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Table 4 Medical use of animals to heal malaria in Calabria, mentioned by historical sources used for the research.

From: Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy)

Animals Pliny Dioscorides Galen Serenus Sammonicus
Cimex lecturalius To cure quartain fevers To cure quartain fevers   To cure tertian fevers
  (Naturalis Historia XXIX, 17) (De Materia Medica II, 36)   (Liber Medicinalis XLIX, 921)
  [14] [16]   [22]
Homo sapiens   To cure dropsy   
   (De Materia Medica II, 99)   
   [16]   
Lumbricus terrestris   To cure tertian fevers   
   (De Materia Medica II, 99)   
   [16]   
Spider To cure quartain fevers To cure quartain fevers   
  (Naturalis Historia XXX, 30) (De Materia Medica II, 48)   
  [14] [16]   
Vipera aspis To cure fevers    
  (Naturalis Historia XXX, 30)    
  [14]    
Capra hircus   To cure hepatomegaly To cure spleenomegaly and dropsy  
   (De Materia Medica II, 98) (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 297; XIII, 263)  
   [16] [20, 21]  
Erinaceus europaeus To cure dropsy To cure dropsy   
  (Naturalis Historia XXX, 30) (De Materia Medica II, 2)   
  [14] [16]   
Cantharis vescicatoria To cure dropsy   To expel urine  
  (Naturalis Historia XXIX, 96)   (Galeni Opera Omnia XII, 363)  
  [14]   [20]  
Snake To cure quartain fevers    
  (Naturalis Historia XXX, 30)    
  [14]    
Bos taurus    To cure dropsy  
    (Galeni Opera Omnia XIII, 263)  
    [21]