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Table 1 Medicinal plants used by Jaintia tribes of the North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India.

From: Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India

Scientific name (voucher specimen number and botanical family) Local name Part(s) used Ethnomedical preparation and use (consensus index)
Achyranthes aspera L. (21, Amaranthaceae) Soh-berthid Leaf Pills (1–2 g each) are made out of crushed leaves and each pill is applied twice daily on boils till it heals (49%)
Adhatoda vesica Mill. (25, Acanthaceae) Toh-phaileng Flowers & Leaves Fresh flowers and leaves are boiled in water and decoction is prepared which is consumed once in a day to cure nose bleeding, dysentery and blood vomiting (63%)
Ageratum conyzoides L. (32, Asteraceae) Tuah-dain Leaves Crushed leaves are used directly on cuts and wounds (69%)
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. (41, Apocynaceae) Gumbuthen Bark Fresh barks are cut into small pieces and decoction is prepared which is later filtered through a cloth, concentrated and dried in shade; out of this small pills (each of ca 1–1.5 g) are made, three pills a day (for adults) is the recommended dosage for curing asthma (75%)
Amomum dealbatum Roxb. (48, Zingiberaceae) Salaphiah Roots/Rhizome Rhizome or roots are crushed and then fried lightly with mustard oil and is applied to cure joint pains (71%)
Arum dioscoridis Sibth. & Sm. (53, Araceae) Wang-yong Stem Stems are crushed and the extract is applied directly to cure boils (58%)
Asparagus racemosus Willd. (61, Liliaceae) Lamardoh Leaves Dried leaves are powdered and are taken orally to cure stomach ache and urinary disorders (83%)
Barleria cristata Alba (71, Acanthaceae) Sajhia Aerial parts Entire plant is crushed, boiled in water and filtered; 2–3 drops of decoction is used against skin infections (56%)
Begonia roxburghii (Miq.) DC. (75, Bigoniaceae) Jajau-mo Rhizome/Bulb It is crushed and applied on the body parts where the thorns are stuck to prevent further infection and allow it to come out by itself (80%)
Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. (82, Crassulaceae) Dawaiein Leaves Leaves are crushed and are applied on burns and bruises; eye sores, eye pain or eye itching twice daily (71%)
Cassia tora L. (103, Caeselpinaceae) Dain-trut Leaves, barks & roots Leaves, barks and roots are applied externally on skin diseases such as ring worms, leprosy (52%)
Cataranthus roseus (L.) G. Don. (122, Apocynaceae) Santujri-so Leaves Leaves are taken directly (about a handful) for diabetes and high blood pressure; 2–3 drops of this extract is poured in the nostril to cure nasal bleeding (67%)
Centella asiatica (L.)Urban (132, Apiaceae) Wangrake Whole Decoction of leaves is used against conjunctivitis and other eye injury; crushed leaves are mixed in a cup of water with a tablespoon of salt and taken once daily for stomachic, indigestion and flatulence (78%)
Clerodendrum grandulosum L. (163, Verbenaceae) Jhr-khtung Leaves Leaves are taken raw or are prepared along with vegetable for curing diabetes and high blood pressure (63%)
Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moonb. (163, Verbenaceae) Khr-khtung Leaves Whole body parts are ground with water to prepare a paste which is applied to cure fever (56%)
Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. (163, Verbenaceae) Jhr-khtung Leaves Leaves are taken raw or are mixed with vegetable for curing diabetes, high blood pressure and asthma (82%)
Coriandum sativum L. (173, Umbelliferae) Loruphi Fruits Dried fruits are powdered and taken orally to cure stomach ache (60%)
Curcuma longa L. (185, Zingiberaceae) Chyrmit Rhizome Pills (1–2 g each) are made out of crushed rhizomes and each pill is taken orally before food to counter-act dyspepsia (80%)
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (199, Convolvulaceae) Jarma Whole Whole plant parts are crushed and applied on the scalp to prevent premature hair fall, graying of hair and control of dandruff (79%)
Desmodium triquetrum (L.) DC. (221, Leguminaceae) Yeyjur Leaf and seeds Leaves as well as seeds are crushed; pills (ca 1–2 g each) prepared and is used as Vermifuge- two pills daily with empty stomach is the recommended dosage (69%)
Gossypium arboreum L. (249, Malvaceae) Kamphat Seeds Young and premature seeds are crushed; pills (ca 5–6 g each) are been prepared-one pill a day, preferably with milk is taken in empty stomach to improve memory power (83%)
Melastoma malabathricum L. (383, Melastomaceae) Sarudong Leaves/Young twigs A handful of young premature leaves are taken raw twice daily in an empty stomach to cure dysentery (57%)
Mikania micarantha Kunth. (457, Asteraceae) Jarma repuji Leaves Leaves are crushed; a table-spoon of the extract is taken thrice daily to cure diarrhea and dyspepsia (83%)
Mimosa pudica L. (463, Mimosaceae) Klim-tchakaw Roots Fresh roots (ca 500 g) are crushed and soaked in (ca 500 ml) water; 100 ml of the extract is taken twice daily for curing piles (93%)
Momordica charantia L. (498, Cucurbitaceae) Daipiat Leaf and fruit Leaves are crushed then taken orally or applied to the injured tissues for curing rabies and are also taken along with other vegetables to get rid from chest pain and other rheumatic pain (61%)
Nicotiana tabaeccum Viv. (535, Solanaceae) Duma-sla Aerial parts Entire plant is ground and applied to the infected area thrice daily against skin infections (60%)
Ocimum sanctum L. (712, Lamiaceae) Lapane Leaves Leaves (ca 200 g) are crushed and is later filtered through a cloth-10 ml of the extract is taken twice daily for curing stomach ache and head ache (79%)
Oxalis corymbosa L. (765, Oxalidaceae) Sakhia-palleh Whole Entire plant is crushed and the extract is taken thrice daily to counteract dyspepsia and jaundice (85%)
Phyllanthus niruri L. (803, Euphorbiaceae) Santu-plain-jarmi Leaves & roots Leaves (ca 500 g) are crushed and are later filtered-20 ml of the extract is taken thrice daily to cure diarrhea; roots (ca 200 g) are crushed and filtered-20 ml of the extract is taken thrice daily to cure fever (88%)
Piper longum L. (815, Piperaceae) Samaran Fruit & Roots Crushed fruit mixed with jaggery and ginger powder is boiled (with ca 200 ml water) and is taken thrice daily before food for curing malaria; dry roots (ca 500 g) are crushed and taken with tea twice daily to cure body ache (69%)
Plantago major L. (880, Plantaginaceae) Chhakur-blang Leaves An equal proportion of crushed leaves and raw milk (w/v) is mixed and taken in an empty stomach for almost a week to cure jaundice; leaf extract is used for curing ear ache, tooth ache and gum bleeding (73%)
Polygonum chinense L. (912, Polygonaceae) Salandem Leaves Leaves are ground and the extract is taken thrice daily to counteract dyspepsia (79%)
Polygonum affine L. (912, Polygonaceae) Jarian Leaves Leaves are crushed and applied on the wounds to stop bleeding (72%)
Scoporia dulcis L. (1028, Scrophulariaceae) Gymbat-pdyp Whole Aerial parts are boiled and decoction is used for gargles; root extract (ca 200 g) is prepared and applied twice daily to prevent cavity formation (65%)
Solanum indicum L. (1043, Solanaceae) Sabangang Fruit Dried fruits are boiled; decoction used to prepare pills (ca 10 g each) and is taken twice daily for curing high blood pressure (54%)
Spilanthus paniculata DC. (1059, Asteraceae) Santustem Flowers Flowers (ca 200 g) are crushed and applied twice daily to relieve tooth ache and cure cavity formation (76%)
Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. (1146, Apocynaceae) Santu-jri-iong Latex Latex is applied twice daily to prevent cavity formation (65%)
Urena lobata L. (1234, Malvaceae) That-thu Leaves Decoction of the leaf is taken twice daily to reduce blood pressure; and also is taken before sleep to relieve rheumatic pain and body ache (69%)