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Table 2 Historic economic cycles on the Northern Coast of São Paulo

From: The ethnoecology of Caiçarametapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions

Date Activity
Before 1870 Sugar cane plantations
Brazilian rum
1870–1880  
Railroad built between Santos and São Paulo Coffee plantations
  Manioc cultivated and commercialized
After 1890 Agriculture declined
Isolation: small-scale agriculture concentrated on manioc.
After 1950 Decline of price of agricultural products:
Activity concentrated on fishing: sand drums, weakfish [Sciaenidae], bluefish [Pomatomidae], mullets [Mugilidae], snooks, [Centropomidae], and shrimp, among others.
After 1980 Fishing and the increase of tourism and tourist-related activities.
State Parks*: prohibition of small-scale agriculture and of fishing in rivers.
  1. Source: [7, 17, 29]
  2. *environmental legislation, State Park of Serra do Mar (Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar).