Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Plants used in graveyards – trees and shrubs.

From: Ritual plants of Muslim graveyards in northern Israel

Species Frequency of appearance and dominance (%) References from the Middle East and adjacent countries. References from other regions (also for funerals, immortality and mourning symbols and, death myths)
Cemetery Cypress – Cupressus sempervirens L. (Cupreessaceae) 68.9 (20.6*) Iran [86:18; 88:132; 89:30]; Turkey [42:182; 69:63; 91:350; 92;II:21; 93:219; 94:115; 95:136,146]; Lebanon [96:205]; Egypt [97:431] Ancient Greece, [2:80; 17:34; 42:182; 43:298; 57; X:106–142; 98;11.4; 99: 8,24,7; 100:27; 101:111.4, 120.75; 102:654; 103:264,267; 104:32; 105:157]; Europe in general [31:36; 54: 190–191; 55:XVI,60; 56:IV,507; 47:39]; China [2:28; 106:124]
Olive – Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) 41.3   Ancient Greece [3:308; 100:27; 107:4.84] and also Rome [56: 230; 20, II:500; 89:373]
Date palm – Phoenix dactylifera L. (Palmae) 37.5 Egypt [109;II:132; 110:464; 111:431] Europe [2:9; 20;I:129; 45:191]
Ficus – Ficus spp. (Moraceae) 22.5   
Butcher's Broom – Ruscus aculeatus L. (Dioscoreaceae) 20.0   
Oleander – Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) 20.0   Rome [77:30]
Carob – Ceratonia siliqua L. (Caesalpiniaceae) 20.0   
Christ's Thorn Jujube – Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. (Rhamnaceae) 10.0 Middle East [50:passim]  
Fig – Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) 10.0   England (19th century [14:102])
Laurel – Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae) 2.5   Ancient Greece [3:107–108; 45:191]; Rome [77:30]; Europe in general [20, I:174; 108:174; 112:174]; England [14:102; 15:438; 30:7];
  1. * = As a dominant plant