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Table 2 Plants used in graveyards – white-flowered plants.

From: Ritual plants of Muslim graveyards in northern Israel

Species Frequency of appearance (%) Reference from the Middle East and adjacent countries References from other regions (also for funerals, immortality and mourning symbols, and death myths).
Narcissus – Narcissus tazetta L. (Amarylliadaceae) 41.3   Ancient Greece [21:68–269; 35:248; 36:430; 37:148]; Rome [77:31]; England [30:148]
Sea squill – Urginea maritima (l.) Baker (Liliaceae) 37.9   
Day Cestrum – Cestrum diurnum L. (Solanaceae) 27.5   
Iris-Mainly Iris albicans W. Barley and I. mesopotamica Dyes (Iridaceae) 24.1 Palestine [39:296; 81:812]; Syria (16th century, [82:63]; North Africa [S. Jury Pers. Comm.] Muslim cemeteries from Spain to Kashmir [21:64–65]. India [Muslims, 78:39]
Sea daffodil – Pancratium maritimum L. and P. parviflorum Delile (Amaryllidaceae) 22.2   Late Minoan [7:176–184]
Rose – Rosa sp. (Rosaceae) 20.0   Ancient Greece and Rome (Red flowers! [83:219] and references therein); England [5:184–185; 14:102]
White Arum-Lily – Zantedeshcia aetiopica Sprengl. (Araceae) 20.0   France [1:284]
Asphodel – Asphodelus ramosus Miller (=A. aestivus Brot.) (Liliaceae) 6.8 Turkey [75:18] Minoan Crete [84:55]; Ancient Greece, (symbol of death, [21:65; 38: XI, 539–543, XXIV, 13;], planting on graves [31:157; 75:18; 85:62], as a funeral plant, [86:300]). Modern Greece [87:100–101].
Virgin Mary Lily – Lilium candidum L. (Liliaceae) 0   Rome [77:30]; Europe [20, II:324]; Germany [31:12]; England [14:102; 30:228]