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Table 1 Locally used medicinal plants

From: Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities of Chhota Bhangal, Western Himalaya

Scientific name (specimen number, family) Local name Part used Uses
Aconitum heterophyllum Wallich ex Royle (3241, Ranunculaceae) Patish Roots Dried roots are powdered and taken orally to cure stomach ache and fever.
Aesculus indica (Colebr. ex Cambess) Hook. (7029, Hippocastanaceae) Khnor Fruits Fruits are used for preparing a nutritious recipe called "Sik". It is a pre- and post- pregnancy food for ladies. It is also used for curing excessive bleeding and pain during menses.
Ajuga bracteosa Wallich ex Benth. (4550, Lamiaceae) Neel-kanthi Leaves Leaf powder is given to cure ulcer of mouth. Decoction of leaves (3–4 drops) is given thrice a day to small children (4–5 months old) who have breathing problems and also to cure internal sores.
Ainsliaea aptera DC. (5267, Asteraceae) Kandyari Roots Crushed roots are used for gastric problems. Oily and sour food items are avoided.
Angelica glauca Edgew. (5266, Apiaceae) Chora Roots Root powder is (1–2 g) is consumed daily for a week with "Gud" (jaggery) to cure fever and cold. It is also used as spice in local dishes.
Anemone rupicola Cambess (5297, Ranunculaceae) Kakrya Leaves The sap obtained after crushing the leaves is used in treating ears with pus.
Artemisia sieversiana Willd. (5262, Asteraceae) Charmara Leaves Decoction of leaves is given to the pregnant ladies as an abortifacient. Paste prepared from the leaves is also applied on wounds to cure pain and swelling.
Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex. DC. (5251, Berberidaceae) Chunchri Roots The roots are used for curing diabetes and jaundice. Fresh roots are cut into small pieces and decoction is prepared. This is later filtered through a cloth, concentrated and dried in shade. Small pills (each of ca. 1–1.5 g) are made from this. For adults, 3 pills a day are recommended with the sap of bitter guard (locally called "karella") to cure diabetes. These pills are also consumed with "Kujja Mishri" (local sweet made out of sugar) and water to cure jaundice.
Berberis lycium Royle (5252, Berberidaceae) Kashmal Roots & new shoot apices The roots are dried in shade and boiled in water. This decoction is concentrated at low temperature and finally dried. The dried product is called "Rasaunt" and is used to cure eye infection. New vegetative apical shoots are also used for the same purpose. These are crushed and the sap is applied directly on the eyes.
Bergenia ciliata (Haworth) Sternb. (5254, Saxifragaceae) Sadpottar Roots Root decoction is taken empty stomach in the morning for 3 months to cure kidney stones.
Cannabis sativa L. (4857, Cannabinaceae) Bhang Seeds Oil extracted from dry seeds is applied to cure paralysis and joint pain. It is also applied to cure fever caused by severe cold. Concentrated and dried sap extracted from the leaves is mixed with mustard oil and applied internally, as well as externally to cure piles.
Cirsium wallichii DC. (5260, Asteraceae) Bursa Root Root powder taken with water in early morning helps to cure gastric problems.
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Persoon (226, Poaceae) Drub Aerial parts Entire aboveground parts are crushed with water. Two to three drops of this extract are poured in the nostril to cure nasal bleeding.
Fragaria nubicola Lindley ex Lacaita (5259, Rosaceae) Kida-bhumla Aerial parts Decoction of plant is consumed twice a day for 5–6 days in the morning and evening to cure fever.
Grewia optiva Drummond ex Burret (358, Teliaceae) Dhaman Leaves Fresh leaves are boiled in water to prepare decoction which is further concentrated at low temperatures. The concentrated paste is applied to cure joint pains.
Malva parviflora L. (5280, Malvaceae) Nasochal Aerial parts Entire plant is boiled in water to prepare decoction. It is used for abortion.
Parthenocissus semicordata (Wall.) Planchon (5256, Vitaceae) Amru bail Aerial parts & Root Sap collected by giving a cut in the above ground portion of the plant is drunk to cure leucorrhoea. It is also used to cure piles but is not recommended for male as it may cause impotency. Further, the paste prepared from the roots is also applied externally over the wounds and boils to inhibit puss formation.
Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. (4524, Scrophulariaceae) Kurro Roots/Rhizome Fresh as well as dry roots/rhizomes are ground with water to prepare a paste. The paste is applied to cure joint pains. It is also used for curing fever.
Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (3520, Pinaceae) Chir Needles The green needles are ground and sap is extracted. It is taken to increase the flow of urine.
Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All (5249, Liliaceae) Salam mishri Roots Fresh roots are cleaned, broken into small pieces and kept in water overnight. Next day these are ground in the same water. About 10 ml of this solution is taken regularly empty stomach in the morning to cure spermatorrhaea (locally called Dhat) and piles.
Polygonum amplexicaule D.Don (4559, Polygonaceae) Mindle Roots Root sap is extracted and applied to cure fresh wound in the eyes.
Prinsepia utilis Royle (5257, Rosaceae) Bakhel Roots Root extract is taken orally as an antidote to neutralize the effect of poison intake. Root paste after heating at low temperature in an earthen pot is applied on wounds.
Prunus cerasoides D.Don (3853, Rosaceae) Pajja Stem bark Decoction of stem bark is concentrated at low temperature and applied to cure joint pains.
Ranunculus hirtellus Royle (5289, Ranunculaceae) Goodi Roots Roots of plant are crushed with cow's urine to make a paste. The paste is applied at the base of thumb. If the swelling is on the right testes then the paste is applied at the base of left hand thumb and vice versa. The paste should not be kept for more than 20 minutes and is applied only once.
Rheum australe D.Don (3244, Polygonaceae) Chukri Aerial parts Whole plant is crushed and poultice is made in a cotton cloth. This is then heated and applied to cure swelling, which has developed as a result of fractured bone.
Rhododendron arboreum Smith (4512, Ericaceae) Brah Flowers Flowers are crushed and snuffed to stop nasal bleeding.
Rubus niveus Thunb. (5258, Rosaceae) Khiradi Fresh root tips Fresh root tips are used for curing excessive bleeding during menstrual cycle. The root tips are made into a paste with water and small pills are made. One pill per day, preferably with butter made from buffalo milk, is taken empty stomach in the morning for 7 days. The original rootstock of the plants is avoided.
Rumex hastatus D.Don (4522, Polygonaceae) Almoru Leaves Leaves are believed to have cooling properties and help in stopping nasal bleeding.
Rumex nepalensis Sprengel (4522, Polygonaceae) Albar Leaves Leaves are crushed and applied on wounds as an anti- allergic.
Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. (2100, Asteraceae) Kuth Roots Root paste is applied externally to cure joint pains.
Selinum tenuifolium Wallich ex C.B. Clarke (4523, Apiaceae) Matoshal Roots Root is powdered and mixed with mustard oil and applied on the body of women to cure swelling which develops after delivery.
Stellaria media (L.) Villars (5269, Caryophyllaceae) Khukawa Seeds and leaves About 20 dry seeds/day of the plant are given to the children to cure skin infections. The leaf paste of the plant is also applied on wounds caused by burning.
Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten (4558, Gentianaceae) Chirayta Aerial parts Entire plant is ground, boiled in water and filtered. 1–2 drops of filtered decoction is given to children against skin infections.
Thalictrum foliolosum DC. (5277, Ranunculaceae) Barmot Roots Dried root powder mixed with Thymus linearis in equal proportion is taken regularly to cure stomach pain and gastric trouble.
Viola pilosa Blume (4526, Violaceae) Vanaksa Flowers Fresh flowers are boiled in water and decoction is prepared. The decoction is used as tea to cure fever, cough and cold.