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Table 2 Variation in local knowledge of Blighia sapida according to five ethnic groups from Benin

From: Uses, traditional management, perception of variation and preferences in ackee (Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig) fruit traits in Benin: implications for domestication and conservation

Category/Criteria

Variant

Batombu

(n = 40)

Yoruba

(n = 60)

Otamari

(n = 30)

Natemba

(n = 30)

Fon

(n = 80)

Total

   

F

%

FL

F

%

FL

F

%

FL

F

%

FL

F

%

FL

F

%

Motivation

 

Market

0

0.0

0.00

0

0.0

0.00

11

36.7

15.28

6

20.0

12.24

0

0.0

0.00

17

7.1

  

Shade

3

7.5

6.12

0

0.0

0.00

0

0.0

0.00

1

3.3

2.04

15

18.8

20.83

19

7.9

  

Medicine

15

37.5

30.61

12

20.0

26.67

22

73.3

30.56

6

20.0

12.24

3

3.8

4.17

58

24.2

  

Soap

0

0.0

0.00

1

1.7

2.22

9

30.0

12.50

12

40.0

24.49

2

2.5

2.78

24

10.0

  

Food

28

70.0

57.14

32

53.3

71.11

30

100.0

41.67

24

80.0

48.98

51

63.8

70.83

165

68.8

  

Myth

3

7.5

6.12

0

0.0

0.00

0

0.0

0.00

0

0.0

0.00

1

1.3

1.39

4

1.7

  

ΣF

49

-

-

45

-

-

72

-

-

49

-

-

72

-

-

-

-

Uses

Food

Fresh aril

29

72.5

19.59

27

45.0

42.19

25

83.3

20.49

22

73.3

22.22

51

63.8

72.86

154

64.2

  

Dried aril

29

72.5

19.59

21

35.0

32.81

25

83.3

20.49

22

73.3

22.22

3

3.8

4.29

100

41.7

  

Fried aril

29

72.5

19.59

3

5.0

4.69

1

3.3

0.82

6

20.0

6.06

0

0.0

0.00

39

16.3

  

Boiled aril

29

72.5

19.59

10

16.7

15.63

25

83.3

20.49

21

70.0

21.21

8

10.0

11.43

93

38.8

  

Vegetable

0

0.0

0.00

0

0.0

0.00

0

0.0

0.00

3

10.0

3.03

0

0.0

0.00

3

1.3

 

Fisheries

Fisheries

1

2.5

0.68

0

0.0

0.00

22

73.3

18.03

10

33.3

10.10

0

0.0

0.00

33

13.8

 

Soap

Soap

23

57.5

15.54

1

1.7

1.56

19

63.3

15.57

15

50.0

15.15

6

7.5

8.57

64

26.7

  

Capsule to wash

7

17.5

4.73

2

3.3

3.13

4

13.3

3.28

0

0.0

0.00

2

2.5

2.86

15

6.3

 

Repellent

Repellent

1

2.5

0.68

0

0.0

0.00

1

3.3

0.82

0

0.0

0.00

0

0.0

0.00

2

0.8

  

ΣF

148

-

-

64

-

-

122

-

-

99

-

-

70

-

-

-

-

Variation in fruits traits

Differentiation in fruits traits

Fruit size

29

72.5

38.67

13

21.7

39.39

21

70.0

33.87

20

66.7

42.55

5

6.3

45.45

88

36.7

  

Fruit shape

1

2.5

1.33

1

1.7

3.03

1

3.3

1.61

0

0.0

0.00

0

0.0

0.00

3

1.3

  

Aril colour

1

2.5

1.33

2

3.3

6.06

0

0.0

0.00

2

6.7

4.26

0

0.0

0.00

5

2.1

  

Aril size

1

2.5

1.33

1

1.7

3.03

1

3.3

1.61

0

0.0

0.00

0

0.0

0.00

3

1.3

  

Aril taste

3

7.5

4.00

4

6.7

12.12

5

16.7

8.06

1

3.3

2.13

0

0.0

0.00

13

5.4

  

Seed size

12

30.0

16.00

1

1.7

3.03

12

40.0

19.35

5

16.7

10.64

1

1.3

9.09

31

12.9

 

Preference in fruits traits

Fruit size

28

70.0

37.33

9

15.0

27.27

19

63.3

30.65

0

0.0

0.00

0

0.0

0.00

56

23.3

  

Fruit shape

0

0.0

0.00

1

1.7

3.03

1

3.3

1.61

0

0.0

0.00

0

0.0

0.00

2

0.8

  

Aril colour

0

0.0

0.00

0

0.0

0.00

1

3.3

1.61

19

63.3

40.43

5

6.3

45.45

25

10.4

  

Aril size

0

0.0

0.00

1

1.7

3.03

1

3.3

1.61

0

0.0

0.00

0

0.0

0.00

2

0.8

  

Aril taste

0

0.0

0.00

4

6.7

10.26

6

20.0

10.00

1

3.3

1.79

1

1.3

1.96

12

5.0

  

ΣF

75

-

-

33

-

-

62

-

-

47

-

-

11

-

-

-

-

Propagation and regeneration practices

Assisted tree regeneration

18

45.0

24.00

2

3.3

5.13

17

56.7

28.33

19

63.3

33.93

5

6.3

9.80

61

25.4

  

Transplanting

27

67.5

36.00

25

41.7

64.10

19

63.3

31.67

21

70.0

37.50

40

50.0

78.43

132

55.0

  

Sowing

30

75.0

40.00

5

8.3

12.82

16

53.3

26.67

15

50.0

26.79

5

6.3

9.80

71

29.6

  

ΣF

75

-

-

39

-

-

60

-

-

56

-

-

51

-

-

  

Management practices to improve production

Ringing

0

0.0

0.00

3

5.0

7.69

2

6.7

3.33

0

0.0

0.00

0

0.0

0.00

5

2.1

  

Grazing protection

1

2.5

1.23

1

1.7

3.70

1

3.3

1.67

1

3.3

1.92

0

0.0

0.00

4

1.7

  

Tree/crop association

8

20.0

9.88

10

16.7

37.04

3

10.0

5.00

4

13.3

7.69

17

21.3

44.74

42

17.5

  

Pruning

25

62.5

30.86

4

6.7

14.81

20

66.7

33.33

22

73.3

42.31

1

1.3

2.63

72

30.0

  

Fire protection

27

67.5

33.33

12

20.0

44.44

22

73.3

36.67

16

53.3

30.77

20

25.0

52.63

97

40.4

  

Mulching/

20

50.0

24.69

0

0.0

0.00

14

46.7

23.33

9

30.0

17.31

0

0.0

0.00

43

17.9

  

ΣF

81

-

-

27

-

-

60

-

-

52

-

-

38

-

-

-

-

  1. n = number of interviewees, F = Frequency of answer, ΣF = total number of positive answer per ethnic group, FL = Fidelity Level