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Table 3 Local market potential of the most quoted wild gastronomic and medicinal herbs (excluding wild berries) in the upper Varaita valley

From: Alpine ethnobotany in Italy: traditional knowledge of gastronomic and medicinal plants among the Occitans of the upper Varaita valley, Piedmont

Species Estimated ecological availability in the upper Varaita valley Gathering permitted in the Cuneo Province Estimated potential for the local market (details)
Achillea herba-rotta (herb) Medium Aerial parts corresponding to five plant samples; up to 1 kg (dried aerial parts) if special permission is obtained from local authorities. High (dried herb to be sold as a tea).
Arnica montana (flowers) Medium Aerial parts corresponding to five plant samples; up to 5 kg (dried flowers/roots) if special permission is obtained from local authorities. High (dried flowers to be sold as a tea).
Artemisia absinthium (herb) High Aerial parts corresponding to five plant samples; up to 2 kg (dried aerial parts). if special permission is obtained from local authorities. Low (dried herbs to be sold as a tea); Medium (ingredient of home-made digestives).
Artemisia genipi, A. glacialis, A. umbelliformis (aerial parts and flowers) Low Aerial parts corresponding to five plant samples; up to 1 kg of each species (dried aerial parts). if special permission is obtained from local authorities. Very low, given the limited ecological availability.
Carum carvi (fruits) Medium-high Not clear: aerial parts corresponding to five plant samples or unlimited gathering. Unlimited gathering, due to the fact that the plant can be considered "commonly consumed" in the study area. High (dried fruits as a tea or seasoning).
Chenopodium bonus-henricus (leaves) Very high Unlimited gathering, due to the fact that the plant can be considered "commonly consumed" in the study area. High (as a preserved vegetable?)
Gentiana acaulis (leaves and flowers) Medium-low Aerial parts corresponding to five plant samples Low (as an ingredient for digestives) due to the limited availability in the area.
Gentiana lutea (roots) High Up to 10 kg (dried roots), if special permission is obtained from local authorities. High (dried root as a tea or ingredient for digestives).
Malva spp. High Unlimited gathering, due to the fact that the plant can be considered "commonly consumed" in the area. Medium (as a tea or as a preserved vegetable).
Peucedanum ostruthium (roots) Medium-low Up to 2 kg (dried roots), if special permission is obtained from local authorities. Low (as a tea).
Pinus cembra (cones) Low Theoretically unlimited. Low (as an ingredient for digestives) due to the limited availability.
Polygonum bistorta (leaves) High Unlimited gathering, due to the fact that the plant can be considered "commonly consumed" in the area. Medium (as a preserved vegetable).
Rumex alpinus (leaves/stalks) Medium Unlimited gathering, due to the fact that the plant can be considered "commonly consumed" in the area. Low (as a preserved vegetable).
Tanacetum vulgare (leaves) Medium Aerial parts corresponding to five plant samples; up to 5 kg (dried aerial parts) if special permission is obtained from local authorities. High (as a tea or as an ingredient for digestives).
Taraxacum officinale (leaves) High Unlimited gathering, due to the fact that the plant can be considered "commonly consumed" in the area. High (as a preserved vegetable or a tea).
Tragopogon pratensis (leaves and flower buds) Medium Unlimited gathering, due to the fact that the plant can be considered "commonly consumed" in the area. High (as a preserved vegetable).
Urtica spp. (leaves) High Unlimited gathering, due to the fact that the plant can be considered "commonly consumed" in the area. Low (as a preserved vegetable).
Veronica allionii (flowering aerial parts) Low Aerial parts corresponding to five plant samples. Low (as a tea) due to the limited availability in the area.