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Table 1 Local names and description of health conditions listed in figure 5 according to traditional healers

From: Comparison of health conditions treated with traditional and biomedical health care in a Quechua community in rural Bolivia

Health condition Spanish or Quechua name (the latter name is underlined) Diagnostic symptom(s) of health condition according to healers
arthritis reumatismo, t'ullu taxaj Pain in bones and knees during low environment temperature
biliary colic and cholecystitis cólico, cólera, colerina, bilis, jayaq'e punkiy, jayaq'in Reference to the gall bladder, (cramping) abdominal pain, yellow or green-colored vomiting, sharp taste in the mouth, flatulence. Caused amongst others by feelings of anger towards family. Headache, acidity and heartburn can be accompanying symptoms
cold, flu and chills resfrío, gripe, ilasqa, chiri pasasqas Elevated body temperature, sneezing, phlegm. Chiri pasasqas: chills caused by working at night in a cold and/or wet environment
conjunctivitis ch'ojñi, ñawi Eye feels warm and painful, inflammation, eye cannot be opened, pus, blurred vision
constipation estreñimiento, empacho Inability to release stool, need to apply enema
contraception planificación familiar, warmis Women who do not want to have more children
diabetes diabetes Patient has dull abdominal pain, sweet tasting urine, a dry mouth and a desire to eat sweets
diarrhea diarrea Linked to intestines, can be associated with vomiting and stomachache
fever k'aja, junp'iy Dry mouth and nose, elevated body temperature (patient feels 'hot'), accelerated pulse, headache
fractures and sprains fracturas, torceduras A distinction is made between closed and open fractures
intestinal parasites gusanos en los intestinos, botar bichos de la barriga, limpiar las tripas Worms that have to be expelled from the intestines
labor and puerperium parto Labor induction, pain, bleeding, recovery from childbirth
madre ("rupture") madre, quebradura, quebración, chullchusqas Caused by working hard or lifting heavy objects (and not eating well). Abdominal pain, flatulence, desire to constantly go to the bathroom, blood in stool (blood in urine is mentioned as well), vomiting and dizziness, diarrhea is possible, itchy hands and feet, difficult urination, loss of appetite, unwillingness to work, weight loss, "lack of blood", loss of vitality
maldición ("cursed") jap'eqa (asustarse, manchariy); maldición, hechizo, brujería Caused by fright or witchcraft; the patient does not cure, shivers and has pain in the entire body, abdominal pain, headache, desire to sleep, unwillingness to work, loss of appetite, weak pulse, sadness, fever is possible. In the case of maldición the patient already knows from his dreams that he is cursed
pain, excluding toothache nanay Including headache, abdominal, body, back and chest pain
respiratory infections, including cough, otitis, pneumonia and sore throat cough: tos, ch'ujchu; otitis: sordo, dolor de oído, ninri jukara; pneumonia: neumonia, costa(d)o Cough can be "dry" or "wet" (with phlegm) and accompanied by a sore throat and fever; otitis is reported as deafness/inability to hear, and earache with yellow pus; pneumonia symptoms include cough, (high) fever, and chest pain and its equivalent costa(d)o consists of cough with blood, and pulsating chest pain
scabies sarna, rasca paloma, rasca rasca Itching and infecting skin eruptions caused by scabies
stomachache and gastritis dolor de estomago, gastritis, bultos en el pecho, dolor de estómago y corazón Heartburn (described as sensation of "stones" or burning feeling in chest), vomiting, pain in higher abdomen, loss of appetite, stomach problems are thought to be caused by eating burned food or drinking too much alcohol
toothache dolor de muelas, dolor dedientes Painful teeth
urijasqa ("malnutrition") urijasqa Illness caused in children by the bad smell of a dead animal; symptoms include swollen and painful belly, weight loss, growth retardation, yellow colored skin
urinary and kidney problems quebración, jisp'ay p'iti quebradura, hemorragia, mal de riñon, dolor de riñones These can include difficult or painful urination; reduced urination, a "desire to go to the bathroom all the time", painful abdomen, dark colored urine; blood in urine; "cold" bladder, back pain, and swollen hands and feet
wayra ("evil wind") aire, wayra, wayra jap'isqa Symptoms can range from stiff and painful muscles to (facial or even corporeal) paralysis, depending on the degree of severity according to healers. In case of facial paralysis, the mouth is twisted or an eye-lid is drooping
wounds and bruises herida, hinchazón, moradura, punkisqa, abceso, ch'upu Include abscesses (a swelling with pus that does not want to open), cuts, bleeding from the skin. Bruises are described as a localized feeling of heat, swelling of the skin without pus