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Table 2 Dermatologic Disease Conditions Treated by Shamans of Kwamalasamutu and Përëre Tëpu.

From: Disease concepts and treatment by tribal healers of an Amazonian forest culture

Trio Disease Concept Diagnostic symptom(s) and descriptive field notes
Dermatologic:  
Awë Acne. Kënepoko is a specific term for pus-filled comedones. Trio shamans associated awë with ingestion of particular foods, for example, the roe (kana iimo) of aymara (Hoplias macrophthalmus) and pasina (Myleus pacu) fish.
Eikeke General term for wound, including insect bites. The scar resulting from a wound is termed tikoroje. Eikeke niketan refers to a wound that has a superimposed infection.
Iikë Myiasis (Botfly, Dermatobia hominis). Botanical treatments are directly applied to lesion to kill larvae; dead larvae are subsequently extracted.
Ijatuhpë Old burn wounds. A fresh burn is described as having warmth (atuma), erythema (tamiren), and intense tenderness (nakuikan) at the site, which resolves over a period of several days with the development of white granulation tissue.
Ikurutato Contact dermatitis, described as rash and pruritus occurring after exposure to irritants, e.g. urticating hairs of a tarantula (moi).
Iroitesikae Deattachment of toenail.
Juwi Furuncle. Superficial infection of skin around hair follicles. Shamans place medicine into the lesion and squeeze out residual pus.
Kaasa Leishmaniasis, a condition attributed by Trio to an insect bite although they are non-specific to insect identity. Trio note that kaasa is frequently acquired in the course of hunting trips to particular swamp regions. Sandfly and mosquito are known to the Trio, respectfully, as mapyiakë and makë.
Manahai Mastitis.
Moto ipuhpo Literally "Ascaris of the feet", moto ipuhpo refers to the cutaneous larva migrans of the hookworm, presumably Necator americanus. According to Trio shamans, moto ipuhpo infestations may cause anemia (imununna).
Onoe Carbuncle. Deep-seated, walled-off pyogenic collection. Initial treatment for onoe is directed toward mechanically opening the abscess.
Osi Superficial dermatomycosis.
Paikarakahpë Lichenification of skin secondary to chronic inflammation, most commonly appearing on the peri-oral, penile and vulvar regions.
Pireimë Infestation of harvest mites (pirë), causing severe pruritius (pirëkëne) of affected areas. Trio state that although scratching provides temporary relief, chronic scratching may result in karakalali, a dermatologic condition characterized by discomfort, erythema, fissuring of the skin with exudates.
Pitotoimë Disease concept characterized by the appearance of water-filled vesicles, which initially develop on the face and subsequently spread to remainder of body. The condition, possibly consistent with Varicella, is described by Trio elders as particularly contagious in children but older individuals may acquire it they have not previously had the disease. Pitotoimë is reported to be rare with few recent cases and is reported to be an endemic condition predating non-indigenous contact. Measles, known as kurukuimë, is considered an introduced disease and was associated with significant mortality during an outbreak among the Trio in 1971.
Pupara Fissure of the heel.
Tëekae Bite wounds. Animal bites treated by Trio healers during study interval include canine (kaikui), piranaha (pëne), and snake (ëkëi).
Tesowakae Superficial scrape wound.
Tijase General term inclusive of all burn wounds. Burns among Trio adults commonly occur through the preparation of hot cassiri (kurula), a fermented beverage derived from masticated cassava.
Tikonkae Injuries inflicted from mechanical impact of sharp foreign objects e.g. splinters (ikonkahpe) or nails. Stingray (spari) stings are recorded as spari tikonkae. Emëinë refers to commonly encountered puncture injuries of the sole from the spines of the awara palm tree (amana).
Tikuruje Pruritic dermatitis affecting the inguinal and gluteal regions that occurs in all age groups, described as commonly encountered after wearing unchanged clothing for a prolonged period.
Tiroikae Deep scrape wound.
Tiwëhtahkëse Cut wounds, such as those inflicted by wood or machete (kasiparaja).