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Table 2 Variation in local knowledge of Blighia sapida according to five ethnic groups from Benin

From: Uses, traditional management, perception of variation and preferences in ackee (Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig) fruit traits in Benin: implications for domestication and conservation

Category/Criteria Variant Batombu
(n = 40)
Yoruba
(n = 60)
Otamari
(n = 30)
Natemba
(n = 30)
Fon
(n = 80)
Total
    F % FL F % FL F % FL F % FL F % FL F %
Motivation   Market 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 11 36.7 15.28 6 20.0 12.24 0 0.0 0.00 17 7.1
   Shade 3 7.5 6.12 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 1 3.3 2.04 15 18.8 20.83 19 7.9
   Medicine 15 37.5 30.61 12 20.0 26.67 22 73.3 30.56 6 20.0 12.24 3 3.8 4.17 58 24.2
   Soap 0 0.0 0.00 1 1.7 2.22 9 30.0 12.50 12 40.0 24.49 2 2.5 2.78 24 10.0
   Food 28 70.0 57.14 32 53.3 71.11 30 100.0 41.67 24 80.0 48.98 51 63.8 70.83 165 68.8
   Myth 3 7.5 6.12 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 1 1.3 1.39 4 1.7
   ΣF 49 - - 45 - - 72 - - 49 - - 72 - - - -
Uses Food Fresh aril 29 72.5 19.59 27 45.0 42.19 25 83.3 20.49 22 73.3 22.22 51 63.8 72.86 154 64.2
   Dried aril 29 72.5 19.59 21 35.0 32.81 25 83.3 20.49 22 73.3 22.22 3 3.8 4.29 100 41.7
   Fried aril 29 72.5 19.59 3 5.0 4.69 1 3.3 0.82 6 20.0 6.06 0 0.0 0.00 39 16.3
   Boiled aril 29 72.5 19.59 10 16.7 15.63 25 83.3 20.49 21 70.0 21.21 8 10.0 11.43 93 38.8
   Vegetable 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 3 10.0 3.03 0 0.0 0.00 3 1.3
  Fisheries Fisheries 1 2.5 0.68 0 0.0 0.00 22 73.3 18.03 10 33.3 10.10 0 0.0 0.00 33 13.8
  Soap Soap 23 57.5 15.54 1 1.7 1.56 19 63.3 15.57 15 50.0 15.15 6 7.5 8.57 64 26.7
   Capsule to wash 7 17.5 4.73 2 3.3 3.13 4 13.3 3.28 0 0.0 0.00 2 2.5 2.86 15 6.3
  Repellent Repellent 1 2.5 0.68 0 0.0 0.00 1 3.3 0.82 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 2 0.8
   ΣF 148 - - 64 - - 122 - - 99 - - 70 - - - -
Variation in fruits traits Differentiation in fruits traits Fruit size 29 72.5 38.67 13 21.7 39.39 21 70.0 33.87 20 66.7 42.55 5 6.3 45.45 88 36.7
   Fruit shape 1 2.5 1.33 1 1.7 3.03 1 3.3 1.61 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 3 1.3
   Aril colour 1 2.5 1.33 2 3.3 6.06 0 0.0 0.00 2 6.7 4.26 0 0.0 0.00 5 2.1
   Aril size 1 2.5 1.33 1 1.7 3.03 1 3.3 1.61 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 3 1.3
   Aril taste 3 7.5 4.00 4 6.7 12.12 5 16.7 8.06 1 3.3 2.13 0 0.0 0.00 13 5.4
   Seed size 12 30.0 16.00 1 1.7 3.03 12 40.0 19.35 5 16.7 10.64 1 1.3 9.09 31 12.9
  Preference in fruits traits Fruit size 28 70.0 37.33 9 15.0 27.27 19 63.3 30.65 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 56 23.3
   Fruit shape 0 0.0 0.00 1 1.7 3.03 1 3.3 1.61 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 2 0.8
   Aril colour 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 1 3.3 1.61 19 63.3 40.43 5 6.3 45.45 25 10.4
   Aril size 0 0.0 0.00 1 1.7 3.03 1 3.3 1.61 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 2 0.8
   Aril taste 0 0.0 0.00 4 6.7 10.26 6 20.0 10.00 1 3.3 1.79 1 1.3 1.96 12 5.0
   ΣF 75 - - 33 - - 62 - - 47 - - 11 - - - -
Propagation and regeneration practices Assisted tree regeneration 18 45.0 24.00 2 3.3 5.13 17 56.7 28.33 19 63.3 33.93 5 6.3 9.80 61 25.4
   Transplanting 27 67.5 36.00 25 41.7 64.10 19 63.3 31.67 21 70.0 37.50 40 50.0 78.43 132 55.0
   Sowing 30 75.0 40.00 5 8.3 12.82 16 53.3 26.67 15 50.0 26.79 5 6.3 9.80 71 29.6
   ΣF 75 - - 39 - - 60 - - 56 - - 51 - -   
Management practices to improve production Ringing 0 0.0 0.00 3 5.0 7.69 2 6.7 3.33 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 5 2.1
   Grazing protection 1 2.5 1.23 1 1.7 3.70 1 3.3 1.67 1 3.3 1.92 0 0.0 0.00 4 1.7
   Tree/crop association 8 20.0 9.88 10 16.7 37.04 3 10.0 5.00 4 13.3 7.69 17 21.3 44.74 42 17.5
   Pruning 25 62.5 30.86 4 6.7 14.81 20 66.7 33.33 22 73.3 42.31 1 1.3 2.63 72 30.0
   Fire protection 27 67.5 33.33 12 20.0 44.44 22 73.3 36.67 16 53.3 30.77 20 25.0 52.63 97 40.4
   Mulching/ 20 50.0 24.69 0 0.0 0.00 14 46.7 23.33 9 30.0 17.31 0 0.0 0.00 43 17.9
   ΣF 81 - - 27 - - 60 - - 52 - - 38 - - - -
  1. n = number of interviewees, F = Frequency of answer, ΣF = total number of positive answer per ethnic group, FL = Fidelity Level