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Table 2 Restricted and threatened plants in Benin, ranked according to their citation frequency

From: Evidence of a link between taboos and sacrifices and resource scarcity of ritual plants

Restricted species Citation frequency (% of informants) Official threat status Perceived scarcity (% of informants) Habitat Habit Distribution
Kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) 20   23 Primary forest to settlements Large tree Pantropical
African border tree (Newbouldia laevis) 18   0 Secondary forest to settlements Small tree Pantropical
Senegal prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides) 16 VUb 46 Savanna and dry forest Small tree West Africa
Iroko treea (Milicia excelsa) 14 ENb/ VUc 15 Primary to secondary deciduous forest Large tree West, Central, and East Africa
Heart-fruit (Hymenocardia acida) 12   0 Savanna to deciduous woodland Shrub Tropical Africa
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) 12   0 Cultivated fields, settlements Vine Pantropical
Yellow mombin (Spondias mombin) 10   0 Secondary deciduous forest Medium-sized tree Pantropical
Groundnut tree (Ricinodendron heudelotii) 10   0 Secondary humid forest to fallows Medium-sized tree West, Central and East Africa
Nicker tree (Caesalpinia bonduc) 0 EWb 53 Disturbed sites Shrub Pantropical
African locust tree (Parkia biglobosa) 0   46 Savanna to cultivated fields Small tree West and Central Africa
Wild banana (Ensete livingstonianum) 0 CRb 30 Savanna Large herb West Africa
Yellow plum (Ximenia americana) 0   30 Savanna to dry forests Small tree Pantropical
  1. aImportant timber species [39]. bLocally threatened [40]. cGlobally threatened [41]. EN = Engangered, VU = Vulnerable, CR = Critically endangered, EW = Extinct in the wild.