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Table 2 Plants used as antivenins

From: Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage

Plant Family Local names Preparation/specimen no. Remedy reports
Allium cepa L. Iridaceae Kitunguu (Kamba name) Leaves or root tuber pounded and sap applied. KD 422 (NAI). 2
Ammocharis tinneana (Kotschy & Peyr.) Milne-Redh. Amaryllidaceae Apap thwon pap, rabwond otenga(Luo name) Root sap used in the preparation of a snake bite alexiteric. BOO 250 (NAI). 1
Annona senegalensis Pers. ssp. senegalensis Annonaceae Obolo, obolobolo(Luo name) The crushed leaves are rubbed on snake bites, some chewed and the juice swallowed. BOO 456 (NAI). 3
Bidens pilosa L. Asteraceae Nyanyiek mon, onyiego(Luo name) Crushed leaves of the plant are rubbed on fresh cuts as an astringent, snake bite antidote and antiseptic. BOO 485 (NAI). 4
Senna siamea (Lam.) Irwin et Barnaby Fabaceae Ndege owinu, oyieko(Luo name) The roots of this tree and those of Zanthoxylum chalybeum are used as antidote for snake bites. BOO 401 (NAI). 1
Combretum collinum Fresen. Combretaceae Adugo(Luo name) The roots are used in preparing a snake bite antidote that is usually effected by scarification. BOO 647 (NAI). 3
Combretum molle G. Don Combretaceae Muama, Kiama (Kamba name) Root or bark pounded, soaked in water and infusion drunk; 2 glasses two times a day. KD501 (NAI). 9
Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker. Asteraceae Yadh asere, yadh tong' (Luo name) A leaf infusion of the plant is drunk as an antidote for puff adder (Bitis arietans) bites and stomachache. BOO 534 (NAI). 7
Corchurus trilocularis L. Tiliaceae Apoth(Luo name) The crushed leaf infusion with Hyptis pectinata is dropped or sprinkled into the eye to neutralize snake venom ejected into the human eye. Afterwards, the victim is scarified on the hind torso. Claims of intense pain, temporary blindness and watery eyes were linked to this type of venom poisoning. BOO 559 (NAI). 1
Dichondra repens J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. Convolvulaceae No Luo name given The plant leaves are rubbed onto snakebites to as an antidote to "remove snake fangs". BOO 536 (NAI). 1
Ensete edule (J. F. Gmel.) Horan Musaceae Kitembe(Luo name) The sap exuding from cut stem is used in treating snake bites, wiped into the bite. BOO 181 (NAI). 1
Entada leptostachya Harms Fabaceae Mwaitha (Kamba name) Stem crushed, sap squeezed out and applied. KD 458 (NAI). 7
Erythrina excelsa Baker Fabaceae Roko, yuoma(Luo name) The bark sap is antidote for snake bites. BOO 691 (NAI). 2
Fuerstia africana T.C.E. Fr. Lamiaceae Abunga-useke, aremo(Luo name) Leaves are crushed and the filtered infusion prepared thereafter drank orally as antidote. BOO 523 (NAI). 1
Grewia sp. Tiliaceae Powo(Luo name) The leaves are snake bite antidote. Leaves used in cooking envenomed carcass – as a treatment preventing secondary poisoning. Livestock bitten by snakes are drenched with a leaf/ bark decoction/infusion and the mucilaginous crushed leaves used to wipe the bitten area. BOO 248 (NAI). 3
Indigofera circinella Baker f. Fabaceae Odolo(Luo name) Poultices made from the leaves are chewed and pasted on snake bite as antidote. BOO 566 (NAI). 3
Justicia calyculata (Deflers.) T. Anders. Acanthaceae Apiwo, piu piu(Luo name) Crushed aerial plant parts are used as a snake bite antidote, rubbed onto the snake bite to facilitate the removal of the snake's fangs. BOO 486 (NAI). 1
Laggera brevipes Oliv. & Hiern. Asteraceae Adupa rabuor(Luo name) The roots of the plant are employed as a snake bite antidote. BOO 304 (NAI). 3
Maesa lanceolata Forssk. Myricaceae Katera(Luo name) Root decoction administered as follow up treatment for puff adder (Bitis spp.) bites. BOO 292 (NAI). 2
Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze Asteraceae Nyabung odidi, nyabung odit(Luo name) The leaves are chewed, juice swallowed and the macerate placed well into the snake bite. BOO 463 (NAI). 5
Opilia amentacea Roxb. Opiliaceae Mutonga (Kamba name) Roots burnt into charcoal, crushed into powder mixed with crushed snake teeth and applied to treat the snake bites. KD 503 (NAI). 16
Pellaea viridis (Forssk.) Prantl Adiantaceae No Luo name given The plant leaves are pulped and rubbed well into a snake bite. BOO 570 (NAI). 1
Sansevieria parva N.E.Br. Dracaenaceae Twoch bungu(Luo name) Leaf sap applied on snake bite wound. BOO 127 (NAI). 1
Solanecio mannii (Hook. f.) C. Jeffrey Asteraceae Maroo, marowo(Luo name) Crushed or chewed leaves rubbed into snake bites as antidote. BOO 681 (NAI). 2
Solanum incanum L. Solanaceae Mutongu (Kamba name) The stem or fruits cut into small pieces, dried in sun, pounded and powder applied. The sap of the fruits may also be directly applied. KD 393 (NAI). 9
Steganotaenia araliacea Hochst. Apiaceae Muvuavui, Kivuavui (Kamba name) Roots burnt into charcoal, crushed into powder and applied. KD 509 (NAI). 2
Tagetes minuta L. Asteraceae Muvangi (Kamba name) Leaves crushed, soaked in water and infusion applied. KD 468 (NAI). 5
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray. Asteraceae Maua madongo, akech(Luo name) Leaf infusion administered orally as antidote for snake bites. BOO 541 (NAI). 3
Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. Tiliaceae Muinda nguue (Kamba name) Roots crushed, soaked in water and infusion applied on bite area. KD 519 (NAI). 3
Uvaria scheffleri Diels Annonaceae Mukukuma (Kamba name) Roots or leaves dried in sun and pounded and powder applied. KD 324 (NAI). 4
Vernonia glabra (Steez) Vatke Asteraceae Olusia(Luo name) The leaf ash or crushed leaves rubbed into scarifications around the snake bite as antidote. BOO 759 (NAI). 1