Skip to main content

Table 2 Preparation and application manners of the cited zootherapics in the text

From: The use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of Cubati, Paraíba State, Brazil

Mammals
Ram (Ovis aries) see figure 5 After the animal slaughter, it takes out the fatty tissue below the skin – the "suet" – which is referred as medically important for humans and animals. After the extraction, it is putted down to dry in the sun for approximately two days or until it acquires a hard consistence. For a better conservation, it should be kept in a dry place, inside a glass or plastic recipients.
In animals, for arthritis's (swelling joints), rheumatism's (hard joints), woundy's, edema's (big swell), wounds', pointed stakes', fractures', swellings' and furunculosis' cases, the application is identical. Melts the suet, applies it on the affected area and when necessary just make a curative. In relation to the Bovine Gangrenous Coryza (hollow of the ox horny), just saw the point of the ox horny, and fill its interior with the suet. This is just a palliative way. It should be pointed out that just the castrated ram suet has the medicinal properties.
Mele Goat (Capra hircus) see figure 6 After the fatty tissue has been removed, melts it in order to obtain a sharp fat (process known by the local inhabitants as "condensation"). The fat is conserved in a glass or plastic recipient and whenever need it is necessary to melt again, once it rigidifies inside the recipient after a certain period of time.
It's used in the local veterinary medicine to treat wounds in animals, mainly in the cattle, pigs, equine and birds. It should be applied passing the fat on the wound and making a curative after. Just the fat of the castrated male goat is medicinal.
Cattle (Bos taurus) see figure 7 The suet, extracted, stored and applied exactly the same way it does on the castrated ram (Ovis aries) is used for the treatment of the Bovine Gangrenous Coryza (hollow of the ox horny). The home-made butter produced from the cow milk cream is used to cure pits and mastitis. In the first case, just pass the butter on the pit until it heals and disappear; on mastitis the butter is applied on the mammas by massaging them. The treatment proceeds up the total cure.
Another butter type, prepared from the cattle curdled milk cream, is used for the treatment of peri-oculars irritations (in any animal, according to the informers). The application is quite simple. When the animal has an irritation near the eyes, just pass this butter daily, until obtain the cure.
The cattle milk, associated with the wormseed (Chenopodium ambrosioides) is used for the treatment of animals' fracture. From these two components it is prepared a kind of juice and given to the fractured animal to drink twice a day and, according to one of the reports, in about two weeks the animal is practically cured.
Humans (Homo sapiens) The humans' urine is used for cattle detoxication after the feed of cassava (Manihot utilissima Pohl.). The preparation is diluting a cup of human urine in 3 liters of water, mixing well and giving for the cattle to drink after the plant ingestion. Such statement resembles the urinotherapy used by humans for several treatments.
Peba (Euphractus sexcinctus) see figure 8 The Peba is a type of armadillo known in a large part of the Northeast region, used gastronomically and medically. In Cubati's popular veterinary medicine the peba's fat is an important tool for the treatment of pits, pointed stakes, wounds and furunculosis in any animal. In all the cases, this fat is applied daily on the illness attacked area until its total cicatrization. In pointed stakes' cases, the application should persist until the complete exit of the strange body.
The extraction and conservation of the Euphractus sexcinctus fat are made the same way that does on the Male goat (Capra hircus).
Pig (Sus scrofa) see figure 9 According to the informers, the pig's fat is an excellent medicinal-veterinary resource. It is used for the treatment of pits, furuncles, wounds, burns and mastitis. In the first four cases, it is applied on the illness, once a day, until the cicatrization be completed. For the mastitis, in any mammal, emphasizing the bovine, bovid and sheep, the pig's fat is applied on the mammary glands in the same way that does with the cattle curdled milk cream, previously mentioned.
Specifically the fat of the pig scrotum is useful to cure and/or treat pits, furuncles, pointed stakes, fractures and torsions, in any animal. For pits or furuncles this fat should be applied once a day, until the total cicatrization. In pointed stakes, the fat of the pig scrotum is applied once a day too, until that strange body is expelled. In fractured areas or with torsions, is applied on the affected area, always making massage for a better result.
Fox (Cerdocyon thous) see figure 10 The fat of the fox (Cerdocyon thous) is used by the local residents for the treatment of the uterus prolapse, "mother's body" as they used to call. This problem refers to the animal's uterus extravasating after give birth. When this occurs, the fat of the fox is passed on the uterus after been washed in clean water. After the application, the residents used to place back the exposed part of the uterus carefully inside the animal. Such technique is just dominated by a few residents. It should be pointed out that the uterus should still be linked to the animal for the procedure to works. The fat of the fox is extracted the same way that the male goat.
Reptiles
Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) see figure 11 The fat of the rattlesnake follows the same extraction procedure and conservation of the other mentioned animals. Such for arthritis and wounds it is applied on the sicken area until the cure is obtained. It was not mentioned a daily frequency of application. According to the informers, for any animal type, besides for the man, this fat is useful.
Chameleon (Iguana iguana) see figure 12 The chameleon's leather is used for treating pits, furuncles and pointed stakes' removing, such in animals and humans. In the first two cases, after the leather been extracted, it is toasted, triturated and the powder, mixed with food oil. After that is passed daily on the harmed area, until obtaining the cure. For the pointed stakes removing, the leather of the chameleon is placed on the area where the pointed stake is. The method of utilization is tying the harm area with a cloth and, after some hours, takes out the cloth pulling the leather of the chameleon in order to expel the pointed stake.
The chameleon's fat (Iguana iguana) is extracted and prepared following the same procedure used with the male goat (Capra hircus). It is useful for the treatment of wounds and pointed stakes' removing. It's used daily until the total cicatrization (for wounds) or removal of the strange body (pointed stakes).
Turtle of water (Phrynops spp.) see figure 13 In animals, the fat of the turtle of water (Phrynops spp.) is used for treatment of swells. The application is on the swollen area during some days and, in a few days the harmed area is back to normal.
Teju (Tupinambis merianae) see figure 14 The teju's fat is used and applied daily in the treatment of pits, wounds, furuncles and pointed stakes. According to the informers, the use of that fat is made until the total cicatrization of the affected area or the strange body (pointed stake) removal. The extraction and conservation follows the same procedures mentioned previously for the zootherapics animals.
Birds
Hen (Gallus domesticus) see figure 15 The chicken's fat (see the extraction and preparation of the male goat fat, Capra hircus, as example) is used for mastitis's treatment and furuncles in animals. For the first illness, it should pass the fat and make massage on the mamma daily; in the second case, it's enough to place the chicken fat on the area in order to control the secretion totally and consequently scars the furuncle.
The chicken egg is used for uterus prolapse, being applied the same way that the fox fat (Cerdocyon thous). The egg is applied mixed in the exposed uterus.
The chicken feces were indicating for the treatment of the mastitis (rocky nipples). According to some reports fresh chicken feces is passed on the inflamed mamas and leave them dry naturally. This procedure can be repeated as many times as possible until they return to normal conditions.
The "skin" of the chicken gizzard was indicated for the treatment of animal's burns. The procedure is taking that "skin" from the gizzard, let it dry on the sun, triturated and the powder is placed on the burn.
Peru (Meleagris gallopavo) see figure 16 The peru's fat (see the extraction and preparation of the male goat's fat, Capra hircus, as example for procedure) was mentioned as useful for treatment of animals' furuncles. Follows the same method of application of the chicken's fat for this purpose.
Quail (Nothura maculosa cearensis) see figure 17 It was reported that the quail's feather, after being toasted and smashed into a powder, is useful in a tea preparation with antiophidic properties, given to the animals to drink (mainly the cattle) after bites of snakes.
Insects
Hornet-mestizo (Polistes canadensis) see figure 18 The sting of this animal is used on cattle's pits in order to have a fast inflammation, followed by a quickly heal.