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Table 2 Medical substances of animal origin in the Levant in the 10th–18thcentury

From: Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century

Scientific Name Common Name Figure no. Extract/Product Selected Sources Selected Uses
Ammoperdix heyi Desert partridge   Meat [70] Strengthens the stomach
Angulus sp. Sea Shell (Tallina)   Shell [46] Mild purgative; women's diseases
Anser anser Goose   Oil [70] Unknown
Apis mellifica Honey   Honey [55, 67, 69, 70] Skin, eye, and stomach diseases, haemorrhoids, burns and wounds. Strengthens and cleans stomach and lungs.
Apis mellifica Wax 1 – wax Wax [49, 55, 70] Haemorrhoids, burns, and wounds
Archispirostreptus syriacus    Body [67] Removes unwanted hair from the eyelids
Avicula margarittifera Pearl   Pearl [70, 71] Eye, heart, and liver ailments
Bombyx mori Silkworm 2 – cocoon Cocoon, Larva [64] Wounds, throat inflammation, haemorrhoids
Bos Taurus Cow 3 – hard cheese Milk, Cheese, Butter [64, 67, 70, 71] Eye diseases, haemorrhoids, leprosy. Strengthens the stomach, cleans the blood; treats skin diseases
Capra hircus mambrica Goat   Cheese [67, 70] Cancer and skin diseases; fattens; enhances libido, reinforces potency
Castor fiber Common Beaver   Testicles [55, 57, 71] Eye diseases, animal bites and stings, cramp, epilepsy, hysteria.
Chamydotis undulate Bustard   Body parts [64] Eye diseases; breaks up kidney stones
Cimex lectularius Stinkbug   Body [46, 64, 67] Clears urinary tract obstructions; jaundice
Coleoptera sp. Scarabees   Body [67] Haemorrhoids; enhances libido
Echis coloratus Adder, Ter 4 – adder in the Judean desert Body [45, 47, 57, 62, 60, 63, 71] Basic component of theriac; snake bites
Equus asinus Ass   Body parts [67] Haemorrhoids, eye diseases, epilepsy
Equus asinus X Equus cabllus Mule   Body parts [64] Rheumatism, eye diseases, internal diseases
Gallus gallus domesticus Hen   Egg parts [67, 70, 71] Wide variety of uses including reinforcement of potency and enhancing libido
Gazella sp. Gazelle   Horn [70] Cleans the blood
Helix sp. Snail   Body [67] Haemorrhoids and internal diseases
Homo sapiens Mummy   Mummified body parts [64, 71] Headache, skin, internal diseases, ulcer
Homo sapiens Human   Urine [67] Sciatica, skin, internal diseases
Homo sapiens Human   Bone [71] Unknown
Homo sapiens Human   Stone [71] Unknown
Lampyris sp. Firefly   Body [64] Breaking up kidney stones; haemorrhoids
Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus Scorpion   Body [67, 71] Haemorrhoids; skin diseases; component of theriac
Lumbricus sp. Earthworm   Body [70, 71] Haemorrhoids; earache, arthritis, clears obstructions of the urinary tract
Lytta vesicatoria Spanish fly   Body [71] Raises a blister, counter-irritant
Merops sp. Bee eater   Body parts [64] Colds and skin diseases
Moschus moschiferus Musk Deer   Rectal gland [47, 51, 52, 70, 71] Purgative; eye diseases, headaches; reinforces potency, heart diseases; 'cold' ailments
Mus musculus House mouse   Ash, body parts [67] Haemorrhoids, skin diseases, wounds, insanity
Muscicapa sp./Ficedula sp. Flycatcher   Body parts [64] Skin, eye, internal diseases; jaundice and spleen inflammation
Ovis Lamb   Body parts [70] Strengthens the body, increases weight, cleans the blood
Paraechinus aethiopicus pectoralis Hedgehog   Skin, spines, blood [67] Expels fleas (Pulex irritans)
Pediculus sp. Louse   Body [67] Clears urinary tract obstructions
Physeter catodon Sperm Whale (Ambergris)   Intestinal secretion [43, 47, 71] Sore throat, heart diseases, paralysis, cough, cardiac diseases, hysteria
Rana ridibunda Frog   Body [67, 71] Haemorrhoids, wounds, bleeding, rheumatism
Sepia officinalis Cuttle Fish 5 – skeleton Skeleton [46, 71] Skin and tooth diseases; clears obstruction of the urinary tract
Struthio camelus Ostrich egg shell   Egg shell [67] Eye diseases
Titurus vittatus Triton   Body [46, 59, 64] Reinforces potency and enhances libido
Tubipora Musica or Corallium rubrum Coral   Body [50, 61, 70, 71] Eye diseases and bleeding; strengthens the heart; headache, cough rheumatism, kills worms
Unidentified Ant   Body [67] Jaundice
Unidentified Lizard   Secretion [67] Eye diseases
Unidentified Kermes   Insect body [71] Unknown
Unidentified Fish   Meat [70, 71] Helps digestion, treats internal diseases, strengthens the nerves
Unidentified Lacca   Secretion [71] Unknown
Vivera civetta Civat Cat (Zebed)   Gland secretion [67] Reinforces male potency; ear inflammation
Vulpes sp. Fox   Oil [71] Unknown