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Table 2 Medical use of plants to heal malaria in Calabria, bio-pharmacological properties and current use in Calabrian folk medicine.

From: Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy)

Plants used to heal malaria in Calabria Current use in Calabrian folk medicine° Pharmacological/biological proprierties Used part References
Family/Scientific Name Local Name References Aim Used part References    
Adoxaceae         
Sambucus nigra L. savucu [26, 55] Antirheumatic, arteriosclerosis, febrifugal, purgative, to treat swollen breast and legs, insect bites, toothache, colics, conjunctivitis Fi, Fr, Le, Ba, Dfh [4951] Diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic Fl, Ba [27]
Alliaceae         
Allium cepa L. cipuddra [60] To treat flu, cough and headache, antidiarrhoeic, vermifugue Bl [49] Antibacterial, vermifugue, hypotensive, diuretic, hypoglycaemic, eupeptic Bl [27]
Allium sativum L. agliu [55, 60] To treat insect bites, neuralgias, calluses, rheumatisms, hypotensive, tinea, scabies, tooth decay, cold, diarrhoea Bl, Cl [49] Hypotensive, antibacterial, hypoglycaemic, lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory Bl [27]
Apocynaceae         
Nerium oleander L. leandru [58] Not Reported ---- ---- Cardiotonic Le [28]
Asteraceae         
Achillea millefolium L. millefogghio [58, 71] Emmenagogue Ap [49] Eupeptic, cholagogic, choleretic, antidyspeptic Fl, Ap [27]
Artemisia absinthium L. erba janca [26, 56, 58, 62, 65, 71] Not Reported ---- ---- Eupeptic, cholagogic, antidyspeptic Fh, Le [27]
Centaurea benedicta (L.) L. centarva [56, 62, 65, 68] Not Reported ---- ---- Eupeptic Fh, Le [28]
Centaurea centaurium L. centu gruppa [11] Not Reported ---- ---- Antioxidant Ro [29]
Matricaria chamomilla L. gamumilla [26] Digestive, sedative, antispasmodic, antitussive Fh [49, 50] Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal Fh [27]
Boraginaceae         
Borago officinalis L. erva pignola [60] Diaphoretic, reddenings, burns, sunburns, tussis, rheumatisms, refreshing, diuretic Le, Ap [49, 50] Anti-inflammatory Oi [27]
Heliotropium europaeum L. Not reported [67] Urinary inflammations Ap [49] Antibacterial Oi [30]
Capparaceae         
Capparis spinosa L. chiappara [62] Not Reported ---- ---- Antiviral Bl [31]
Cactaceae         
Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.** ficuniano [60] Antispasmodic, antidiarrhoeic, diuretic, to treat bronchitis, Fl, Fr [49] Anti-inflammatory Cld [32]
Cucurbitaceae         
Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich.** cucummeru [57] Antirheumatic Fr [51] Cholagogic Frj [33]
Dryopteridaceae         
Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott. filici masculu [58] To treat sores provoked by severe burns Le [49] Anti-helmintic, anti-amebic, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal Ro [34]
Euphorbiaceae         
Ricinus communis L. ricinu [26] Not Reported ---- ---- Laxative Se [28]
Fabaceae         
Lupinus albus L. lupinu [56, 58, 62, 68] To treat dermatitis in cattle Ep [50] Gingival anti-inflammatory Se [35]
Fagaceae         
Quercus spp. cerza [55, 58] Intestinal astringent, detoxifying, cicatrizing Dried bark of young stems and galls [50] Anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeic Ba [27]
Gentianaceae         
Erythraea centaurium (L.) Borkh. brundulija [11, 60] Not Reported ---- ---- Eupeptic, antidyspeptic Le, Fl [27]
Gentiana lutea L. genziana [55] Not Reported ---- ---- Antidyspeptic, eupeptic Ro [27]
Juglandaceae         
Juglans regia L.* nuci [68] Vermifuge, anti-diarrhoeic, stomachic, to remove calluses, against excessive feet perspiration Hu, Le, Fr, Fle [4951] Anti-inflammatory Le [27]
Hyacinthaceae         
Urginea maritima (L.) Baker cipuddazza [56, 62] Not Reported ---- ---- Cardiotonic Bl [28]
Lamiaceae         
Ajuga chamaepitys Guss. campezio [72] Not Reported ---- ---- anabolic, analgesic, anti-arthritic, antibacterial, antiestrogenic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, antileukemic, antimalarial antimycobacterial, antioxidant, antipyretic, cardiotonic, cytotoxic, hypoglycemic, vasorelaxing activity°° Ep [36]
Ballota nigra L. marrobio nero [63] Not Reported ---- ---- Antioxidant Le [44]
Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi nipitella [64, 69, 70] To cure insect and snake bites, cicatrizing Fle, Fh [49, 50] Antibacterial Eoi [45]
Hyssopus officinalis L. issopu [65] Not Reported ---- ---- Emmenagogue Ro [27]
Rosmarinus officinalis L. rosimarinu [64, 70, 71] To ripen abscesses quickly, carminative, digestive, to speed up the recovery of sores and wounds Fl, Le, Br [49] Eupeptic, antidyspeptic, emmenagogue, anti-inflammatory Le, Fh, Eoi [27]
Salvia officinalis L. sarvia [64, 70, 71] Digestive, antiasthmatic, to speed up the recovery of sores and wounds, to treat tussis, to cure aphtas and stomatitis, to treat swollen testicles and related pains Le, Fl, Dle [49, 50] Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory Le, Ap [27]
Teucrium chamaedrys L. cametriu [11, 26, 55, 56, 62, 65] Not Reported ---- ---- Poisonous ---- [37]
Lythraceae         
Punica granatum L. granato [58] Haemostatic, vermifuge Frb, Rob [51] Emmenagogue Rob [27]
Myrtaceae         
Eucalyptus spp. calipsi [58, 68] Antiseptic of the respiratory tract Le [50] Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, expectorant Le [27]
Oleaceae         
Olea europaea L. alivu [62, 68] Cholagogic, hypotensive, astringent, suppurative, to treat small burns, tooth ache Le, Rfr, Ba, Oi [4951] Hypotensive, diuretic, spasmolytic, antipyretic Le [27]
Papaveraceae         
Chelidonium majus L. cucumaju [56] To treat warts, calluses, gastric pains La, Le [49] Cholagogic, choleretic, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidyspeptic Ap [27]
Fumaria officinalis L. fumaria [11] Not Reported ---- ---- Cholagogic, choleretic Ap [27]
Piperaceae         
Piper nigrum L. pipi nivuro [60, 63, 64] Not Reported ---- ---- Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhoeal, eupeptic Se [46]
Poaceae         
Arundo donax L. canna [62] Haemostatic, cicatrising, to treat throat inflammations and bronchitis Sa, Rh [49, 50] Hypotensive, spasmolytic Rh [38]
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. acropastu, addisa, gramigna [11, 54] Diuretic, to alleviate rheumatic pains, inflammations of the digestive and urogenital system Ap, Rh, Se [4951] Diuretic, anti-inflammatory Ro [27]
Rosaceae         
Prunus spinosa L. cucumele [24, 69, 72, 73] Not Reported ---- ---- Anti-inflammatory Fr [27]
Rutaceae         
Citrus bergamia Risso bergamotto [64] Cicatrizing and antiseptic for wounds and chilblains, to cure anomalous vaginal secretions, as a contraceptive Eoi [49] Antimicrobial Ba [47]
Citrus limonum Risso limuni [11, 56, 65, 74] Stomachic, to treat cough, slimming agent, chilblains, migraine (after drunkenness), toothache, rheumatisms, oral hollow diseases Frj, Fr, [49] Anti-inflammatory Frj [39]
Ruta spp. ruta [64, 70] Anti-helmintic, to treat gastritis, abscesses, rheumatic pains, headache, intestinal inflammations and eye reddening Ap, Le [49, 50] Antibacterial Le [48]
Salicaceae         
Salix spp. salici [58] Against fever and rheumatic pains Ba [50] Antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic Ba [27]
Smilacaceae         
Smilax aspera L. strazza buttuni [11] Not Reported ---- ---- Adaptogen Ro [27]
Solanaceae         
Solanum dulcamara L. durcamara [11] Not Reported ---- ---- To treat dermatitis St [27]
Capsicum annuum L. pipariaddru [56, 60, 62, 75] To rise blood flow to superficial tissues Fr [49] Antidyspeptic, anti-inflammatory Fr [27]
Capsicum annuum L. Var. acuminatum Fing. pipi [55, 57, 60, 68, 76] Revulsive Fr [49] Antioxidant Fr [40]
Tamaricaceae         
Tamarix spp. vruca [24, 65] Not Reported ---- ---- Antioxidant, antibacterial Fl, Le [41]
Urticaceae         
Parietaria officinalis L. erba 'i muru [56, 62] Diuretic, depurative, cholagogue, to treat bruises, haematoma, kidney stones, abscesses, skin inflammations, viper bite Le, Ro, Ap, Ep [4951] Diuretic, uricosuric Ap [42]
Urtica dioica L. urdica [62] Antirheumatic, hepatoprotective, to treat haemorrhoids, renal troubles Ap, Ro, Le, To [49, 50] Diuretic, anti-inflammatory Ap, Ro [27]
Urtica urens L. urdica piccola [63] Not Reported ---- ---- Diuretic, anti-inflammatory Ap, Ro [27]
Valerianaceae         
Valeriana officinalis L. malariana [65] Not Reported ---- ---- Sedative Ro [27]
Verbenaceae         
Verbena officinalis L.* erba di la crucivia [56, 57, 62] Not Reported ---- ---- Anti-inflammatory, analgesic Le [43]
  1. * Plant used like magic remedy too (see text); ** plants used like magic remedy only (see text); Used parts of plant: Ap aerial part; Ba bark; Bl bulb; Br branches; Bu bud; Cl cloves; Cld cladodes; Dle dry leaves; Dfh dry flower heads; Eoi essential oil; Ep entire plant; Fh flower heads; Fi feminine inflorescences; Fl flowers; Fle fresh leaves; Fr fruit; Frb fruit bark; Frj fruit juice; Hu husk; La latex; Le leaves; Oi oil; Rfr ripe fruit; Rh rhizome; Ro root; Rob root bark; Sa sap; Se seeds; St stem; To tops;
  2. ° Current use drawn from recent fieldworks
  3. °° The properties relating to certain species of the genus Ajuga