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Table 5 Comparison of local use and phytochemical/pharmacological properties of medicinal plants.

From: Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal

Species Indigenous use
(Present study)
Phytochemical/pharmacological properties
(Literature review)
Local use coherent with known phytochemical/pharmacological properties
Aconitum ferox Root paste is taken for joint pain. Alkaloid extract may possess anti-inflammatory properties [48]. Yes
Acorus calamus* Rhizome is used for cough/cold, and throat pain. Antimicrobial properties [49]. Yes
Amaranthus spinosus Root paste is applied on cuts and wounds. Contains several chemical compounds, including tannins (coagulant), steroids (muscle building), flavonoids (antimicrobial), and volatile oils (antiseptic) [50]. Yes
Artemisia indica Leaf paste is applied on cuts and wounds. Antimicrobial properties [49]. Yes
Asparagus racemosus* Tuber paste is used for fever, stomach ache, and diarrhoea. Ethanol and aqueous extracts from the tubers exhibit significant antidiarrheic activity [51]. Yes
Berberis asiatica Cambium paste is used for rheumatism and pith paste is used for eye problems. Widespread use as an extract in eye drops for conjunctivitis [21]. Effective as an antipyretic, anaesthetic, and antihypertensive [52]. Yes
Bergenia ciliata* Whole plant juice is taken to treat indigestion, fever, diarrhoea, and dysentery. Plants possess antipyretic, antidiarrheic, diuretic and expectorant properties [21]. Yes
Cannabis sativa Plant paste is taken for stomach problems. Diuretic, anti-emetic, anti-epileptic, painkilling, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties [53]. Yes
Cordyceps sinensis Whole plant juice is taken as a tonic. Largely recognised as inducing sexual power and vitality [16, 54, 55]. Yes
Eupatorium adenophorum Leaf juice is applied on cuts and wounds. Contains haemostatic ayapanin [20]. Yes
Fraxinus floribunda Bark infusion is used for body pain. Anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and skin regenerating activities [56]. Yes
Fritillaria cirrhosa* Plant juice is taken for stomach disorders. Plant contains steroidal alkaloids effective against stomach disorders [57]. Yes
Hippophae salicifolia Fruit juice is taken for cough, diarrhoea, and menstrual disorder. Contains high levels of flavonoids (with antimicrobial properties and effectiveness against menopausal symptoms), carotenoids and vitamin C [58]. Yes
Hippophae tibetana Fruit juice is taken for stomach disorders. Contains high levels of flavonoids (antimicrobial), carotenoids and vitamin C [58]. Yes
Juglans regia Fruit juice is taken as a tonic. Seeds are diuretic and a nervous system depressant [59]. No
Lindera neesiana Fruit juice taken for diarrhoea. Essential oil extracted from fruits possess significant antimicrobial activity [60]. Yes
Lycopodium clavatum Pollen paste is used on cuts and wounds. Contains anti-inflammatory alkaloidal-types of compounds [61]. Yes
Nardostachys grandiflora* Whole plant juice is taken to treat headache and high altitude sickness. Ethanol extract from roots showed anticonvulsant activity and are a nervous system stimulant [62]. Partial
Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora* Used for body pain. Contains glycosides [63]. Unknown
Onychium japonicum Used for skin problems. Onychin-a flavanone glycoside is cytotoxic [64]. No
Paris polyphylla* Root paste is taken for fever, vomiting and worms. A methanolic extract is gastroprotective [65]. Also possesses anthelmintic properties [66]. Yes
Potentilla fulgens Root paste is used against gastritis. Possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties [67]. Yes
Rheum australe* Root juice is taken for fever, indigestion, diarrhoea, and stomach ache. Purgative, astringent, and anti-amoebic effects [68]. Yes
Rhododendron anthopogon Flower is chewed for stomach ache. Volatile components possess antimicrobial activities [69]. Yes
Rubia manjith Root paste is applied over scabies and other skin diseases. Anti-proliferative against epidermal keratinocytes [70]. Antiseptic properties [16, 71]. Yes
Swertia chirayita* Whole plant juice is used for fever, cold and headache. An aqueous extract is antipyretic [72], and an ethanolic extract is antibacterial and antifungal [73]. An aqueous extract is anti-inflammatory [74]. Yes
Taxus wallichiania* Leaf juice is drunk to treat respiratory problems. Antimicrobial effect [75]. Yes
Valeriana jatamansi* Rhizome paste is applied on cuts and wounds and joint problems. Rhizome is chewed to treat throat pain. Analgesic, carminative, antispasmodic, antiseptic, expectorant, diuretic and sedative properties [76]. Yes
Vitex negundo Seed paste is used for worms. Possesses antifeedant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties [77, 78]. Yes
Zanthoxylum armatum* Fruits are crushed, pickled and taken for stomach ache and indigestion. Ethanol fruit extract is antibacterial against gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium phlei) [79]. Yes
  1. Species identified by an asterisk are high-priority species of the Rasuwa district (see Table 4).