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Table 2 Food uses of plants in some areas of Calabria (Southern Italy)

From: Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy)

Family, scientific name, local name (voucher specimen) Used Part Use Preparation/Administration N * Locality Habitat
Amaranthus retroflexus L. Ys Food use Picked before the flowering 1 CR Cu, ru
Borago officinalis L. – borragina CLU3 Le Food use In salad (finely minced leaves) 1 AC Unc, pig,
  Fl Dye for aromatic vinegars   1 AC co
Sambucus nigra L. CLU 5 Fl Used in cookery Flowers in oil to make the classic fritters ("pitte ccu majiu") 5 CI Ru, di,to
Centaurea napifolia L. – zimurro Mat1, C. sphaerocephala L. – zimurro Mat2 Ap Food use Plants, peeled from thorns, were eaten cooked 1 AR Be
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner – cardu marianu Yle Food use In salad 2 MT, SE Fi, unc,ru
  Ro, fh Food use Boiled with other vegetables 2 MT, SE  
Taraxacum officinale Weber – ricottedda, cicorione Le Food use In mixed salad or as boiled vegetable 3 CS, MT,SE Unc, ru, me
Arbutus unedo L. Fr Food use Astringent jam 2 CT, SS Tema
Castanea sativa Miller – castagno CLU12 Fr Fruits were the main food in periods of famine for people that carried out heavy jobs Cooked fruits 5 CI Oawo*
Juglans regia L. – noce CLU17 Hu To make a liqueur ("nocino") Macerate in alcohol 5 CI Wo, di
Mentha spicata L. – amenta Mat4 Le Seasoning To season dishes 1 VA Dame
Origanum heracleoticum L. – rigunu CLU19 Le To season the salad It was collected in summer 5 CI Drme
Rosmarinus officinalis L. – rosimarinu CLU20 Le Seasoning On meats 5 CI Sa, tema
Salvia officinalis L. – sarbia CLU21 Le Flavouring in cookery   5 CI Drme, ru
Laurus nobilis L. CLU22 Le To obtain the "panicottu", bread seasoned with oil As basis of broth for the "panicottu" (given to children) 5 CI  
  Le As spice in cookery On meats, among dried figs etc. 5 CI  
Phaseolus vulgaris L. – fagiuoli Se Substitute of the coffee Roasted seeds 1 AC Cu
Spartium junceum L. CLU23 Fbu Food use Eaten after preserving in vinegar (above all in the past) 2 SS, CT  
Ficus carica L. – see footnote (1) CLU28 Fr Food use ("fichi 'mbottiti") Dried figs are cut and filled with almonds, walnuts, chocolate, spices; then they are browned in oven 1 CS Ru,wa
Myrtus communis L. – Murzìla (CS), murtidda (MR) CLU29 Br To obtain the "tortaniddi" White dried figs are run through partly pruned branches 2 CS, MR Tema
Epilobium angustifolium L. – garofanino Ys, st Food use In salad 1 MT Dame, cle (be-wo)
Plantago major L. – simula Le Food use Tender leaves are good ingredient for soups 1 AC Ro, ru, da
Portulaca oleracea L. – purchiacchia – CLU31 Yle Food use In salad or boiled 2 MT, SE Cu, ru
Clematis vitalba L. – grambuntine Ys Food use Boiled in soups or in omelette 1 MR He, wo
Ranunculus ficaria L – favucello Yle Food use In salad 2 MT, SE Dame
  Ap Food use As a vegetable (soups, other dishes) 2 CT, SS  
Urtica dioica L. – ardicela CLU40 Ap Food use for children in growth (tonic treatment) By boiling and seasoning with oil 5 CI Ru
  1. * = citations
  2. Localities: AC Acri; AR Ardore; CI Cirò; CR Crùcoli; CS Castrovillari; CT Cittanova; MR Morano; MT Montauro; SE S.Elia ; SS S.Stefano di Aspromonte; VA Vallefiorita
  3. Plant parts used: Ap aerial part; Br branches; Fl flowers; Fr fruit; Hu husk; Le leaves; Ro root; Se seeds; St stem; Yle young leaves; Ys young sprouts.
  4. Habitat: Be beachs; Bewo beech woods; Cle clearings; Co cowsheds; Cu cultivated species or cultivations; Da damp areas; Dame = damp meadows; Di ditches; Drme dry meadows; Fi fields; He hedges; Me meadows; Oawo* oak woods included Q. cerris woods; Pig around the pigsties; Ro rocks; Roa roads; Ru ruins; Sa sandy places (grounds); Tema termophile maquises; To along torrents; Unc uncultivated areas; Wa walls; Wo woods.
  5. (1) The small unripe fruit is named 'cuzzummeru', and when in May-June it become ripe, it is named 'botta'. In August other 'cuzzummeri' (the true figs) mature (CS).