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Table 4 ENT/Opthamalogic, Musculoskeletal and Neurological/Psychiatric Disease Conditions Treated by Shamans of Kwamalasamutu and Përëre Tëpu.

From: Disease concepts and treatment by tribal healers of an Amazonian forest culture

Trio Disease Concept Diagnostic symptom(s) and descriptive field notes
Enu nakuikan Eye pain, non-specific. Trio healers describe a rare condition called enu kureta, which presents with very severe eye pain of an acute and severe nature.
Enunkë Conjunctivitis, characterized by irritation (pirëkëne), injection (tamiren) and purulent drainage (ikumuru) of the eye. Cataracts and hordeolum are known, respectively, as tëmakapuruja and empilo.
Ije nakuikan Tooth pain. Trio apply the soft wood of the lapa lapa tree to the gums, which swells to help dislodge tooth root prior to extraction.
Ipana nakuikan Otitis. Extracts of botanical treatments are taken systemically and applied directly into the ear.
Mitaikë Aphthous ulcer (canker sores). Oral mucosal lesions described as small, round, and painful ulcerations. Genital herpes also are referred to as mitaikë. Oral candidiasis, sometimes encountered among suckling infants, is known as susu mitaikë, literally "milk mitaikë". Mitakapiru refers to angular stomatitis (cheilitis) at the corners of the lips secondary, in biomedical understanding, to riboflavin (Vitamin B2) deficiency.
Timirise Fishbone lodged in throat. Yenatëka refers to coughing after passage of food or drink through the airway.
Akiakinë Arthritis. Focal pain and swelling in joints seen in elderly, affecting different joints but principally knees, cervical and metacarpal joints, exacerbated after working hard and in cold hours of the morning.
Iponi epine nakuikan Pain and mild swelling at level of umbilicus such as following trauma. Taririme is a subcutaneous hematoma (bruise) such as resulting from blunt trauma.
Ijetipë nakuikan Pain attributed to joints and bones, including lower back (aharapa), hip (ekun), neck (ipimi), heel (itëpu), knee (iwerena), caused by trauma and exertion.
Kukutuma Rheumatism. Kukutuma refers to diffuse whole body pain, effecting both young and old alike, but is also applied to myalgias experienced following a long expedition or accompanying an illness.
Teekitonëe Wrist sprain, in which joints are twisted (nepanemenjan) in a motion similar to the spooling of cotton. Temahinkayakae is specific for ankle sprain.
Tepahhai Bone fracture.
Ahhëtepë nakuikan Post-operative pain from surgical procedures, e.g. tubal sterilization. Trio report that no surgical procedures were performed prior to contact beyond opening of abscesses (onoe), perforation of earlobe and lower lip, and cutting of the umbilical cord.
Iputupë kureta Psychosis. Literally translated 'bad head', the Trio describe examples of behavior associated with iputupë kureta as talking to people who are not present and ingestion of dog feces. Patients are described as functioning poorly in their daily lives (unable to hunt or fish) and the disease is thought not to respond well treatment.
Iputupë nakuikan Headache. Trio elaborate no distinction between types of headache.
Ehpijanejan Facial nerve palsy [Bell's]. Trio healers state that ehpijanejan occurs among all age groups but is very rare and attributable to the curse of a pijai.
Nenmerejan Vertigo, described as sensation of the head and eyes spinning.
Nipirërujan Focal paralysis of an extremity.
Sinsinman Paresthesias. 'Pins and needles' sensation occurring in absence of rash or other dermatological manifestations. The Trio compare sinsinman, which may affect the entire body, to tingling that occurs in the lower extremity after prolonged sitting (referred commonly in our culture as 'foot fell asleep'), or to the sensation of a spider crawling on the skin. Sinsinman is reported to be often experienced in the later stages of malaria following administration of anti-malarial medications.