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Table 2 Empirical Confirmation of Gitksan Medicinal Plant Uses Higher Than Level I

From: Gitksan medicinal plants-cultural choice and efficacy

Species/illnesses Level Number of Groups Using Number of Consultants
Abies lasiocarpa   12 9
   respiratory illness 3   
   tonic 2   
Alnus incana/A. rubra   14/10* 2
skin ailments 3   2
Equisetum arvense/E.hiemale   5/12 1,1
   E. arvense diuretic, kidney 3 or 4   1
   /E. hiemale diuretic, kidney 2 or 3   1
Geum macrophyllum   11 1
   sores (if fungal) 3   
Juniperus communis   27 8
   respiratory illness 3   
   tonic 3   
Nuphar polysepalum   10 17
   tuberculosis 2 or 3   
Oplopanax horridus   36 29
   respiratory illnesses 2 or 3   4
   tuberculosis 2 or 3   4
   wound dressing 2   3
   skin wash ?2   2
   diabetes ?4   2
Picea glauca   36*** 9**
   tonic 2   
   respiratory illness 2   
   wounds, sores, burns 2   
Pinus contorta   24 9**
   colds and respiratory illness 2 or 3   
   wounds, sores, burns 3   
   "sickness" 2   
Sambucus racemosa   22 5
   emetic 2 or ?4   
Veratrum viride   27 14
   skin 2 or 3   2
   boils & swellings 2   ****
   aches, pains (topical) 2   ****
  1. * the numbers refer to Alnus incana- 14 reports and Alnus rubra- 10 reports
  2. ** includes both pine and spruce
  3. *** The spruce used by the Gitksan is a hybrid swarm derived from P. sitchensis, P. engelmannii and P. glauca.These three species together are used by 18 groups.
  4. **** These uses are reported in Harlan Smith's data from the 1920's [5] and were not provided by contemporary consultants.