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Table 1 Plants used in graveyards – aromatic plants.

From: Ritual plants of Muslim graveyards in northern Israel

Species Frequency of appearance and dominance (%) References from the Middle East and adjacent countries References from other regions (also for funerals, immortality and mourning symbols and death myths)
Three-Lobed Sage – Salvia fruticosa Miller (=S. triloba L.f) (Lamiaceae) 93.1 (68.9*)   S. officinalis (Europe [20, I:666]; England; [14:102])
Rosemary – Rosemarinus officinalis L.** (Lamiaceae) 62.0 (10.3*) Iraq and Iran (the Christian section of the Mandanean [17:183]) Ancient times [20; II:645–647]; Europe [2:168; 4:196], England [15:428,438; 56:138; 60:144; 61:150–151]; Cyprus [5:184,187,188]
Basil – Ocimum basilicum L. **^ (Lamiaceae) 65.5 Iran [51:191; 28:157]; Egypt [23:95] Italy and Greece [20;II:54,]; India, (O. sanctum) [26:17–18; 62:22;])
Mint – Mentha spp.** (Lamiaceae) 50.0   Ancient Egypt [22:214–215; 63:120]; Ancient Minoan [64:6]; Ancient Greece [20;II:366; 65:121; 66:518; 67:XIX]
Myrtle – Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae) 37.9 Lybia [23:319]; Turkey [68:187; 69:62]; Syria [12:131] Ancient Greece [ 4:194; 21:54; 58:14,82f; 65:49; 70:12,123ff; 71:8,94f, 426; 72: passim; 73:15,33; 74:tab 154; 75:18]; Rome [2:167; 4:465,476,487; 20;I:442; 21:54; 37:144; 76:49; 77:30]; Spain (Muslims,15th century, [78:39]); England (16–17th centuries, [14:102])
Rue – Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) 34.4   Spain [66:241]; England [5:184; 11:102]
Lemon verbena – Lippia citroiodora (Ort.) HBK ** (Verbenaceae) 31.0   
Rose – Scented Geranium – Pelargonium graveolens (L.) L'Her ex Ait. ** (Geraniaceae) 31.0 (7.5*)   
White-Leaved Savory – Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce (Lamiaceae) 27.5   
Lavender – Lavandula spp.** (Lamiaceae) 20.6   
Tagetes – Tagetes sp. **^ (Asteraceae) 20.6   
Wormwood – Artemisia arborescens L.* (Asteraceae) 17.2   England [5:184–185]
Jasmine – Jasminum sp.** (Oleaceae) 17.2 Lybia [4:191] Spain (Muslims,15th century, [78:39])
Thyme – leaved Savory Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiaceae) 6.8   
  1. * = As a dominant plant
  2. ** = Non-indigenous species
  3. ^ = Annual species.