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Table 1 Ethnoveterinary and anti-parasitic uses of plants in some areas of Calabria (Southern Italy)

From: Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy)

Family, scientific name, local name (voucher specimen) Used Part Use Preparation/Administration N * Locality Habitat
Nerium oleander L. – liantru – CLU2 Br The plant is considered enemy of the moles, well-known eaters of roots of vegetables According to the folk opinion the branches of oleander were stuck into the ground in order to poison the moles (use still actual). 3 CI To, he
Sambucus nigra L. CLU5 Fle To attract the flies that were killed Leaves were put in small bunches in the houses 1 CS Ru, di,to
Inula viscosa (L.) Aiton – spulitru CLU7 Ap Elderly people used it to eliminate the parasites of the rectum The whole plant was inserted in the anus (veterinary use for asses and mules) 5 CI Unc, ru, caso
Matricaria chamomilla L. – galumedda, camomilla Dfh Repellent for woodworms and other insects They were put among the linen 2 SC,CT Cu, ru
Equisetum telmateja Ehrh. – stocca e ammenta CLU10 Ep To make cow-beds for bovines, horses and sheep without evaluate the toxicity of the plant Shepherds and herdsmen use it dry 5 CI Di, ed-wo, da
Juglans regia L. – noce CLU17 Le Anti-parasitic (above all for bugs) Decoction (it was poured in the bed) 1 AC Wo, di
  Le Anti-parasitic also for furnishings, garments and pieces of furniture   1 CI  
Lavandula angustifolia Miller – ramaietto(MR), spigaddossa (CS) Ft Repellent, deodorant of linen Picked before the complete flowering, dried and put in small bugs 6 MR, CS, MT, SE, CT, SC Cu
Ocimum basilicum L. – basilico CLU18 Ep Repellent for flies and mosquitoes The plant is put on the windows 1 AC Cu
Laurus nobilis L. CLU22 Fr Repellent for flies (veterinary use) Macerate in olive oil applied onto the coat of the animal 3 MT Tewo
Vicia faba L. – fava Se Fodder for animals   5 CI Cu
Ruscus aculeatus L. – vruscia Br To keep mice at a distance They are hung in the houses 1 TA Tewo
Urginea marittima (L.) Baker – cipuddazzu CLU26 Ep Repellent and anti-parasitic agent for insect and mice The farmers put the whole plant in granaries and silos, above all in "canizze" (containers woven of reeds) that contained broad beans of various type 5 CI Sl
Malva sylvestris L. CLU 27 Le Gastritis Decoction (veterinary use) 2 MT, SE Unc, ru, edro
Ficus carica L. – see footnote (1) CLU28 Le To increase the output of milk Leaves were given as fodder to cows 5 CI Ru, wa
Helleborus bocconei Ten. – aricchja CLU32 Ro For the bronchitis of bovines. The animal would be recovered in short, and it was recognizable for the hole remained on it. Then, it seems that it would have become immune from diseases, after this remedy. No possibility of recovery existed in the case in which the disease was in advanced stage; in this case it occurred atrophy of the hole containing the 3 pieces of the stalk, then expelled. According an ancient tradition, the cowherds of Calabria region let dry the long petiole of the basal leaves, divided into 3 parts; it was inserted in a hole practised on the back of the ear of the animal (from here the vernacular name), or under the fur of the lateral part of the neck. If the animal reacted "in positive way" to this graft, a swelling of the surrounding region developed around the stem, with a necrotic area of the diameter of approximately 1 cm, provoking a small hole on the ear, or a small cavity (on the neck). 4 CI, UM He, mo-wo (su-cl)
Scrophularia canina L. – erva lupara CLU34 Ap To treat the lameness ("pedàina") of the sheep. Veterinary use. There is not a breeder who not used this plant for whichever problem, both in human medicine and in veterinary science. The breeders whom speak about this plant are many. 5 CI Sa, gr, st
Verbascum thapsus L. – lingua e voiju CLU35 Le Against the lameness ("pedàina") of cows Not communicated 5 CI Drme
Cestrum parqui L'Hér – erva fetusa CLU36 Ep Repellent for animals Cowherds planted it at the edges of the bushes in order to discourage the entrance of other animals, because it gives off a bad smell (poisonous plant). 3 CI To, he, be
Daphne gnidium L. – junastrum, paparina ("ppè ntassari") Ep Used against the invasions of water snakes. Put in lakes where domestic animals drink after the transhumance 5 CI To, ro, cla, sa
CLU38 Ep Some fishermen use it to capture ells of streams. Thrown in the water 5 CI  
  Ba To treat "papillomas" (veterinary-magical use) A plaiting with the bark was made and then it was knot around the papilloma; the animal would be recovered in a short time. 5 CI  
Urtica dioica L. – ortica CLU40 Ap Once a mash with bread was made By boiling (it was the only fodder for chicks of Turkey) 5 CI Ru
  1. * = citations
  2. Localities: AC Acri; CI Cirò; CR Crùcoli; CS Castrovillari; CT Cittanova; MT Montauro; MR Morano; SC Scilla; SE S.Elia; TA Tarsia; UM Umbriatico
  3. Plant parts used: Ap aerial part; Ba bark; Br branches; Dfh dry flower heads; Ep entire plant; Fle fresh leaves; Fr fruit; Ft flowery tops; Le leaves; Ro root; Se seeds
  4. Habitat: Be beachs; Caso calcareous soils near to the water; Cla clayey grounds; Cu cultivated species or cultivations; Da damp areas; Di ditches; Drme dry meadows; Edro edges of roads; Edwo edges of woods; Gr gravels; He hedges; Mowo mountain woods; Ro rocks; Ru ruins; Sa sandy places (grounds); Sl slopes with rocks and silt, areas with sand and silt facing West; St stony grounds; Su sunny grounds; Sucl sunny clearings; Tewo termophile woods; To along torrents; Unc uncultivated areas; Wa walls; Wo woods.
  5. (1) In Cirò the first ripe figs are named 'botta', those ripening in summer 'fichi'.