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Table 3 Treatments for camel diseases as described by herders and healers in the Suleiman Mountainous Region in Pakistan

From: Ethnoveterinary treatments by dromedary camel herders in the Suleiman Mountainous Region in Pakistan: an observation and questionnaire study

Local name English name Description
Garam Khurak Hot food The herder's indigenous veterinary knowledge is mainly based on the hot and cold philosophy of food. The hot food comprises of soups made of cockerel meat, egg, pulses, cereals and chilies etc. Hot food is a composite of those nutrients which keeps the body active, energetic and enhance the activities inside the body. This soup is used for orf, pox and nodes swelling diseases.
   Supportive therapy (hot food), in which hot food (in most of the cases comprised of soups) is offered orally to keep the animal fit to deal with the disease condition.
Garam chishak Hot drink Hot drinks are used for the treatment of pulmonary problems and febrile conditions.
   A composite of the ingredients, which accelerate the biological activities in the animal body and enhance the secretion of the mouth, nose, and inside the body (GIT). Hot drink is considered as expectorant, laxative and diuretic. The solution is prepared by boiling black tea, ginger, and black pepper; sometimes chilies are also mixed. Black tea and spices mixture is also a hot food, which keeps the animal warm. This solution is mainly used in respiratory problems.
Kattan Mud oil The raw mud oil is collected from the natural spring in the famous mountain of Chakar Mangi, in Kohlu district. Kattan, which is thick in nature and blackish in color, is usually used by the Marri tribe camel herders for the treatment of mange in camel and goat.
Shlombey Whey A product of yogurt, when fat is removed by shaking and more water is added. The herder usually shakes the yogurt to remove fat and make shlombey in a sack (Gharrak) made of skin (usually from sheep). The solution remained behind is called Shlombey in Pashto.
Zarna Wood oil The Wood oil is extracted from the logs of Pinus Geranandiana tree. While burning the logs the released oil is collected in a pot.
Kirar A type of tree  
Sorr Chishak Cold drink Cold drinks for trypanosomosis, food poisoning and poisonous plants treatment i.e. extract of therkha plant (Artemisia maritima),seed of khamazura (Withania coagulans) and sugar/gur juice.
Botai Medicinal plants Plants extract or crushed leaves or twigs, either applied directly on the affected area or administrated orally.
Dum Hot branding Hot iron brand or hot stone is applied either directly on the affected area or on the place considered being affective if branded. This treatment is done in most of the cases where the disease treatment is not easily recognized. This type of treatment is also called cauterization.
Boijan Odorant Odorant/fly repellents and larvicides etc, in which wood oil, used engine oil, kerosene oil, mud oil, smoke dust, ash and sometimes DDT or trichlorofons are used. This practice is mainly done in the treatment of skin ailments and wound management.
DDT/trich DDT/trich Odorant/pesticides and larvicides etc.
Thorkani Ceiling smoke dust Fly repellents and larvicides etc, healing effect
Thambako Tobacco powder Fly repellents and larvicides etc.
Ghee Butter Energetic; softens the area of the skin where ghee is applied
Gur Sugar/gur Energetic; cold effect