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Table 1 Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia

From: Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

Scientific name, (botanical family) Voucher specimen number Local name Part(s) used Ethnoveterinary use
Acer macrophyllum Pursh (Aceraceae) JB043 Big leaf maple leaves bedding
Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) JS 041 yarrow Aerial parts Mastitis, wounds, sternal abscess
Achlys triphylla (Smith) DC. (Berberidaceae) JS018 Vanilla leaf leaves flies
Alchemilla vulgaris L. (Rosaceae) JS011 Lady's mantle aerial parts Retained placenta
Allium cepa L. (Alliaceae) not collected onion Skins endoparasites
Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae) not collected garlic minced cloves Endoparasites, respiratory tonic
Althaea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) not collected marshmallow Aerial parts Diarrhea, scours
Anethum graveolens L. (Apiaceae) JS010 Dill seed Diarrhea, scours, milk production
Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) not collected celery Aerial parts endoparasites
Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) JB32 Burdock root mastitis
Arnica sp. (Asteraceae) JB92 Wild arnica Leaves or flowers wounds
Artemisia sp. (Compositae) JS105 wormwood leaves endoparasites
Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae) JS016 mugwort plant Zinc deficiency
Azadirachta indica A. Juss. purchased product neem powder lice
Berberis aquifolium Pursh. Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae) JB6 Oregon grape roots wounds
Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth (Polypodiaceae) not collected Deer fern Aerial parts Magnesium imbalance
Bovista pila Berk. & M. A. Curtis, Bovista plumbea Pers. (Lycoperdaceae) JB1 puffball Spore mass Disbudding, cuts, wounds, sternal abscess
Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) JB84 calendula Flower oil Cuts, scratches, diarrhea, sore stomachs
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. (Brassicaceae) not collected shepherd's purse leaves wounds
Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) purchased product cinnamon Inner bark Diarrhea, scours
Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) purchased product turmeric rhizome Caprine arthritis encephalitis palliative, proud flesh
Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (Poaceae) purchased product citronella oil flies
Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae) not collected carrots Roots & tops endoparasites
Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (Asteraceae) JBCL 07 Echinacea root abscess, Pre-show protection, wounds, respiratory tonic
Epilobium augustifolium L. (Onagraceae) not collected fireweed Fresh or dry plant Appetite stimulant
Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae) purchased product cloves Essential oil flies
Euphrasia officinalis agg. (Scrophulariaceae) purchased product eyebright Aerial parts Eye problems
Galium aparine L. (Rubiaceae) JB3 cleavers Aerial parts mastitis
Gaultheria shallon Pursh. (Ericaceae) JS014 salal Aerial parts Rumen tonic, ketosis
Hedera helix L. (Araliaceae) not collected English ivy leaves Retained placenta
Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) purchased product sunflower seeds endoparasites
Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) JS027 St. John's Wort Infused oil of flowers Proud flesh, wounds
Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) juniper branches Endoparasites, liver fluke
Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae) lavender Essential oil Flies, proud flesh
Mahonia nervosa (Pursh) Nutt (Berberidaceae) JS104 Oregon grape Root decoction Abscess, Respiratory tonic
Malva sylvestris (Malvaceae) JS002 mallow plant wounds
Matricaria chamomilla L. (Compositae) JB43 chamomile flower eye problems
Medicago sativa L. (Leguminosae) purchased product alfalfa Pellets from high-selenium regions, aerial parts Selenium deficiency, nutrition after calving
Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae) purchased product Tea tree oil drops endoparasites
Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae) JS024 peppermint Essential oil flies
Mentha pulegium L. (Lamiaceae) pennyroyal Aerial parts Flies, lice
Nepeta cataria L. (Lamiaceae) not collected catnip Aerial parts Pain killer
Pastinaca sativa L. (Apiaceae) not collected parsnip tops endoparasites
Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae) not collected parsley Aerial parts endoparasites
Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson (Pinaceae) JB98 long needle yellow pine branches Diarrhea grey pasty young animals, endoparasites
Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae) JS042 plantain leaves diarrhea
Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) Presl. (Polypodiaceae) JS047 Sword fern Aerial parts Stimulate digestion
Portulaca oleracea L. Portulacaceae not collected purslane shoot Zinc deficiency
Potentilla rectaL. (Rosaceae) JB93 cinquefoil Aerial parts Appetite stimulant, diarrhea, scours
Prunella vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) JS111 self heal plant wounds
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco (Pinaceae) JS049 Douglas fir Top branches Appetite stimulant, coccidiosis, endoparasites
Quercus alba L. (Fagaceae) not collected White oak shoot Zinc deficiency
Rubus sp. (Rosaceae) not collected thornless raspberry leaves Milk production
Rubus ursinus L. JS115 and Rubus laciniatus Willd. (Rosaceae) blackberry leaves Unknown illness
Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) not collected rue leaves flies
Salix alba L. var. sericea Gaudin (Salicaceae) not collected White willow bark Diarrhea, scours, mastitis, pain, unknown illness
Salix scouleriana Barratt ex Hook, Salix lucida Muhl. ssp. lasiandra (Benth.) E. Murr. (Salicaceae) JS101 Scoulers willow, Pacific willow Branches Caprine arthritis encephalitis palliative
Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) JS035 Garden sage leaves Drying off
Senna sp. (Fabaceae) purchased product senna pod Diarrhea, scours
Symphoricarpos albusvar. laevigatus (Caprifoliaceae) JS103 snowberry branches endoparasites
Symphytum officinale L. (Boraginaceae) JBCL 08 comfrey Leaves fresh/dry Abscess, wounds, diarrhea, flystrike, proudflesh
Symphytum officinale L. (Boraginaceae) JBCL 08 comfrey Aerial parts Increase butterfat; laxative, ketosis, udder edema
Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (Myrtaceae) purchased product cloves bud coccidia
Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber (Asteraceae) JB96 dandelions leaves Udder edema
Teucrium scorodonia L. (Labiatae) not collected woodsage Tincture mastitis
Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae) JBR 21 cedar Bark shavings lice
Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae) JS036 Red cedar branches Copper deficiency, endoparasites
Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) purchased product Slippery elm Bark powder Blood in stool
Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) purchased product Slippery elm Inner bark Diarrhea, scours
Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) JS023 nettle Ground seeds endoparasites
Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) JS023 nettles Aerial parts Pre-show protection, zinc deficiency, diarrhea
Usnea longissima Ach. (Parmeliaceae) JB2a usnea Aerial parts Dehorning adults, foot rot, sternal abscess
Vaccinium parvifolium Sm. (Ericaceae) JS045 huckleberry plant ketosis
Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) JS008 valerian roots Pain killer
Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) JS118 mullein flower Respiratory tonic
Vitis sp. (Vitaceae) not collected grape leaves Unknown illness
Zea mays L. (Poaceae) not collected cornsilk Silk (style, stigma) Udder edema
Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) purchased product ginger rhizome Diarrhea, scours