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Table 3 Irulas medicinal utility of the flora in the Kodiakarai Reserve Forest (KRF)

From: Valorizing the 'Irulas' traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Kodiakkarai Reserve Forest, India

Botanical Name and Family Tamil Lexicon Method of Preparation and Medicinal Uses
  Auduthoda Extracts of root, bark, leaves, and flowers used for cough. Dried leaves emhaled for rapid recovery from asthma. Fresh flowers kept over the eyes to relieve eye pain.
Achyranthes aspera L. Nagarasi Extract of leaves along with palm jaggery fed to new born babies. Inflorescence scratched against mother breasts to increase lactation.
Aerva lanata (L.) Juss.ex Schult Celosia argentea L. Kannupila & Pannaipoo Whole plant harvested from the forest or sacred groves during festival day (Farmers Thanksgiving Day), which is used spiritually for healing sour necks of bull.
Aristolochia indica L. Perumanthikodi Root tubers ground with a little water, mixed with rice or cow's milk to cure a fever.
Borassus flabellifer L.
Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb.
Toddy tapped from the inflorescence. Brushes and ropes prepared from leaf sheaths. Leaves used for thatching.
Meristematic portion of the stem eaten by pregnant women from 9th month onwards for relief from abdominal pain.
Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. Sirukurinjan & hakarikolli Tender fresh leaves and dried powder are used to cure diabetes. Cooked leaves may also be used in meals to treat diabetes.
Tridax procumbens L. Vettukayapoondu Leaf juice applied on wounds to stop bleeding.
Capparis sepiaria L.
Capparis zeylanica L.
Root pulp applied on small wounds and scratches.
Leaves mixed with pepper, tamarind and garlic into a paste, which is consumed to increase appetite.
Trichosanthes cucumerina L. Peyppadal Ripe fruit contains a mucilaginous exudate, which is applied directly on forehead to treat headaches.
Cassia auriculata L. Avarai The leaves, flowers, fruits, stems and roots are used to maintain hygiene of the skin and scalp. Every year, the first day of the month of crop harvest is celebrated as the thanks-giving day for the "bull".
Diospyros ferrea (Wild.) Bahk. Var. buxifolia Veeraii Fruit improves blood circulation.
Acalypha indica L. Kuppaimeni Decoction of leaves used for ear pain, snake bite and scabies.
Excoecaria agallocha L. Thillai Latex applied on wounds for antiseptic.
Jatropha tanjorensis Ellis & Saroja Katamanukku Latex heals wounds.
Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. Kizhanelli Raw branchlets and leaves eaten for 7 days for curing jaundice.
Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex. Del. Karuvelam Paste of tender leaves used to control dysentery. Gum powder mixed with the white of an egg, and applied on burns or scalds.
Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. Vagai Oil extracted from the seeds smeared on wounds for healing or on the lesions of lepers.
Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. Kazhchikai Seeds are made into a paste to treat a hydrocele
Canavalia lineata (Thunb.) DC. Kozhiavarai Roasted seeds of Mucuna and Canavalia are mixed in equal proportion are boiled and made into a paste, which is soaked in a large container of water. The water is changed periodically for 15 days to remove the poisons. The water is changed until it removes the last trace of yellow colour. The mixture is dried and the white powder is eaten directly with flour or suguar or chilly powder. It cures several disorders and ensures good health.
Clitoria ternatea L. Sangu pushpam Paste of flowers applied to cure infection of eyes and for headache. Entire plant used as antidote for snake bites. Flowers offered to Gods.
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Poonikali See 'Kozhiavarai ' Canavalia lineata (Thunb.) DC.
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre Pongan Seeds ground into paste and applied externally for knee and hip joints for rheumatic disease.
Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. Averi Decoction of roots with ginger consumed to relieve headache.
Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Correa Poovarasu Yellow extract of fruit used for decorating houses.
Enicostema axillare (Lam.) Raynal Vellarugu Secondary roots used as tooth brush to cure toothaches.
Geniosporum tenuiflorum (L.) Merr.
Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link
Paste of the plant mixed with limestone and applied to catfish bites.
The thick roots are used as a tooth brush. Continuous use of a special preparation of this plant for 40 days makes one resistant to some snake poison. Flowers used during religious festivals.
Scilla hyacinthina (Roth.) Macbr. Contr. Narivangayam Bulbs used as substitute for onion.
Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Etting Ottai Fruits edible.
Marsilea quadrifolia L. Aarakeerai Leaves used as green vegetable.
Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Veppam Tender leaf and bark extract consumed to eliminate stomach worms. Leaf twigs with leaves are tied or hanged in front of the house entrance to keep away evil spirits.
Tiliacora acuminata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thoms Perunkkattukodi Used as rope or binding bundles fuel woods.
Mimusops elengi L. Magizhamaram Irulas name for this tree's flower is "Magishampoo". Irulas collect this flower from the forest and store them after they have been dried in the shade.
Tinospora cordifolia(Willd.) Miers Seenthil Stem and aerial roots ground into a fine powder and consumed with tea or milk. It is used to cure many ailments.
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Naval Bark used for diarrhoea. The extract of bark mixed with goat milk and immediately consumed to stop diarrhoea.
Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. Ottai Aerial root juice used as ear drop for relieving pain.
Pandanus fascicularis Lam. Thazahi Silt roots used for making fibers and brushes. Fruits occasionally used as vegetable.
Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Young shoots used as food. Stems used to build huts and spiritual ceremonies.
Branches dipped in hot oil are used for a head-bath or as a body coolant.
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Elanthai Fruit edible. Powdered bark applied to old wounds.
Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng. Kattukoyya Fruit is cooked with other vegetables.
Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. Surai Decoction of leaves and stems used to controls fever. Fresh fruits eaten to reduce fever and headache.
Azima tetracantha Lam.
Salvadora persica L.
Leaves ground into pulp with water, the extract is used to treat a fever.
Decoction of fruits and roots used to reduce rheumatic pains. Root used as tooth brush. Fruits commonly eaten.
Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Sapindus emarginatus Vahl
Whole plant used for treating rheumatoid arthritis.
Wet ground nuts paste used for body wash as a surfactants
Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard Pala maram Latex applied on teeth and gums for toothaches. Fruits collected in large quantity and traded in local market for rice, chilli, tobacco, etc.
Peplidium maritimum (L.f.) Asch. Parupu-keerai Leaves and tender stems consumed as food.
Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Pekalathi A tonic prepared from the bark and leaves for healing after child birth.
Solanum anguivi Lam. Kandan kathiri Tender fruits cooked as vegetable and consumed for treating colds, coughs and fever. The tender leaves are made into a paste to treat intestinal worms.
Tamarix indica willd. Kattuchaukku Extract of leaves used as laxative.
Gmelina asiatica L.
Vitex negundo L.
Kumalai Nochi Fruits used as substitute for soap.
Leaves repel mosquitoes. Leaves boiled in water, which is used a bath to relieve body pain.