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Table 1 Diversity of plant species and methods used in management of ENT diseases in Central Kenya

From: Traditional management of ear, nose and throat (ENT) diseases in Central Kenya

Species name Family Kikuyu name Disease Part used Method of drug preparation Method of drug administration
Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth. Mimosaceae Mûthigira WC Bark   Chewing
Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth. Mimosaceae Mûthigira Cg Bark Crushing Chewing
Ajuga remota Benth Lamiaceae Wanjirû wa rûriî CC Leaves Boiling Orally
Ajuga remota Benth. Lamiaceae Wanjirû wa rûriî Cg Leaves Boiling Orally
Asparagus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop Asparagaceae Karûrûra Cg Leaves Crushing/pounding Chewing
Aspilia pluriseta Schweinf. Asteraceae Muutî Cg Bark Crushing Chewing
Aspilia pluriseta Schweinf. Asteraceae Muutî OM Sap Squeezed from stems Directly installed
Bidens pilosa L. Asteraceae Mûcege NB Leaves Boiling Orally
Caesalpinia volkensii Harms Caesalpiniaceae Mûbûthî CC Roots Crushing to release sap Topically by rubbing nasal region
Carissa edulis Forssk. Apocynaceae Mûkawa As Roots Leaves Boil Orally
Carissa edulis Forssk. Apocynaceae Mûkawa CP Roots Boiling Soup added Orally
Carissa edulis Forssk. Apocynaceae Mûkawa CC Roots Boiling Orally
Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle Rutaceae Ndimu As Fruit Boiling Orally
Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle Rutaceae Ndimû CC Fruit Boiling Orally
Clematis brachiata Thunb. Ranunculaceae Mûgaya ng'ûndu CC Leaves Boiling to release steam Inhalation of steam
Clutia abyssinica Jaub. & Spach Euphorbiaceae Mûthimambûri To Leaves Boiling Orally
Coffea arabica L. Rubiaceae Kahûa/Mûhûa Cg Root Boiling Orally
Colocasia antiquorum Schutt Araceae Kîrûtû OM Sap Direct Directly installed
Combretum collinum Fres. Combretaceae Mûranjîkî OM Leaves Sap extracted Directly installed
Crinum macawanii Bak. Liliaceae Gûtûngûrû kîa ngoma As Tuber Boiling Topically
Crinum macawanii Bak. Liliaceae Gîtoka OM Leaves Heated, sap squeeze Directly installed
Crinum macawanii Bak. Liliaceae Gîtûngûrû kîa ngoma To Bulb Crushing Massage
Crotalaria agatiflora Schweinf. Papilionaceae Mûcingiri wa ngambainî OM Leaves Crushing, some water added Directly installed
Croton megalocarpus Hutch. Euphorbiaceae Mûkindûri Cg Bark Pounding Chewing
Croton megalocarpus Hutch. Euphorbiaceae Mûkindûri To Roots Pounded Chewing
Cuscuta kilimanjari Oliv. Convolvulaceae Thîna OM Sap Collected from stems Directly installed
Cussonia holstii Engl. Araliaceae Mûruruku Cg Bark Pounding Chewing
Dalbergia lactea Vatke Papilionaceae Mwaritha As Wet leaves Crushed to release sap Topically
Datura stramonium L. Solanaceae Ndatura To Stems Crushing Massage
Dombeya burgessiniae Gerrard Sterculiaceae Mûkeû Cg Bark Pounding Chewing
Englerina woodfordioides (Schweinf.) Balle Loranthaceae Kîeha CC Whole Boiling Orally
Erythrina abyssinica DC. Papilionaceae Mûhûtî Cg Bark Boiling Orally
Erythrina abyssinica DC. Papilionaceae Mûhûtî NB Bark Boiling Orally
Eucalyptus saligna Smith Myrtaceae Mûbaû CC Leaves Boiling Inhalation of steam
Euphorbia joyae Bally & S. Carter Euphorbiaceae Kariaria To Stem Boiling Orally
Juniperus procera Engl. Cupressaceae Mûtarakwa CC Bark Boiling Orally
Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. Bignoniaceae Mûratina wa thûkûrîi CC Rhizome Boiling Orally
Kyllinga bulbosa P. Beau. Cyperaceae Ngothe OM Bulb Bulb crushed to release sap Directly installed
Kyllinga bulbosa P. Beau. Cyperaceae Nyeki/Kîgombe To Leaves Crushing Chewing
Lactuca inermis Forssk. Asteraceae Mûthûnga To Leaves Dry leaves in shade and soak in hot water Orally
Lantana camara L. Verbenaceae Rûîthiki CC Leaves Crushing of wet leaves Inhalation
Lantana camara L. Verbenaceae Mûkenia OM Leaves Crushing Directly installed
Lippia javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng. Verbenaceae Mûthirîti CC Leaves Crushing, steeped in hot water or milk Orally
Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae Mwîembe As Leaves Boil Orally
Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell Celastraceae Mûthuthi To Sap Squeezed from stems Topically
Melia azadirachta L. Meliaceae Mûarubaine To Leaves Boiling Orally
Melia azadirachta L. Meliaceae Mwarumbaine CC Leaves Boiling Orally
Momordica foetida Schumach. Cucurbitaceae Karera To Leaves Crushing Chewing
Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae Mûtaa CC Leaves Crushed/Ground, steeped in hot water or milk Orally
Ocimum gratissimum L. Lamiaceae Mûkandu OM Leaves Crushed Directly installed
Ocotea usambarensis Engl. Lauraceae Mûthaitî CP Bark Boiling Orally
Ocotea usambarensis Engl. Lauraceae Mûthaitî Cg Bark Boiling Orally
Osyris lanceolata Hocst & Stendel. Santalaceae Mûthaithi N/T Leaves Boiling Orally
Physalis peruviana L. Solanaceae Mûnathi As leaves Boiling Orally
Piliostigma thonnigii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh. Papilionaceae Mûkûra-ûtukû Cg Inner bark Pounding Chewing
Piper capense L. Piperaceae Mûrûngû CC Leaves Boiling Orally
Pistacia aethiopica Kokwaro Anacardiaceae Mûheheti CC Leaves Boiling Orally
Plectranthus comosus Sims Lamiaceae Maigoya OM Leaves Crushing Directly installed
Psidium guajava L. Myrtaceae Mûbera As Leaves Dry Boiling Orally
Psidium guajava L. Myrtaceae Mûbera CC Leaves Boiling Orally
Pterolobium stellatum (Forssk.) Brenan Caesalpiniaceae Mûtandambogo CC Roots Boiling Orally
Rhamnus prinoides L'Herit Rhamnaceae Mûkarakinga CP Roots Boiling Soup added Orally
Rhamnus prinoides L'Herit Rhamnaceae Mûkarakinga CC Leaves Boiling Orally
Rhamnus prinoides L'Herit Rhamnaceae Mûkarakinga To Roots/Stem Boiling Orally
Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae Mûbarîki Cg Seeds Grinding the seeds and cooking the fatty part Orally
Rubus apetalus Poir Rosaceae Mûtare To Fruit and leaves Boiling Orally
Sarcostemma viminale (L.) R. Br. Euphorbiaceae Ndarû OM Stem Heated, Sap squeezed Directly installed
Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Thell. Asteraceae Gakuinini CC Leaves Boiling Orally
Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Thell. Asteraceae Gakuinini Cg Roots/Leaves Boiling Orally
Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) Irwin & Barneby Caesalpiniaceae Mwenû To Leaves Boiling Orally
Solanum aculeastrum Dunal Solanaceae Gîtûra To Root Boiling Orally
Solanum anguivi Lam. Solanaceae Gatongu OM Fruits Juice squeezed Directly installed
Sonchus oleraceus L. Asteraceae Mahiû CP Roots Boiling Soup added Orally
Sonchus oleraceus L. Asteraceae Mahiû To Roots Boiling Orally
Sphilanthes mauritiania (Pers.) DC. Asteraceae Gatharaita CC Flowers Crushing Chewing
Sporobolus pyramidalis P. Beauv. Poaceae Kagutu Cg Root Boiling Orally
Tagetes minuta L. Asteraceae Mûbangi As Leaves Boiling Orally
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray Asteraceae Marûrû CC Leaves Boiling Orally
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray Asteraceae Marûrû Cg Leaves/Roots Boiling Orally
Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. Rutaceae Mûrûrûwe CC Roots Boiling Orally
Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. Rutaceae Mûrûrûwe CC Roots Boiling Inhalation
Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. Rutaceae Mûrûrûwe Cg Leaves Boiling Orally
Urtica massaica Mildbr. Urticaceae Thabai CC Leaves Boiling Orally
Vernonia lasiopus O.Hoffm. Asteraceae Mûchatha CC Leaves Boiling Orally
Vernonia lasiopus O.Hoffm. Asteraceae Mûchatha OM Flowers Sap squeezed Directly installed
Warburgia ugandensis Sprague Canellaceae Mûthîga CC Bark and leaves Boiling Orally
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal Solanaceae Mûrumbae As Roots Boiling Orally
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal Solanaceae Mûrumbae CC Leaves Boiling Orally
Zanthoxyllum usambarensis (Engl.) Kokwaro Rutaceae Mwikunya CC Leaves Boiling Orally
Zehneria scabra (L.f.) Sond. Cucurbitaceae Rwegethia CC Leaves Boiling Orally
  1. Kikuyu names in brackets
  2. As = Asthma (Githûri kinene, Acima, Gîkorora kia ngûkû)
  3. CC = Common cold (Homa, Kihuti)
  4. Cg = Cough (Ruhaya, Gîkorora)
  5. CP = Chest Pains (Githûri)
  6. NB = Nose bleeding
  7. N/T = Neck/throat (Ngingo)
  8. OM = Otitis media (Njika, bûra)
  9. To = Tonsil (Ngaû)
  10. WC = Wooping cough (Gîkoroa thakame)