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Table 1 Ethnobotanical species used by local people for various purposes

From: Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India

Sl. No. Botanical Name Local Name Family Habit Part used Uses
       Present survey Secondary sources on Surguja and adjoining areas
1 Acacia arabica Willd. Bambhur, Bamura Mimosaceae Tree Bark Liquor, dye Bark – dye; Leaves and pod – fodder; Wood – fuelwood [1]
2 Acacia caesia W. et. A. Goriyar, Garur Mimosaceae Woody Climber Root Fish poison -
3 Achyranthus aspera L. Gathiya, Aghada Amaranthaceae Herb Leaf Diuretic, tonic, antidote for insect and scorpion bite Shoot and leaf – scorpion bite [23]
4 Acorus calamus L. Bach Acoraceae Herb Rhizome Stomachache, anthelmentic Root – fever, cough [11]; Medicine [5]*; Snake bite, liver disorder, cough and cold [23]
5 Aegle marmelos Correa. Bel Rutaceae Tree Fruit Dysentery Medicine [5]*; Fruit – dysentery; Wood – agricultural implements [1]
6 Antidesma diandrum Roth. Saroti, sarwat Euphorbiaceae Shrub Leaf Vegetable -
7 Asparagus racemosus Willd. Kargi Liliaceae Herb Root Internal pain, tumors, tonic Root – fever [23]; Medicine [5]*
8 Bauhinia variegata L. Champa Caesalpiniaceae Tree Bark Dye Piles, dysentery, leprosy [22]
9 Bombax malabaricum DC. Semer, semal Malvaceae Tree Flower Edible -
10 Boswellia serrata Roxb. Saliha Burseraceae Tree Resin Arthritis -
11 Buchanania lanzan Spr. Char Anacardiaceae Tree Fruit, bark Cough, skin diseases Bark – snake bite [23]; Medicine [5]*
12 Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub. Parsa Leguminoceae Shrub Flower, gum, seed Diarrhea, leucorrhea, skin diseases Diarrhea, dysentery snake bite, piles [22]; Stem – menstrual pain [23]
13 Caesalpinia bonducella Flem. Gataran Caesalpiniaceae Woody Climber Seed Tonic -
14 Careya arborea Roxb. Kumahi, kumhi Myrtaceae Tree Leaf, fruit Edible Snake bite, fever [22]
15 Carissa spinarum DC. Kari Apocynaceae Shrub Fruit Edible Fruit – edible; Thorny branches – fencing fields [1]
16 Celastrus peniculata Willd. Unjain Celastraceae Woody Climber Seed Tumors -
17 Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. Bosiya kandha Asclepiadaceae Climber Tuber Tonic, aphrodisiac Tuber – edible [1]
18 Chlorophytum tuberosum (Roxb.) Baker Safed musli Liliaceae Herb Tuber Skin diseases, tonic Medicine [5]*
19 Chloroxylon swietenia DC. Bhirra, bharahi Meliaceae Tree Leaf Mosquito repellent; for fishing Wood – agricultural implements [1, 13]
20 Cissus quadrangularis L. Hathjod Vitaceae Climber Stem Antimicrobial, fracture, fertility Medicine [5]*
21 Cordia macleodii H. f. & Th. Dhahjar, Dahgan Boraginaceae Tree Stem Furniture, agricultural implements Stem – furniture and agricultural implements [1]
22 Cordia mixa L. Lasoda Boraginaceae Tree Fruit Edible -
23 Costus speciosus (Koen.) Sm. Kewu, ban haldi Zingiberaceae Herb Rhizome Fishing Medicine [5]*
24 Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. Tikhur Zingiberaceae Herb Rhizome Wounds Medicine [5]*
25 Cynodon dactylon Pers. Doob Poaceae Grass Root Liver disorder, wounds To increase blood in the body [11]
26 Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. Sirish Leguminoceae Tree Timber Agricultural implements -
27 Delbergia paniculata Roxb. Dhobnin, dhobin Leguminoceae Tree Stem Timber, for making door -
28 Dendrocalamus strictus Nees Bans Poaceae Grass Stem Basket, mat Container for keeping tobacco, fishing net [12]
29 Derris scandens Benth. Nakuwa kandha Leguminoceae Woody Climber Root Edible -
30 Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. Kurkut, korkut Dilleniaceae Tree Fruit Edible -
31 Dioscorea bulbifera L. Agitha Dioscoraceae Climber Tuber Edible Tuber – edible, famine food [1]
32 Dioscorea sp Gethi kandha/Karuha Dioscoraceae Herb Fruit Edible -
33 Diospyrus melanoxylon Roxb. Tendu Ebenaceae Tree Root, fruit Snake bite, fruit edible Fruit – edible; timber tree [1]; Leaf – Beedi (cheap cigarette) wrapper [21]; Wood – toy for children [12]; Medicine [5]*
34 Diospyrus montana Roxb. Makar tendu Ebenaceae Tree Fruit Edible -
35 Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link Sawa, sama Poaceae Grass Seed Edible -
36 Elaeodendron glaucum Pers. Mamri, Jamrasi Celastraceae Shrub Root Snake bite Wood – comb, picture frame [1]
37 Eugenia heyneana Wall. Jamti Myrtaceae Tree Fruit Edible Fruit – edible [1]
38 Ficus bengalensis L. Gad nifir Moraceae Tree Latex, bark Dysentery -
39 Ficus infectoria Roxb. Pakri, Pakhri Moraceae Tree Leaf Vegetable -
40 Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr. Ramkatayi, kaker Bixaceae Shrub Fruit Edible Root – skin diseases [22]
41 Gardenia latifolia Ait. Paprol, piprol, Mali Rubiaceae Tree Fruit Perfume -
42 Garura pinnata Roxb. Khenkara, Kekad, Kenkar Burseraceae Tree Bark, fruit Snake bite in water, wounds, fruit edible, pickle Fruit – fodder for cattle [11]; Bark- diabetes [22]
43 Gloriosa superba L. Kharha godi, karihari Liliaceae Herb Root Tumor -
44 Helicterus isora L. Aaithi, marorphali Sterculiaceae Shrub Bark, fruit Colic, intestinal disorder, used to make rope Medicine [5]*
45 Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Kapalsiya kandha Malvaceae Herb Root Blood in urine Medicine [5]*
46 Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. Koriya Apocynaceae Tree Root, bark Fever, dysentery Bark – asthma [22]
47 Indigofera pulchella Roxb. Bhul bhuli, Ghirhul Leguminoceae Shrub Flower Edible vegetable -
48 Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. Patal kohra Convolvulaceae Woody Climber Root Digestion Medicine [5]*
49 Madhuca indica Gmel Mahuwa Sapotaceae Tree Fruit, root, flower, seed Liquor; barks use in bleeding gums, ulcers and diabetes Seeds oil – snake bite, scorpion bite [23]
50 Mangifera indica L. Aam Anacardiaceae Tree Fruit Edible Bark – children bath for health [11]; Wood – toy for children [12]
51 Murraya koenigii Spreng. Mithi neem Rutaceae Shrub Leaf, fruit Edible -
52 Ougenia dalbergioides Benth. Sandhan, tilsa Leguminoceae Tree Stem, bark Furniture, intoxicate fish -
53 Peucedanum nagpurense (Cl.) Prain Tejraj Asteracease Herb   Medicine Root – to increase semen [11]
54 Phoenix acaulis Buch Chind Palmaceae Herb Fruit After child birth, fruit edible Leaves – local umbrella [12]
55 Phyllanthus emblica L. Awala Euphorbiaceae Tree Fruit Edible Medicine [5]*
56 Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Bija Leguminoceae Tree Wood Timber, for making door Leaves – fodder; Wood – bullock cart and cots [11]; Gum – toothache [23]
57 Punica granatum L. Anar Lythraceae Tree Fruit Edible -
58 Randia dumetorum Lamk. Menda, Mainfal Rubiaceae Tree Fruit Fish poison Unripe fruit – fish poison; Bark – medicine* [1]
59 Ricinus communis L. Arandi Euphorbiaceae Shrub Seed, root Dandruff, skin diseases, epilepsy -
60 Semecarpus anacardium L. Bhelwa Anacardiaceae Tree Fruit Edible, oil is massaged on infected parts of the body -
61 Shorea robusta Gaertn. Sal, sarayi Dipterocarpaceae Tree Stem, resin Timber, resin for fire and spasm Seed – edible oil [21]; Medicine [5]*; Timber [1]
62 Soymida fabrifuga A. Juss. Rohina, rohan Meliaceae Tree Bark Muscular pain -
63 Symplocos racemosa Roxb. Lodh Symplocaceae Tree Bark Dye Medicine [5]*
64 Terminalia arjuna Bedd. Kahua, arjun Combretaceae Tree Bark Medicine Bark – fever, high blood pressure [11]
65 Terminalia bellerica Roxb. Baira Combretaceae Tree Fruit Cough Medicine [5]*
66 Terminalia chebula Retz. Harra Combretaceae Tree Fruit Cough Fruit – cough, asthma, black dye [11]; Indigestion [21]; Medicine [5]*; Seeds – wounds [23]
67 Thespesia lampus Dalz. Masbandi, mundi Malvaceae Herb Young twig Fiber; rope -
68 Urginea indica Kunth. Ban pyaz Hyacinthaceae Herb Tuber Scorpion bite Medicine [5]*
69 Vallaris heynei Spr. Dudhiya kandha Apocynaceae Woody Climber Latex Lactating mother, cow, buffalo -
70 Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn. Kyonti, Keoti Rhamnaceae Woody Climber Root bark Chocolate & red dye Bark – rope fiber [1]
71 Vitis carnosa Wall. Dhokar bela Vitaceae Woody Climber Root Bodyache, drink Root and leaf – boils, tumor [1]
72 Woodfordia floribunda Salisb. Dhai, Dhawai Lythraceae Shrub Flower Red dye Medicine [5]*
73 Zizyphus rugosa Lamk. Churaban, Churna Rhamnaceae Woody Climber Whole Bodyache -
  1. * Particular use is not mentioned.