 5 0 “It is forbidden across the whole region (both on meadows and in forests) to fell beech trees for stripping or timber and to ring-bark them.” [5: 497]
7. demand for wood for broom making 4 0 “They not only pruned the trees but they also cut them down. When one prunes or cuts birch trees down in prohibited forests from this time on, he shall be fined 3 Hungarian Forints.” [5: 473]
8. demand for wood for charcoal burning 2 0 “Blacksmiths can only use stumps in prohibited forest for charcoal burning. When one resists, he shall be fined 3 Hungarian Forints.” [5: 473]
9. demand for wood for lime-burning 1 0 “It is forbidden to burn lime in the community forests. With the permission of the community, it is however legal to burn lime under certain circumstances.” [5: 398]
10. other demands for wood (specified) 15 1 “Birch, poplar and hornbeam trees can be cut down under certain circumstances for minor needs, but only in the agreed, limited quantity.” [5: 315]
11. demand for forage 517 72 “When one grazes his cattle deliberately in standing hay, he shall be fined and furthermore, must pay for the damage.” [5: 440]
12. demand for hay 98 220 “When hay meadows are closed for grazing (after 24th April), it is prohibited to mow on the meadows. Otherwise the fine is 12 Florenis.” [5: 358]
13. food demand 102 298 “When one collects fruit or vegetables from the gardens of other people without permission of the owner, he shall be fined 40 Denars” [5: 349]
14. demand for baking and brandy making 4 10 “It is forbidden to place the distiller cauldron in an endangered area.” [5: 395]
15. demand for water rich in fish and crayfish 0 6 “No one shall dare to fish with harpoon or Verbascum in the water of the River Olt.” [5: 319]
16. demand for clean water 3 18 “As we need river water for our living… it is forbidden to throw garbage, manure or any carcass into or next to the river or into the streets.” „Some of the community members open gates or leave gaps in the fences for their cattle to go to the river, causing damage to fellow members.” [5: 374]
17. demand for clothes and leather 8 0 “When painters pollute the common living water of the community or butchers wash the intestine of cattle in the river, they shall be fined 40 Denars.” [5: 347]
18. demand for linen 4 2 “It is permitted to keep retting-ground lakes (for hemp) in certain places, but it is forbidden to keep lakes to the disadvantage of the ditches of mills or water bodies, otherwise he shall pay 3 Florines fine.” [5: 374]
19. necessity of waste dumping 13 0 “When one throws garbage or manure into the streets, he shall be fined by the community 50 Denars.” [5: 367]
20. demand for clean village 0 3 “Throwing garbage or weed into the street is fined 1 Florine.” [5: 438]
21. demand for transportation 3 3 “When one intends to make a path, he must report his intention at the community meeting.” [5: 300]
22. financial needs 52 0 “It is strictly forbidden to transport or sell timber or firewood to other villages.” [14: 113]
  1. Distinction was made between driving forces relating to pressures and responses. Original quotations show how Székely people perceived and used different ecosystem services. Numbers in brackets indicate data source and page numbers.